A history of Israeli-Arab peace initiatives.
Created by JStreet on Aug 14, 2013
Last updated: 09/11/13 at 08:28 AM
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After months of shuttle diplomacy, Secretary of State Kerry announced the renewal of peace talks with the aim of achieving a two-state solution in nine months.
A civil society initiative which called for a Palestinian state, with a set of regional security mechanisms and economic cooperation projects. Parameters included borders based on the 1967 lines with swaps based on a 1:1 ratio, a corridor between Gaza and the West Bank and a shared Jerusalem. Refugees would have a home in a new Palestinian state while receiving reparations from Israel.
Under President Obama, peace talks between Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and President Mahmoud Abbas lasted for less than a month.
Direct negotiations between President Mahmoud Abbas and Prime Minister Ehud Olmert. Parameters included borders based on 1967 lines with mutually agreed swaps, a transportation tunnel connecting Gaza and the West Bank and a shared Jerusalem. Palestinian refugees would have a home in a new Palestinian state with a limited number moving to Israel and most receiving compensation.
According to Abbas and Olmert, the parties were close to an agreement but the talks collapsed as Olmert left office.
Summit convened by President Bush to officially revive the peace process.
Prime Minister Ehud Olmert and President Mahmoud Abbas reached a “joint understanding,” in which they agreed to launch continuous bilateral negotiations in an effort to conclude a peace treaty by the end of 2008 and to simultaneously implement the Roadmap.
Offered a detailed model for a peace agreement to end the conflict, with borders based on 1967 lines with mutually agreed swaps and a corridor linking Gaza and the West Bank. Refugees would have a home in a Palestinian state, with reparations from Israel.
Considered to be the first time a US president endorsed a Palestinian state, the roadmap set a series of benchmarks designed to move Israelis and Palestinians to a two-state solution over three years. It called on Israel to immediately dismantle settlements and called on Palestinians to curb terrorism and build a democratic, accountable government.
The Palestinians and Israelis accepted the basic outlines of the plan shortly after it was formally introduced by President Bush in June 2003, but there has been limited progress toward its goals. The Israeli government says the Palestinians failed to rein in Hamas and other extremist groups and the Palestinians say Israel wasn't committed to ending settlement expansion.
Laid out basic principles for resolving the conflict written by Senior Palestinian Representative Dr. Sari Nusseibeh and former Shin Bet Chief Ami Ayalon.
An initiative of Arab leaders that offered Israel a way to obtain comprehensive peace agreements and normalization of relations with the Arab League and the Palestinians through the achievement of a two-state solution based on 1967 lines.
Called for an immediate end to the conflict with two states.
Convened in Egypt between Israeli Foreign Minister Shlomo Ben-Ami and Palestinian negotiator Saeb Erekat to conclude negotiations begun at Camp David.
Although progress was made on the core issues, the talks broke down amid government transitions in Israel and the US.
President Clinton sponsored talks at Camp David between Prime Minister Ehud Barak and President Yasser Arafat to resolve final-status issues. Clinton offered parameters to Israeli and Palestinian negotiators based on 1967 lines with mutually agreed land swaps as guidelines for final negotiations.
The sides were unable to come to an agreement on Jerusalem and the rights of Palestinian refugees. Israel and the US blamed the Palestinians for reportedly refusing Israel’s offer without a counter proposal and the Palestinians complained that Israel’s positions were unacceptable.
President Clinton called the summit to keep the Oslo process on track, crafting agreements for Palestinian anti-terror measures and Israeli land transfers.
Under Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, Israel agreed to withdraw from a further 13% of occupied territory in exchange for Yasser Arafat’s commitment to act against terror and anti-Israel incitement and eliminate weapon stockpiles. None of these measures were undertaken.
An interim agreement which gave more autonomy to the Palestinian Authority, advancing agreements on security issues, Palestinian elections, transfer of land, transfer of civil power from Israel to the PA, trade conditions and release of Palestinian prisoners.
Signed by Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Jordanian King Hussein, it normalized relations and resolved territorial disputes between Israel and Jordan.
Secretly negotiated between Israel and the Palestinian Liberation Organization and signed by PLO negotiator Mahmoud Abbas and Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres, the Accords envisaged a phased Israeli withdrawal from Palestinian territory and the establishment of a governing Palestinian Authority.
The first phase was successfully implemented with more to be decided at Oslo II.
Invited by Secretary of State James Baker, representatives of Israel, the Palestinian Liberation Organization, Syria, Lebanon and Jordan met to discuss regional peace.
Little was achieved outright, but it is remembered as the first official meeting between Israeli and Palestinian representatives.
Saudi Prince Fahd proposed a Palestinian state based on Israeli withdrawal from all territory gained in the 1967 War. A year later, the Fez Initiative sought to rework the Fahd Plan by including Arab recognition of Israel.
Rejected by Israel, citing insufficient security guarantees.
Comprehensive peace agreement that returned the Sinai to Egypt, provided Israel with American security guarantees, established mutual recognition between the two parties and committed both countries to a normalization of relations.
Signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin, it was the first peace deal between Israel and an Arab country.
Secretary of State Henry Kissinger began a process of “shuttle diplomacy,” traveling back and forth to mediate disengagement agreements.
Produced two pacts between Israel and Egypt and another between Israel and Syria.
Established the principle of land-for-peace—an Israeli withdrawal from territories occupied in the 1967 War in exchange for peace agreements.
Called for two states, with minority rights enshrined, as well as a shared economic union. 56% of the land would be given to the Jewish state and 44% to the Palestinian state.
Accepted by Israel and rejected by Arab states.
Recommended abolishing the British Mandate and partitioning the country between the two peoples. A zone between Jaffa and Jerusalem would remain under the British control and international supervision.
Disputed by Jews and rejected by Arabs.