Unit Two Timeline- 16 events spanning from the years leading up to the revolutionary war, to the civil war.
Created by Jdoghoff on Sep 22, 2009
Last updated: 10/05/09 at 09:44 AM
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By the end of the 20th century, America had become one of the two superpowers of the world, the other being Russia. The United States had one of the largest armies. In 1974, President Richard Nixon left office because of the Watergate scandal. Nixon's resignation marked the end of his era in Washington. After Nixon left office, Gerald Nixon took office, and served the remaining three years of Nixon's term. After Ford, was beaten by Jimmy Carter in the election of 1776, America faced Energy crisis as well as a recession. Chrysler was bailed out of bankruptcy by the government. In 1981, actor Ronald Regan took office. Regan served the remainder of the 1980's. Regan's presidency is remembered by the ending of the Cold War, as well as his hard-nosed politics. Lastly, the 1980's saw a tremendous increase in population throughout the world. During this time period, democracy spread across the world, and America practiced its policy of not allowing countries to live in communism. In America, more people were given the right to vote, as seen in the 26th amendment where 18 year old's received this right.
The 1960's in America was a time that can be remembered by the youth, civil rights movements, and the United States putting a man on the moon. In the 1960's America, the children from the baby boomers grew up. This decade saw the country move away from the conservative views to more liberal ones. In addition, the country faced civil rights movements across the country. Martin Luther King led the civil rights movements, which eventually led to many rights for the blacks. The decade began with John F. Kennedy as president. Kennedy famously said, "ask not what your country can do for you, but ask what you can do for your country." This is an example of the feelings of 1960's America. In addition, Kennedy gave the United states the task of getting a man on the put in the decade. After Kennedy was assassinated, his dream continued. By the end of the decade, America put a man on the moon. This 1960's was also the time where the American dream flourished, and everyone believed it was something they could achieve. After Kennedy's assassination, the United States was led my President Lyndon Johnson, and Richard Nixon. The ideals of democracy played a major role in America in the 1960's because of the American dream. The American dream said that anyone could become wealthy no matter what social status they were born into. This meant that all people were created equal, and more and more people were given the right to vote. Because more people were allowed to vote, democracy was given to many more individuals.
After World War II, the United States made it there goal to prevent another world war. After the deadliest war in history, the Americans only goal was to prevent another one. After the war, the United Nations was formed in order to ensure peace. Under the direction of Harry Truman and Dwight Eisenhower, the United States made many precautions and helped the Germans to rebuild. Many blame World War II on the fact that nobody helped the Germans to recover after World War I. After World War II ended, the United States prospered and people were extremely happy about the end of the war. During this time period, the United States furthered there stance on maintaining democracy throughout the world. The United States decided to make sure that democracy could be practiced around the world. During the 1950's, America reached a golden age.
World War II was the second world war, and was fought between the Allied and Axis powers. The war was responsible for the death of over 70 million people, making it the deadliest war in human history. The war fought because of the Germans march on territories surrounding it and there conquest of Europe. The Germans were led by Adolf Hitler, a ruthless dictator. The United States entered the war because of the attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese . Once entering the war, America wasted no time in mobilizing all of its troops and getting them into the war. On D- day, at Normandy beach, Americans sent a massive onslaught of troops onto French soil. This invasion was the largest invasion from the seas of all time. The united states sent over 165000 troups into battle, and lost many American lives. However, after successfully taking over the beach, America began its march to defeat the Germans. Once American troops entered Europe, they faced many tough battles but prevailed in the end. The United states and Russia were the two superpowers that stopped the Germans and Japan. At the end of the war, when Hitler knew that he would not succeed, he killed himself which essentially ended the war in Europe. When Germany surrendered, the United States focused its efforts on defeating Japan. In 1945 the United states launched two atomic bombs on Japan that killed tons of people. After the second bomb, the Japanese surrendered. During the war, Franklin Roosevelt served as president of the United States. The war in America was fought in order to maintain freedom. When Japan attacked America, they "awoke a sleeping giant." The Americans fight for democracy was won, and the United States once again prevailed in the war.
World War I was the first time that the world has seen the major powers of the world, all in combat in the same war. There were two sides of the fighting, and most of the fighting took place in Europe, and waters off the coast of Europe. The war was started because of the killing of Arch Duke Frans Ferdinand by Serbian nationalists. Upon the killing Austria demanded that Serbia turn in the killer, or war would be launched against Serbia. When Serbia refused to give up the killer, Austro- Hungry, immediately declared war on Serbia. Because of allies between countries, the European powers were soon at war. During the war, the countries involved were in total war, and millions of people died. World War I was one of the most deadly conflicts in history and was fought between all the powers. In 1917, Woodrove Wilson decided to declare war on Austria, and Hungry becasue of the repeated attacks on American ships in the Atlantic. Upon entering the war, the United states went to Europe and fought to defeat Austro- Hungarians. By 1818, the Austro- Hungarians began to lose control and by the end of the year they surrendered. The Austro- Hungarians officially lost the war on the 28th of June, 1919 with the treat of Versailles being signed. One of the most important parts of this document was the fact that the Austro- Hungarians were forced to take full responsibility for the war, and were given a huge war debt that could not be repaid. This led to riots in Europe and eventually was the cause of World War II. Democracy during World War II is what the United States were fighting for. There people were no longer free, since there lives were being threatened. However, the United States policy of fighting for Democracy was not yet put into effect.
Progressiveness reached its height during and following the industrial revolution. Progressivism was the time that began at the beginning of the 19th century where America passed a long series of reforms. Some of these actions were to make the United States government more efficient as well as give more power to the people in controlling there government. One of the goals of Progressivism was to regulate and block monopolies of large companies. This is debated because America was founded as a capitalist nation, and government regulations on business was anti- capitalist. These regulations were passed in order to liberate the middle class industrial worker, and to stop monopolies from maleficent practices. During the rise of progressivism, presidents were William McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt, William Taft, and Woodrove Wilson serving respectively. Wilson was basically the father of progressisism since he was the first president to run under the ideals of it. During this time, democracy played a major role in the politics and regulations passed. One of the major goals was to make the United States government more aware of the desires of the American people, and to take action on there desires. The role of democracy in progressivism was to ensure that the people had a say in what went on in politics, which is the foundation of American politics.
The reconstruction era, is the time that followed the Civil War where America rebuilt itself after the war that cost so many lives. After the Civil War, the goal of Reconstruction was to give power back to the states of the south, while making sure that they were doing so in a way where another war would be prevented. President Lincoln was the leader in the period, and wanted the succession back into the union to go smooth. One of the major issues of the reconstruction period was whether or not the Blacks should count people when deciding how many representatives the south would have in congress. This led to the three/ fifths compromise where 3/5th of all blacks would count for population. In 1865 when Lincoln was assassinated, Andrew Johnson took office and by 1869 Ulysses Grant took office for the remainder of the recontruction Era. During this time period, democracy was restored to the United States, and the country once again functioned in order to grow and become better. In addition, with the three/ fifths compromise, blacks were counted as for the first time as people.
The Gilded Age was the time in American History after the Civil War, where America prospered as a country. The United States population grew increasingly fast, and the wealth of the upper class. Industries grew extremely large, and the United States became one of the most progressive nations in the world. Large cities formed and voter turnout exceeded 90 percent. By 1896, the gilded age ended because of a depression and in the election of 1896, a huge political shift towards progressivism occurred. At the start of the Gilded age, Ulyses S. Grant was president, and after him Rutherford took office. The short term of Garfield was followed Chester Arthur and by 1885 Grover Cleveland was elected. Many presidents served in this time period all serving four year presidencies. In 1889 Benjamen Harrison was elected, and in the election of 1893 Grover Cleveland was re-elected serving his second term. During this time period, imperialism spread throughout the country. The British empire had expanded across the world. However, America decided to stay out imperialism and they gained no territory from it. During this time period, wealth grew in the upper class; however, Americans felt that through hard work they could also become wealthy. That is the difference between the French starting a revolution because of the imbalance of wealth. The French felt there was nothing they could do so get money, whereas the Americans felt that because of the freedoms they were guaranteed through democracy, anyone could become wealthy so people were not angry.
The American Civil War was fought between the confederate south, and the Union in the north. The Civil War was started because the Union wanted to abolish slavery from America and the South was willing to stop it. In the presidential election of 1860, Abraham Lincoln was elected to serve the country. Because Lincoln was Anti- Slavery, as soon as he was elected the south succeeded from the union. When the south succeeded, the Union, questioned whether or not they could legally do it. The south started the first violence when they attacked Fort Sumner. The union responded by creating armies to put down the rebellion. In 1862, Lincolns Emancipation Proclamation stated his goal to end slavery in America. In 1864 the war ended, after Commander of the South, Lee, faced many defeats. The war went on to become the deadliest war in American History, with Americans suffering casualties of more the 620,000 people. The American Civil War ended slavery, and the country came together as one country. During the Civil War, Americans chose war over peace. Voting, compromises, and arguments over Slave states caused America to feel the need fight, and this marked a time when democratic voting could not help. In addition, democracy was questioned in whether or not it was democratic to allow slavery to continue and that is what started the war.
After Missouri and Maine were added to the union, tensions were flaring about how slavery should be dealt with in the United States. In the Missouri Compromise of 1820, a line was drawn at the 36th parallel. This line created more division between the country. With an actual cut between the country, the ground marks had been laid for a war. With the South refusing to give up slavery, and the North insisting on ending it, the United States went to War with itself. During this time period, democracy helped to establish which states would be slave and which would be free. For example, in Kansas, a democratic election was held that would establish whether or not the state would become a slave state or a free state. During the Pre-Civil War era, although America was at war, democracy continued to thrive.
During Andrew Jackson's 8 year presidency, Jackson made many political enemies as well as many advancements in politics. Jackson had a belligerent personality and was the military leader at the Battle of New Orleans. Jackson is remembered for both good things and bad things. For example, Jackson was a major advocate for individual democratic rights, constantly fighting for democracy in the states. However, Jackson also supported the fighting the Indians, as well as slavery. During the Jacksonian Era, the avocation for democracy in America was progressed fought for individual rights that gave many freedoms to the people, which after all is what democracy is all about. Some people argue that Jackson often used illegal policies of pressuring his opposition into getting his way, but the fact remains that Jackson played a major role in Democracy in America.
After World War I, America took a peace stance. America took many measures in order to try to keep peace in the world. One of these measures that the United States went to was create the Leauge of Nations. The Leauge of nations was created as a peace group that all of powers of the world would join. However, the United States never ratified the Leauge of Nations and that is one of the reasons the United States went to war. After the war, the United States stance was to isolate itself from Europe. It felt that if it could isolate himself from Europe, it could avoid another war. The preisdents that served after the war were Woodrove Wilson, Warren Harding and Calvin Coolidge. During this time, the United States fought to keep democracy in the places in Europe post- war.
The Jeffersonian Era marked the rise of Thomas Jefferson, and the Republicans. Thomas Jefferson was elected President in 1800 defeated Adams in 1801. Jefferson began his 8 year term in 1801, and helped to create many positive changes to America. Jefferson added Judiciary Review to the constitution which gave the supreme court the right to review court decisions and create a policy on issues. After serving two terms in office, James Madison, a fellow republican, was elected into office in 1809. Madison would serve until 1817. During Madison's time in office, the United States went to war with Britain in a second battle for independence. The War of 1812 was won by the Americans and was the last time the United States fought the mass British Armies. The Jeffersonian Era can also be described as the Republican Era. During the Jeffersonian era, American doubled in size, and the fight for democracy continued in war against the British. In creating the Bill of Rights, the ideals of democracy were used in order to ensure the citizens rights. Democratic views in the Bill of Rights are clear, when citizens are given the right to Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Religion, right to assemble, and the right to petition. All of those rights, were rights that were not seen in any other countries at this time.
This time period was the time when the United States of America established itself. Two political parties were created--the Federalists, headed by Alexander Hamilton and the Republicans by Thomas Jefferson. Federalists wants a large central government and high taxes, while the Republicans wanted power to remain with states. During this time period, the country doubled in size with the Louisiana Purchase and the Lewis and Clark expedition was completed. Some of the major accomplishments of this time period were the creation of the Bill of Rights, which insured the rights of all Americans, and protected them from the central government. In addition, the United States saw the first peaceful transition of power after George Washington left office. During this time period, the democracy that was described in the Constitution was carried out and the United States successfully backed there democratic ideals. During the formation of the new nation, the United States passed the Bill of Rights, which ensured that each citizen received democratic rights.
The United States Constitution, created in 1787, governed over the entire United States. The Constitution was written by the delegates at the Philadelphia convention. The constitution created the three branches of United States government: Congress, Executive, and Judiciary. These branches were created in order to maintain the checks and balances system that would help to keep to much power in one person or group of people. The reason for this was that the United States wanted to make sure that they never moved towards having a king or dictator. The only state that did not ratify the constitution was Rhode Island, as they declined the invitation. One of the most important parts of the constitution was the elastic clause, where amends could be made to it, if the leaders voted on them. Many of the amendments to the constitution have become hotly debated subjects. The first ten amendments, called the Bill of Rights were important in re-shaping the constitution. The Constitution was written in order to replace the articles of confederation. The articles of confederation gave more power to the sates, whereas the Constitution gave more power to the Federal Government. The Constitution was written based off of the principles of Republicanism and Democracy. Although the United States calls itself a democracy it uses some ideas of republicanism as well. However, democracy is so important to America because of the principle that power is given to the people rather than a king, and the constitution ensures that too much power is not in one persons hands.
The Revolutionary War began in 1775 in the American Colonies. The Americans, or other times referred to as the Patriots, fought against the British Empire. Having declared there independence to King George in the declaration of Independence the British declared war on America. The war started because of many events that eventually led to shots being fired. Actions such as the Stamp Act, Intolerable acts, and sugar act were all contributes. The war lasted eight years and was fought in the colonies originally in the north, and spread to the south as well. Because of the French's hatred of Great Britain, the French gave aid to the Americans, and without them, the Americans would not have successfully defeated the British. American patriot, Thomas Paine, wrote a pamphlet titles Common Sense, which explained why the Americans needed to fight the British. The pamphlet was circulated around the colonies and helped to spark hostility towards the British. Some of the biggest battles of the war were The Battle of Bunker Hill, the Battle of Concord and Lexington, and the of Princeton. The war was essentially over, with the surrendering of the British at the Battle of Yorktown. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris was signed which gave all land East of the Mississippi river to the Colonists. During the time of the revolutionary war, George Washington led the American troops but there was no President until after the war. During the Revolutionary War, colonists fought because they felt that they were being treated unfairly by the British. They believed that they were being taxed unfairly and were forced to follow extremely absurd codes by the British such as the Quartering Act. Although the actualy principles of Democracy that America would be founded on, would not be written down until after the War, the Americans believed that all men should have equal rights as stated in the Declaration of Independence.