Recent Event Highlights: French and Indian War, and 12 more...
Created by JessKhani on Dec 7, 2009
Last updated: 12/09/09 at 11:15 AM
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Interstate Highway Act (1956) The Highway Act, issued during Dwight D. Eisenhower’s presidency, was established to ensure safe and efficient transportation in the United States. The government aided the nation to complete the highway construction project. The new highway arrangement helped the economy prosper with industrialization. The new highways led to an increase in expansion because it became much easier for Americans to travel across the country. The use of highways forced Americans to buy cars in order to travel on them, which helped the economy. By establishing an efficient means of a successful transportation throughout the country, the industry and economy of the United States prospered and helped strengthen America by uniting the urban areas with the rural areas. This means of transportation is still used today. “An Inconvenient Truth.” Eco Motion: network news. 14 June 2006. 7 Dec. 2009. . Mintz, Steven. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. 2002-2006. 8 Dec. 2009.
From 1945 until 1989, conflicting ideologies and mutual distrust led to a state of tension between nations aligned with the United States on one hand, and the Soviet Union on the other. The Cold War was a competition of weapon development, propaganda, and industrialization between the two superpowers, without armed conflict. In the events during the Cold War, such as the Vietnam War, Korean War, Cambodia, and the conflict in Berlin, many American troops were sent overseas to enforce the policy of containment by preserving Democracy and preventing Communism from spreading. By doing this, the United States was expanding their beliefs and spreading their influence to other countries who had not yet established a form of government. “Recent Tensions between Russia and the West.” CSA. May 2008. 7 Dec. 2009. < http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/russia/images/coldwar.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/russia/review.php&usg=__aRbPXlDyhxmgNTS_4rOOMU-KPVA=&h=414&w=556&sz=17&hl=en&start=2&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=sNL8JaqlD2boNM:&tbnh=99&tbnw=133&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dcold%2Bwar%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG%26um%3D1>. Mintz, Steven. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. 2002-2006. 8 Dec. 2009.
The Alaskan territory was purchased from Russia in 1867. Secretary of State William Seward made a deal to purchase the state. Once the territory was purchased, the United States pushed away any Russian influence in North America, while sending Americans to expand further north into the new region. Years later, oil was discovered in Alaska, which led to an economic boost. There were many benefits from the purchase of Alaska, including an increased trade with Asia, a new area to fulfill the idea of Manifest Destiny, and more natural resources. The benefits from the expansion in Alaska proved to be essential to the Industry movement in America and lead the economy to prosper. “Index of Module Files.” Amhist. 24 Aug. 2007. 7 Dec. 2009. < http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://amhist.ist.unomaha.edu/module_files/Alaska.jpg&imgrefurl=http://amhist.ist.unomaha.edu/module_files/&usg=__Og2OVHqJSTebXuDVopQX7Po8Eck=&h=357&w=520&sz=36&hl=en&start=5&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=u6oO4TikNfG5HM:&tbnh=90&tbnw=131&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dpurchase%2Bof%2Balaska%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG%26um%3D1>. Mintz, Steven. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. 2002-2006. 8 Dec. 2009.
The Pacific Railway Act of 1862 was approved and signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln. The Act allowed the Union Pacific Railroad Company to authorize, construct, and maintain a continuous railroad. The Pacific Railway Act was passed in the midst of the United States Civil War. The Railroad helped to reunite the country, after the sectional conflict over slavery between the North and South. Railroad expansion led to new opportunities of migration into the interior regions of America. The Pacific Railway Act provided for the construction of the first transcontinental railway, which connected the east, from the Missouri River, and the west coasts, to the Pacific Ocean, in America. The government gave loans and land to railroad construction. The people in favor of the railroads were the railroad companies because they became wealthy, the government because it reunited the country, and the people who wanted to expand because it gave them an easier means of transportation. The people that were against it were mainly farmers. The transcontinental railroad also allowed a more efficient way to transport products across the United States. The proficient transportation encouraged trade and expansion into California. “Union Pacific Railway.” Steamtown: Special History Study. 14 Feb. 2002. < http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/steamtown/shs2t1.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/steamtown/shs2t.htm&usg=___N0MRBOD0iyJxkQdITEjfBt1Fp0=&h=337&w=500&sz=21&hl=en&start=12&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=A9vuiz3kUXKAxM:&tbnh=88&tbnw=130&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dpacific%2Brailway%2Bact%2Bof%2B1862%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1>. Mintz, Steven. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. 2002-2006. 8 Dec. 2009.
The Gold Rush in California was very important to the industrialization and expansion because it led people to migrate and settle the west and greatly increased the population. A few days before the signing of the peace treaty ending the Mexican War, gold was discovered in California. The Gold Rush provided an incentive for many people to expand westward and was significant to westward expansion for Americans. The Gold Rush transformed California’s sleepy society to a wild and violent one. Forty-niners were immigrants that traveled to California to gain profits during the gold rush. The increased industrialization during the mid-1850s replaced individual workers with heavy machinery. “Gold Rush.” Google Sites. 7 Dec. 2009. < http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://sites.google.com/site/missnatalievozely/_/rsrc/1239469549897/tech-lesson-ii-gold-rush/gold_rush.jpg&imgrefurl=http://sites.google.com/site/missnatalievozely/tech-lesson-ii-gold-rush&usg=__SoQ_8dfE4snxGUzcppfV9JzgzEc=&h=484&w=295&sz=52&hl=en&start=23&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=Pte7_g6PBaGPBM:&tbnh=129&tbnw=79&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dgold%2Brush%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26start%3D20%26um%3D1>. Mintz, Steven. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. 2002-2006. 8 Dec. 2009.
The Mexican War was fought over a land dispute over the Texas territory. The United States aggressive expansion into Texas was very imperialistic. During the 1840s, many people argued whether the Mexican War and the United States expansion was the preeminent decision in the national interest. The Mexican War would have long-lasting effects on domestic relations if it were to pursue the expansion and Annexation of Texas. However, if the United States failed to pursue the expansion, they would not have the land necessary to fully develop the New World. The Annexation of Texas would have many benefits, such as the enlargement of free institution and greater efficiency in spreading peace for foreign powers. Many believed that the Annexation of Texas was essential to the US because it would lessen the probabilities of future collisions with foreign powers. It was a strong belief that it was by the right of American’s manifest destiny to grow by expansion and possess the entire continent, thus requiring the US to seize lands. Other people believed that this land was given to us, from God, to develop American’s liberty and self government. It was a mission to wholly develop the New World by gaining land that was necessary to people as a way to the ocean ports to improve commerce. People believed that western expansion would invoke the question of whether slavery would expand west as well. “About the National Guard.” National Guard: Always Ready Always There. 2009. 7 Dec. 2009. . Mintz, Steven. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. 2002-2006. 8 Dec. 2009.
Manifest Destiny was the belief that Americans had a special destiny to expand across the continent and had a duty to bring progress and democracy to the American West. Americans would bring progress to the American West by expanding and bringing their industry, religion, science, agriculture and education with them. Manifest destiny motivated many people to migrate west and led expansionists to demand that the United States should own the entire Pacific Northwest all the way to the southern border of Alaska. Some aggressive nationalists invoked the idea to justify Indian removal, war with Mexico, and American expansion. Westward expansion, inspired by manifest destiny, included the migration into the new American territories of Oregon, Texas, California, and the Southwest, which were all additions to the nation’s territory. “The Will to Succeed.” Friends of Justice. 2009. 7 Dec. 2009. . Mintz, Steven. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. 2002-2006. 8 Dec. 2009.
In President James Monroe’s 1823 annual message to Congress, he contained the Monroe Doctrine. The Monroe Doctrine warned European powers not to interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere because the United States would no longer tolerate any more colonization or puppet monarchs. President Monroe also declared that the United States is closed to any further European expansion in the west. The Monroe Doctrine was summoned in 1865 when United States exerted diplomatic and military pressure in support of the Mexican president. This support allowed the Mexican president to lead a successful revolt against the Emperor, who had been placed on the throne by the French government. The Monroe Doctrine was also summoned in 1962, when the Soviet Union began to build missile-launching sites in Cuba, so John F. Kennedy threw a naval and air quarantine around the island. The Soviet Union then agreed to withdraw the missiles and dismantle the sites. These examples showed the United States policy that the west was no longer open to European expansion and colonization. “Portrait of James Monroe.” Archiving Early America. 2009. 7 Dec. 2009. < http://www.earlyamerica.com/portraits/jmonroe.html.> Mintz, Steven. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. 2002-2006. 8 Dec. 2009.
This idea was first suggested by Thomas Jefferson in the 1820s as the only way to ensure the survival of Native American cultures. The disappearance of the Native American cultures was a potential risk because their culture was continually vanishing, due to the aggressive expansion of white settlers. The goal of this policy was to encourage the voluntary migration of Indians westward to regions of land where they could live free from white harassment. The reason that the Native Americans were being harassed by the white settlers was because they were trying to expand into territory that was not theirs. This policy was adopted because many Americans believed that the Indian control of land and other natural resources was an obstacle to their expansion; thus, a potential threat to their achievement of gaining new resources and profit. Although expansion was a success for the American settlers, it was a disaster for the Native Americans who lost much of their land and families because they were forced to move westward. “Manifest Destiny.” Actual Kingdom. 20 Nov. 2006. 7 Dec. 2009. < http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://actualkingdom.files.wordpress.com/2006/11/shoshoni_tipis.jpg&imgrefurl=http://actualkingdom.wordpress.com/2006/11/20/manifest-destiny/&usg=__V5YYSBde22NDH1SiTO309afEZgE=&h=589&w=887&sz=80&hl=en&start=5&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=hJl6awAVT3-wmM:&tbnh=97&tbnw=146&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dindian%2Bremoval%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG%26um%3D1.> Mintz, Steven. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. 2002-2006. 8 Dec. 2009.
The War of 1812, between the United States and England, was caused by British interference with the United States trading at sea and was in part started by the desire to expand. The Northeasterners did not want war with Britain. Southerners and Westerners were eager to avenge British and hoped for expansion into Florida. The war began with an attack on Canada to gain land and cut off British supply lines to the Indians. Then, the British troops burned down the capitol in 1814 and the White House. The Treaty of Ghent ended the war in 1815 and returned the United States and Britain relations to normal. Neither the United States nor Britain gained or lost territory. However, news of the Treaty of Ghent traveled slowly across the Atlantic, so the United States defeated the British at New Orleans and celebrated their success. This war was significant as it allowed the United States to rewrite its boundaries with Spain and set control over the lower Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico. “War of 1812.” Ohio History Central. 2009. 7 Dec. 2009. . Mintz, Steven. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. 2002-2006. 8 Dec. 2009.
In 1800, Spain secretly gave the Louisiana Territory to France. This territory, ranging from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains, closed a large trading port to the United States. The French control of the Mississippi River made President Thomas Jefferson fear the establishment of a French colonial empire. Jefferson also feared that the French possession of this territory would block American expansion, so he sent negotiations to France. Thomas Jefferson made an offer of $2 million for the Louisiana territory. Meanwhile, France failed to suppress a slave rebellion in Haiti and therefore, had little interest in keeping the Louisiana territory, so they offered all of it for $15 million. This simple offer doubled the size of the country and allowed settlers to expand into new lands and open up new opportunities. Jefferson sent Lewis & Clark to learn about the geography & wildlife in the Louisiana Territory. Success of the Lewis and Clark Expedition inspired the settlers to pursue more expansion and exploration of new territories. Without this increased territory and addition of natural resources to the United States, America might not have been such an important power as it is today. “The Louisiana Purchase.” History of Washington State & the Pacific. 1974. 7 Dec. 2009. . Mintz, Steven. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. 2002-2006. 8 Dec. 2009.
(1756-1763) The French and Indian War was between the French and British over the expansion of colonial territory and wealth. Tensions had already risen between the French and British in America, as both wanted to increase their land holdings by expansion. The war initially began in 1753 when George Washington and his men went to the Ohio region to deliver a message to a French captain demanding that the French troops withdraw from the territory. The French rejected this demand. In 1754, Washington received authorization to build a fort near the present site of Pittsburgh; however, this fort was unsuccessful because of the strong French presence in the region. In May, Washington's troops clash with French forces, and led Washington to surrender the fort he managed to build. This conflict set off a series of small battles. After 1 1/2 years of undeclared war, the French and English finally formally declared war in May 1756. For the first 3 years, the outnumbered French dominated. However, the British began to dominate because they started to make peace with important Indian allies & adapted their war strategies to fit the landscape of the American frontier. The French were also abandoned by many of their Indian allies with led to their defeat at Quebec in September 1759. By 1760, the British expanded to the extent that they controlled the entire North American frontier. The 1763 Treaty of Paris set the terms for France: they were forced to surrender all American possessions to the British and the Spanish. The Treaty of Paris also ended the European seven years war. Although the war ended with the French, the British continued to fight with the Indians over land claims. The British keep trying to expand, but the Indians were in the way. The Indians were exhausted from war and quickly gave up. Parliament issued the Proclamation of 1763 which prohibited the British from settling on Native American land. The Proclamation Line forbade North American colonists from establishing settlements west of an imaginary line running down the crest of the Appalachian Mountains. The Proclamation created boundaries for the settlers’ expansion, and proved to be unenforceable. This angered the Americans who believed that they were fighting for their right to expand. These settlers chose to ignore the proclamation and migrate west anyway. The Proclamation Line continued to move further west as the settlers expanded their territories until it eventually disappeared. “The Llama Butchers” Llama Butchers. August 2008. 7 Dec. 2009. . Mintz, Steven. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. 2002-2006. 8 Dec. 2009.
The Expansion of English settlers in the Jamestown Colony was the first successful English settlement in North America. Three ships set sail from London in 1606 with a charter from Virginia Company of London. The ships arrived 5 months later in Virginia. The Jamestown colony was founded for the purposes of quick profit, to establish a permanent place in North America for England, and religious freedom. At first, the settlers in the Jamestown colony were welcomed by the Native Americans. The Powhatan tribe believed that the English would make useful trading partners and allies with their tools and firearms. In return, the Powhatan would provide the colonists with corn, deer meat, and other supplies. The expansion of the English to North America began a transformation that would remake much of the continent. This expansion also led the English to be the first to settle the new region, and discover new things from the Indians. However, the relations between the settlers and the Native Americans eventually led to conflict. As the colonists expanded, the Native Americans lost much of their lands and many of their people. “Jamestown.” Scott Kindergarten- 12. 7 Dec. 2009. . Mintz, Steven. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. 2002-2006. 8 Dec. 2009.