Seunghee and Eloisia Origins and nature of authoritarian single party states
Created by IBHhistoryE on Mar 30, 2011
Last updated: 04/09/11 at 10:51 PM
ONASS-Hitler has no followers yet. Be the first one to follow.
Hindenburg died. 17 days later, Hitler took over and became the 'Fuehrer and Reich Chancellor'. Also demanded loyalty oaths to him - giving him total power.
The 'Night of the Long Knives'. SA leaders (e.g. Ernst Roehm) were shot. Nazi assassinations left to the SS.
Law against the Formation of New Parties passed. (Labor deterrent used for enforcement.)
Hitler gains tacit cooperation of army and industrialists -Hitler gives belief of rearmament program
How was the political structure designed to enable totalitarianism?
-strong military focus augmented nationalism
-cell system (borrowed from Communism)
-uniformed party militia (borrowed from Italian Fascism)
-party had symbol, salute, anthem
Hitler used the fear from the Reichstag fire to get Hindenburg to allow the law - under 'emergency conditions'. This banned Communists and Socialists from the election, allowing the Nazis to win 52% of the vote - giving Hitler the advantage of increased supporters on the Reichstag (meaning that he would get more support on laws that he wished to pass).
Adolf Hitler starts gaining totalitarian control over Germany - rights of citizens subordinate to the state - domestic policy adjusted for foreign mass expansion policies
With the Enabling Law, Hitler cleared all obstructions to his power to make himself dictator. (E.g. high officials, trade unions and other parties)
With a Nazi majority within the Reichstag, Hitler easily got the Enabling Law passed. This removed a major obstacle, allowing him to make official laws without authorization by the Reichstag.
A week before the election for Reichstag seats, said Reichstag caught fire. Hitler blamed it on the Communists, inducing a Red Scare. This allowed him to make his bid for dictatorship. (see new laws made)
Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany
Thanks to massive propaganda, Nazi Party wins 37% of Reichstag seats
German elections; Nazi party did not fare well
Hitler leaves to Munich to write Zweites Buch (Secret Book of 1928) -develops foreign policies written in Mein Kampf
Global economic crisis -assisted Hitler’s rise to power -direct correlation between number of unemployed and successful elections of Nazis -politicians began to think Hitler would be a useful ally
Hitler publishes Mein Kampf (written in prison), which has the master plan of domination of Europe -combination of autobiography and political philosophy - also propaganda -Lebensraum: extermination of Jews and conquering neighbours (e.g. Poland and Russia) for living space for Germans -stage-by-stage plans -the need for a ‘Fuehrer’ (strong leader) -division of peoples by race; emphasis on ‘the purity of the Aryan race’ (Rise of Hitler) - many anti-semitic references for contrast -the dangers of communism -a need to overturn the clauses of the Treaty of Versaille, and by extent, to take France down (revenge) -added publicity makes Hitler a ‘political figure of national prominence’ (Palmer)
–Right wing plot; Hitler and SA (guards) attempts putsch (coup) -interrupts a political meeting at Munich Beer Hall -however were outnumbered on the march to the barracks -Hitler and General Ludendorff (supporter) trialed for treason; General verdict “not-guilty” while Hitler was sentenced to prison for 5 years (he only served one).
What was the ideological significance of the inflation on the German people?
Happened in a series of events: - French soldiers occupied the Ruhr to hasten/oversee reparations. -> German factory workers went on strike and protested said occupation. -> The government started printing money to pay the workers' benefits. -> As a result, said currency was rendered worthless. -> Prices then soared and salaries dropped. (Debts – rendered un-payable – were also cleared.)
Mussolini's rise to power. Despite Italy’s gradual turn towards democracy, including elections for parliament, Italian democracy was ended in 1922. This occurred when Benito Mussolini forcefully replaced said government with a Facist one, turning Italy into a single party state under his rule. Facist Italy was also the first dictatorship to emerge after WWI, following the USSR.
Hitler becomes leader of NAZI party
Nazi Party sets “25-point programme” which includes key objectives (ex. unificiation of all Germans, end of Treaty of Versailles, creation of national army, a strong state, exclusion of Jews in German society)
Renaming of the German Worker's Party as the National Socialists (Nazis). A landmark of the start of Hitler's career in politics, in addition to public speaker.
Unhappy veterans planned to overthrow the democracy and replace it with a puppet leader – Dr. Kapp – to suit their reactionary interests. They almost succeeded but were foiled by Berlin workers, who turned off the public utilities. The Social democrats never really took effective action against the aforementioned private armed bands.
Spartacists (pro-Communists) almost succeeded in their goals of sparking a Worker’s revolution, with the covert help of the Soviet Union. However, they were crushed the Social Democrats as aided by demobilized soldiers. The week ended with the shooting of Spartacist leaders Karl Liebnecht and Rosa Luxembourg.
Compare and contrast the following sources on the political impact of the Weimar Republic.
Occurred when a constitution was adopted, establishing the new republic as a democratic one. The creation of the new government was necessary to replace the gap left by the fleeing Kaiser and Military Command.
Hitler becomes member of DAP (German Workers’ Party, renamed National socialist German Workers’ Party (NAZI) in 1920) Quickly gained renown as a charismatic public speaker who drew crowds to his speeches.
With reference to origin, purpose and evaluation, discuss the values and limitations of the following source in its portrayal of the impacts (e.g. social) created by the German Revolution.
The German representatives were given no say in the matter and forced to agree to clauses that were clearly disadvantageous to them. As a result, this was seen as false and unfair; a good cause for anger and bitterness. After all, the clauses had not only crippled the country in terms of money and military strength, but also laid the blame for the war – a blame that should have been shared equally among all of the participants – upon them.