Heath's personal timeline, a place to collect and share things from Heath's life.
Created by HeathH on Nov 6, 2009
Last updated: 03/12/10 at 02:15 AM
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In 1958, Jonas Salk was the first scientist to propose that institues for biological studies should be created in order to further research other illnesses that could be treat using "Live" Virus. Thanks to the funds left behind by President Roosevelt, he was able to establish many around the country.
In 1955, after eight long years of slaving over research, Jonas Salk produced a polio Vaccination that proved effective against Polio in all his test subjects. Thanks to this beneficial discovery, our world is free of Polio.
On 6 August the "gun-assembly" uranium bomb, nicknamed "Little Boy," destroyed the Japanese city of Hiroshima; three days later a plutonium bomb, "Fat Man, obliterated Nagasaki.
Oppenheimer had been followed by army counterintelligence officials, whose superiors recommended that Oppenheimer be dismissed as a security risk while he was on the bomb design team.
Jonas Stalk, born October 28, 1914 in New York City, New York, discovered one of the most beneficial vaccinations of all time for the deadly disease, Polio. Both an American medical researcher and virologist, he shaped an entire society into a more confident one; the postwar United states was still shaken from the War, as well as experiencing an epidemic that seemed would never end. Without his discovery, our world today would still be living in fear of this contagious plague that threatened the life of each person it infected.
Salk received a Bachelor of Science degree from New York University at the height of the great depression. What was so unique about him was that while in medical school, instead of focusing on physician practices, he manly focused on medical research. Though this was viewed as odd by his peers, this decision would be the one that eventually led to the discovery of the polio vaccination.
Though Polio was first recorded in 1835, each year cases increased astronomically. Polio did not receive public attention until 1921, when President Roosevelt was diagnosed and put into a wheel chair. In 1947, Salk began his race to find a cure to Polio in the Labs of Pittsburgh Medical School. He volunteered both himself, his wife, and his children to test the vaccine that he hoped to produce. Around 1952, Polio reached epidemic level, and people everywhere began to panic; there were time periods when families would not leave their homes and resulted in job loss. Thanks to Roosevelt’s diagnoses, the funds to support the research to find a cure to this disease increased greatly. After eight years, in 1955 his hard work paid off; the Polio vaccine he had been slaving over effectively protected the test subjects from the condition.
Salk’s use of a “live” virus proved to be a solution to the Polio epidemic as has the same method which scientist use today against the Flu. Jonas Salk died June 23rd, 1995, and he has a national holiday recognizing his contribution to our world. He saved the lives of so many; not just in the United States, but worldwide. Thanks to this “Miracle Worker”, as so many called him, our world is virtually Polio free. We have the ability to prevent future epidemics of other illnesses as well, thanks to his methods in which he introduced.
J. Robert Oppenheimer, theoretical physicist, professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley, and director of the Los Alamos Laboratory (Manhattan Project), was born in New York City. He was the son of Julius Oppenheimer, a wealthy textile importer, and Ella Friedman, a painter. He developed the first nucleur weapons, and for that reason, is known as the father of the atomic bomb. He played a great role to society today, because he revolutionized nucleur power, which led to the develpoment of nucleur power plants.
In the summer of 1921, Oppenheimer contracted dysentery on a prospecting trip to Europe. The illness prevented him from entering Harvard that fall. In 1922 Oppenheimer enrolled at Harvard, where he took an intense program that ranged from math and sciences to philosophy and Eastern religions and French and English literature. Among the sciences, he preferred chemistry because it "starts right at the heart of things." Oppenheimer's inadequacies as an experimental researcher hardened his resolve to turn to theoretical physics. In 1926 he studied with Max Born at the University of Cöttingen in Germany, from which he received his doctoral degree in March 1927. From 1927 through 1928 he was a National Research Council Fellow. The next year he received offers to teach at Caltech, and the University of California at Berkeley. He accepted both and for many years divided his time between Pasadena and Berkeley. He was popular with students, and did much to establish the West Coast as one of the nation's most important centers of advanced physics.In 1939 he fell in love with Katharine "Kitty" Puening Harrison. She, too, had belonged to the Communist party. They married in November 1940 and had two children. In August 1942 the U.S. Army was given charge of the entire atomic bomb mission, which became known as the Manhattan Project. Its director, General Leslie A. Groves, wanted Lawrence to direct the bomb design unit,but he couldn't do it, so Groves settled on Oppenheimer, who, though lacking a Nobel Prize, possessed charisma and indisputable "genius," as Groves put it. In September Oppenheimer signaled his interest in the position by calling for a central laboratory wholly devoted to bomb design. The following month Groves offered him the job, and he accepted it. They began construction of the facility at Los Alamos, New Mexico. At the Los Alamos Laboratory, Oppenheimer was assigned to design two different bombs. Oppenheimer's objective was to design a bomb that would bring subcritical masses of plutonium together within the tiniest fraction of a second. On August 6th, the "gun-assembly" uranium bomb, nicknamed "Little Boy," destroyed the Japanese city of Hiroshima; three days later a plutonium bomb, "Fat Man, obliterated Nagasaki. Japan surrendered.
the death toll and chilling descriptions of radiation sickness had a effect on Oppenheimer. He informed government officials that most scientists in the project would not continue to pursue such work. He said "I feel we have blood on our hands."From 1947 through 1952 Oppenheimer directed the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, which became a leading center of theoretical physics and attracted notable scholars in the social sciences and humanities. He also chaired the General Advisory Committee (GAC) of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), the U.S. agency responsible for the control and development of fissionable materials. In October the GAC, with Oppenheimer as chair, repudiated the hydrogen bomb as a weapon of "genocide" and argued that it was so indiscriminately destructive as to be militarily worthless; the GAC recommended against its development.
Oppenheimer's work came at a critical time in the history of the United States. His research helped developed a weapon which secured the allied victory in World War II. However Oppenheimer later struggeled with the destructive power of the weapon he helped create.
Marie Curies elemental discovery
Marie Curie's elemental discovery.
Franz Boaz was the first scientist, after close study and review, to publish that African Americans and Whites were fundamentally equal. His main goal was to spread the tolerance of difference by using scientific fact.
Franz Boaz introduced the idea of "Cultural Relativism", which stated that each culture was the product of a unique and particular history, and not merely generated by race and environment. Among his many contributions, this is viewed as most important.
When Louis began his work on rabies, it had already been discovered that the microbe that caused rabies was present in the saliva of its victims. Because madness is one of the symptoms of rabies, Louis reasoned that the microbe must attack the central nervous system.
Louis first studied the saliva of animals and humans who had died of rabies and then confirmed the presence of a specific microbe, too small to be seen through a microscope, AKA a virus. Louis soon invented a vaccine using weakened strains of the disease.
On 6 July, 1885, the decision to carry out a human trail was made for him. A nine-year old boy, Joseph Meister had been bitten by a rabid dog in his village. Joseph was the first successful person to be treated.
by thomas edison
---Marie Curie was a famous chemist and physicist who was a pioneer in the field of radioactivity. Her works revolutionized the way scientists think about matter and energy.
---Marie Curie was born on November 7, 1867 and died on July 4, 1934 at the age of 67. Curie was born into a poor family and lost her both her mother and her eldest sister before she was eleven. Marie graduated high school at age 15 though suffering from a disease that is known today as depression. She lived the first 24 years of her life in her hometown of Warsaw until she left for Paris with her sister in 1891 where she achieved her higher degrees and scientific achievements.
---Curie’s scientific achievements include the creation of a theory of radioactivity, and a technique for isolating radioactive isotopes. The term “radioactivity” was a term that Marie actually coined herself. She also discovered two new elements; polonium and radium. The name polonium comes from the country name Poland, which was Curie’s homeland. For her advancements in the science of radiation Marie was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 1903. In 1911 she was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry for the discovery of radium and polonium. Marie Curie was the most famous women scientist of her time, if not of all time.
---The advancement made in radiation by Marie Curie was instrumental in the ongoing search for a cure for cancer. Under Curie’s personal direction, the world's first studies were conducted into the treatment of neoplasms (cancers), using radioactive isotopes. Much of modern day cancer treatments are based upon Marie’s radioactive research.
---The discovery of the element radium was one of the most important elemental discoveries ever. Radium's radioactivity was so great that it could not be ignored. It seemed to contradict the principle of the conservation of energy and therefore forced a reconsideration of the foundations of physics. The discovery of radium also provided men like Ernest Rutherford with sources of radioactivity with which they could discover the structure of the atom. Today’s atomic theory is based mostly of Rutherford’s atomic model.
---Marie Curie’s discoveries helped overturn established ideas in both physics and chemistry. In order to attain her scientific achievements, she had to overcome barriers that were placed in her way as a woman, and because she did she is one of the most famous women that ever lived.
Franz Boas, who was born July 9th, 1858 in Minden, Germany was in so many ways the father of modern Anthropology. Thanks to the foundations he laid down for present day’s scientist, people in the field of anthropology have been inspired to study and record the vanishing cultures of so many tribal peoples; especially Native Americans and Pacific Islanders. He has revolutionized the way people both study and view the importance of identifying past cultures.
Born into a very liberal Jewish household, his imagination and thought process had no limit. Thanks to these circumstances he was free to explore everyone of his interest without protest from his parents. At an early age, he was fascinated with nature and would open bring home shells and small specimen to study into the late hours of night. As he grew older, he began to take interest in large structured organisms, and would often spend his time assembling and studying the skeletons of various animals.
Boas studied geography and physics at the Universities of Heidelberg, Bonn, and Kiel; this made him both a very knowledgeable and well rounded scientist for his time. In 1883-1884 Boas took a geographical expedition in order to do fieldwork in the Arctic. While he was there, he became so fascinated with everything; the people, their appearance, their language, and their way of life and traditions. From this point on he decided to dedicate his time into anthropology, for he found that the field was his passion.
Boas began extensive research all over; one of his most famous discoveries being the Kwakiutl. He established a new concept of culture and race that differed from anyone during or before that time. The concept of life group displays, known as dioramas, was also pioneered by him. Without Boas the four folds of anthropology (Human evolution, archaeology, language, and culture), might not have ever been defined. This was a result of his belief that in order to truly understand a culture, you must first research various factors: mythology and tribal lore, religion, social taboos, marriage customs, physical appearance, diet, handicrafts, means of obtaining food, and so on.
After teaching for many years at Columbia University as professor of Anthropology starting in 1899, and many discoveries, he sadly died December 22nd, 1942. Among being the father of Anthropology, he changed the way everyone looked at this unique field of science. Without his discoveries, multiple races and cultures would not have been further investigated or even discovered at all. His bases of anthropology in which he laid down will continue to be built upon for many years to come.
Louis Pasteur's main contributions to microbiology and medicine were;
• instituting changes in hospital/medical practices to minimize the spread of disease by microbes or germs,
• discovering that weak forms of disease could be used as an immunization against stronger forms and that rabies was transmitted by viruses too small to be seen under the microscopes of the time,
• introducing the medical world to the concept of viruses.
Thomas Edison is the inventor of the light bulb, the phonograph, and the motion picture camera. He had a great contribution to the future and played a great role on getting to what we have now.
Because Edison was such a genious it would be hard to believe that he did not learn how to talk until he was four years old, however this is true. Edison was very hyperactive in asking his questions, in this day he would probably have been diagnosed with ADHD.
Edisons parents encouraged his learning, once he became interested in literature his mother used to encourage him to read books like the Bible while his dad payed him to read encyclopedias.
Thomas Edisons discovery of the telegraph paid him $40,000 which was deeply needed because of the money shortage in his family as well as the fact that his mother was going crazy. Later Edison invented he first phonograph after he moved his labratory to Menlo Park, N.J. in 1877. And for his last and most commonly known invention, Edison invented the first working light bulb. He developed the lightbulb by combining electric light, heat, and power.
With out Thomas Edisons contributions to science we may not have had the electricity or moving films or phones that we have today
Louis Pasteur was one of the most important scientists of our time. The foundation of our knowledge about health and disease comes from the discoveries of him. He made many discoveries and solved many problems that are still in effect today.
Pasteur was a French chemist and microbiologist born in Dole on December 27, 1822. Pasteur grew up with his father, mother, and three sisters. While attending primary school Pasteur was only an average student and, some even considered him to be slow because he worked so hard on an exercise problems to make sure that he had the right answer. While in high school Pasteur's principal became interested in Pasteur and began to help him with his studies. With this encouragement Pasteur became a very good student.
Pasteur is best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and preventions of diseases. His discoveries reduced death from puerperal fever, and he created the first vaccine for rabies. His experiments supported the germ theory of disease. He was best known to the general public for inventing a method to stop milk and wine from causing sickness. He is regarded as one of the three main founders of microbiology.
Pasteur died in 1895, near Paris, from complications of a series of strokes that had started in several years back.
by robert fulton
They established it to exclusively manufacture steam engines.By 1824 it had produced 1164 steam engines having a total nominal horsepower of about 26,000. Boulton proved to be an excellent businessman, and both men eventually made fortunes.
Over the next six years, starting with 1781, he made a number of other improvements and modifications to the steam engine. He was a person who could always see "just one more improvement."
Robert Fulton is the creator of the steam boat and a new type of warship. Fulton originally wanted to be a painter he even traveled to Paris to study. He didn’t have enough money to support his painting career so that is why he was forced into engineering and inventing. He then realized that he wanted to research in water transportation.
Fulton grew up in a small home in Pennsylvania, became interested in steam boats when he was still fairly young.
He had many partners with the creations of his different steam boats. Fulton once got in an argument with a man who had a very similar invention as him.
Fultions contributions to science today were huge because with out him and his knowelge we would not have the transpotation and sophisticated boats that we do today.
James Watt was a scottish inventor and mechanical enigneer whose improvments to the Newcomen steam engine had a significant effect on the development of the industrial revolution, and all over the world.
His main accomplishment was improving the Newcomen steam engine. It is a common belief that Watt invented the steam engine when in fact, there were already several earlier models, but none as good as the one Watt improved. His steam engine was so successful that it was commonly used for over a hundred years with no major changes made. The Watt engine was a large contributor to the Industrial Revolution. It could do the work that it previously took a large number of men or horses to do. In fact, Watt coined the term horsepower, which is used as a means of expressing the power of an engine.He also invented a double-acting engine, throttle valves, pressure gauge, and a governor for regulating engine speed, as well as many other devices. He took the first steps in finding that water was a compound rather than an element. Watt also had the power unit (the Watt) named in his honor.
In a sense, James Watt's innovations gave us the modern world. His work took the engine out of remote locations and placed them into factories no longer dependant on water power and which ultimately employed thousands of people. Watt's work also lead to the development of the locomotive and steamboat which transformed the transportation industry. In short, Watt's work changed the world.
Isaac Newton's calculas, created in 1666, is a complicated math problem, or formula. There was a controversy over Newton's calculus when, in 1684, a German scientist maned Gottfried Leibniz published a formula of calculus. Newton raged, and claimed that he had originaly discovered calculus
Robert Boyle's famous law dealing with gas.
Robert Boyle's famous publication "The Skeptical Chymist"
Newton was sitting under an apple tree, when an apple fell on his head, and he suddenly thought of the Universal Law of Gravitation.
Sir Isaac Newton was born on January 4, 1643 and died March 31, 1727. Newton was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian who is known and considered by a large number of scholars and the general public as one of the most influential men in history.
Newton’s father had died two months before his birth. When Isaac was three his mother remarried, and Isaac remained with his grandmother. He was not interested in the family farm, so he was sent to Cambridge University to study.
Isaac Newton is popularly remembered as the man who saw an apple fall from a tree or supposedly had an apple fall on his head, and was inspired to invent the theory of gravity and the three laws of motion.
The laws are
• According to Newton's first law... An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in motion continues in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. This law is often called the law of inertia.
• According to Newton's second law... Acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass. The greater the mass (of the object being accelerated) the greater the amount of force needed (to accelerate the object).
• According to Newton's third law... For every action there is an equal and opposite re-action.
By the end of his life, Newton was one of the most famous men in England. But unfortunately Newton's health began to deteriorate, and on March 19, 1727, he blacked out, never to regain consciousness. He died on March 20, at the age of eighty-five, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
---Robert Boyle was a famous philosopher, physicists, inventor, and gentlemen. However he is most none as the world’s first modern scientist, and for his formulation of Boyle’s law.
---Boyle was born on January 25, 1627, and died on December 31, 1691 at the age of 64. As a child Robert spoke Latin, Greek, and French, and at the age of eight he was sent to Eton College in England. After three years at Eton, Boyle traveled Europe with his French tutor and returned to England in 1644 with an extreme interest in science.
---Boyle’s scientific career began in 1656 when he settled down with his laboratory at Oxford. In 1659 Robert began experimenting with air pumps, and was one of the first to do so. In 1662 Boyle published his most famous work (Boyle’s Law). The law described the relationship between pressure and volume in a gas. Along with Boyle’s Law, his book The Skeptical Chymist is seen as a cornerstone book in the field of chemistry. Boyle had many other discoveries/inventions but he was most famous for Boyle’s Law and The Skeptical Chymist.
---Boyle’s Law affects our world today mostly in the realm of scuba diving because there is a significant change in pressure. As the pressure of the surrounding water increases with depth, you are required to use far more air from the scuba tank to provide for your breathing. Doubling the pressure of the water, means you use double the amount of air from the tank. Without Boyle’s Law, scuba diving would never have been possible.
---The Skeptical Chymist was instrumental in the beginnings of chemistry. Besides stating Boyle’s hypothesis that matter consisted of tiny particles called atoms, the book also read that all theories must be proved experimentally before being regarded as true. For these reasons Robert Boyle has been called the founder of modern chemistry.
---Robert Boyle was obviously ahead of his time when he was born in 1627. From his amazing travels as a boy, to his enormous discoveries as a chemist. The founder of modern chemistry was one of the most famous scientists to ever live.