A time line by and for students of CompLit122:04 at U of M in 2008 to plot versions of works of world literature in translation.
Created by ProfMerrill on Aug 10, 2008
Last updated: 03/11/10 at 09:34 PM
To shed some light on the author behind this controversial piece of literature, Robert J. C. Young was born in 1950, and is a postcolonial theorist, cultural critic, and historian. As we mentioned in we find it ironic that, in the book mentioned, Young seems to be admonishing the type of people he interacted with on a daily basis in his line of work and education. He was educated in Oxford, NYU, and the University of South Hampton, just to name a few. The link below brings you to his official website where you can find information on his books, essays, and even interviews he conducted.
In Portsmouth, New Hampshire during 2005, DECOLONISING THE MIND by Ngugi wa Thiong'o was reprinted for the eleventh time. This is significant because his work has been so controversial in Kenya, yet has managed to stay alive in the hands of global readers through world literature. Being his last work written in English, I also felt it would be necessary to include the date that it was reprinted in the United States as well as the location of publication in Portsmouth, New Hampshire.
Presentation Date: September 16, 2008
(Samu Rast) The essays/book of Oxford professor Robert J.C. Young are published by Oxford University Press. The book is a heated and passionate account of the state of many "postcolonial" countries (countries that were colonized in the past, and according to the author, in many ways still are colonized). I am doing my presentation on this reading on September 30th.
being presented October 23
I chose the date 2003 and location as New York because that is when and where the book was published.
This work, written by Robert Young, intends to introduce the theory of postcolonialism as seen through his eyes. One of the major components of postcolonialism is that "the nations of the three non-western continents are largely in a situation of subordination to Europe and North America, and in a position of inequality." (Young, pg. 4) This relates to other readings we have done in such as decolonizing the mind, in which the Western world is portrayed as dominating and superior, imposing itself upon other nations and even continents. Presentation Date: Thursday, September 25.
Required reading presentation of this passage. This is first published 1999 and second impression 2000.
My presentation date is October 14th, 2008.
I chose to place this marker in Paris because although Derrida taught at UC - Irvine for awhile, he spent most of his life in Paris and always wrote in French.
The passage that I chose from the reading comes after Derrida's thoughts on the loss of language and whether or not it is salvagable. And, if so, is it worth it? For the sake of the "other?"
"...certain people must yield to the homohegemony of dominant languages. They must learn the language of the masters...they must lose their in order to survive or live better. I do not know whether the salvation for the other presupposes the salvation of the (30)
The first thing that caught my attention here was "certain people." Who are these certain people that Derrida is referring to? Are they people that are just weaker and have to submit to the dominant language? Or are they specifically colonists that have been subjected to learning another language? He isn't exactly specific when he refers to "certain people," so I just thought it was intriguing.
Another part that caught my attention was when Derrida says "language of the masters." Throughout the excerpt of the essay that we've read, Derrida constantly says that language is not a possession of any person. Even himself. He states that although he has only one language, it is not his. However, through the form of how things have to be written in the constraints of language, he comes across as contradicting himself in this sentence by saying "the language of the masters." While he most likely does not mean to, it still comes across this way and can manage to confuse the reader or make them ponder his true intentions. Also, on that, there was discussion in of why the language is the only one you speak but not your own. By examining language as merely a tool of culture with which one builds their way of speaking, this makes more sense. That's just kind of how I see it. Language is just the medium by which you choose to express yourself in your own way (your way of talking).
The last thing that really intrigued me in this was probably the entire last bit -- "they must lose their in order to survive or live better. I do not know whether the salvation for the other presupposes the salvation of the This took me back to Ngugi's Decolonising the Mind and Rodriguez's "Going Home Again." Both of these men sacrificed their respective languages for the betterment of themselves. However, Ngugi was forced to and Rodriguez's choice was conscious. Because of this, my central question in response to this passage was whether people salvage their languages based on whether their choice to sacrifice it was conscious or not. Ngugi went back to his, and that could be seen as not having any regard for the "other." However, Rodriguez never went back to his, and that would be for the sake of the "other."
On that note, I'd like to just repeat what I said in about this "other." I feel as though the "other" is something different from yourself that is a homogeneous group. This is a two-way street in my eyes, and I think that Derrida was successful in breaking down the binary opposition that he strives to destroy. By considering that every single person has an "other," it equalizes everything.
- Sahana Rajan
This is a translation of the epic poem The Iliad by George Steiner. He translated the poem into English after his mother had taught him to read it in the original Greek. I chose to place this here because it was published in New York in 1996
An illustrated collection of stories from the "Arabian Nights," including those of Sinbad, Ali Baba, and Aladdin. This timeless collection of stories explores an amazing world of sorcerers and sages, as well as ordinary people who find themselves in extraordinary situations. Includes 23 of Sheherezade’s stories, from "Aladdin" to "Sinbad the Sailor" to "Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves", with over 120 full-color illustrations.
I would like to explore more on the translations of Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes in the Special Collections section. I chose to mark this at 1991 because it is when this translation was published. Also, I chose to put the location as Ann Arbor because it is located in the Hatcher graduate library.
The short story takes place in Buenos Aires where the author was born. The date I chose is the day the author died which i think is ironically a more accurate time for this, since the work seems to reflect on not truly existing anymore. (Rebecca Rupff presenting October 16th on Borges Y Yo info from wikipedia on Jorge Luis Borges)
Recommended Reading for Oct. 14th
In Decolonising the Mind, Ngugi mentions many different kinds of literature that were forced upon the African people. He states that they had to read the works of Shakespeare and other British authors in order to be better acquainted with that society. Becoming more immersed in Western Culture was the colonizers way of slowly eliminating the African language and cultural history
My presentation date was September 18. I chose to place my marker in Nigeria not only because Okara was the first influential Nigerian writer who became widely known, but also because he began the transition from colonial poetry form to modernistic writing that was emerging in Nigeria when it gained its independence in 1960. Above information provided by the Encyclopedia of World Biography
I presented on the book The Voice by Gabriel Okara on September 23, 2008. This piece is an extremely thought-provoking, metaphorical novel that makes one consider the oppression of the African culture as well as the situation called postcolonialism. My page on PB Wiki will soon be posted here.
I chose 1964 because it was the date of publication for The Voice, which is extremely important. I chose Nigeria because that is Okara's birthplace.
(Samu Rast) Ngugi wa-Thiongo attends the "Conference of African Writers of English Expression" at Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda. (From Ngugi, "Decolonising the Mind"). This conference is where Ngugi first begins to think about African literature in terms of what language it is written in, and he comes to realize that all African literature must be written in African languages.
One of the factors that effected the development of the African novel is through the rising of universities in Africa. Universities in Uganda, Nigeria, and Ghana, were all colleges that were linked to the University of London. Through these colleges, English was exposed to more and more African students, but were also educated with novels from France and Russia. However, the Afro-European novel literally became a movement to these students, where African novels were revitalized and exposed.
I chose to mark London because the universities are all linked to the University of London.
The date is also 1959 because it is around the time period where Ngugi became a part of this process.
"Decolonising the Mind" (p. 70)
The author Ngugi was-Thiongo in the book "Decolonising the Mind" told us that "after the declaration of a state of emergency over Kenya in 1952 that all the schools run by patriotic nationalists were taken over by the colonial regime and were placed under District Education Boards chaired by Englishmen." English became the language of formal education in Kenya.
This is a translation of Parte primera del ingenioso hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha (author Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra) by Peter Motteux with both color and black and white illustrations by Salvador Dali. I chose the date 1946 according to when the book was published but I chose the location according to its place in special collections in the Hatcher Library.
A literary criticism of the works of "Pierre Menard", a non-existent writer. It is a short story, published in Spanish in 1939 and then translated to English in 1962. Presenting on October 29th
Presentation date: November 18, 2008
Jorge Luis Borges' _The Translators of the Thousand and One Nights_ was written in 1936. He is an Argentine writer who has written many short stories and essays.
There were 1500 copies made and signed by Valenti Angelo who was an Italian illustrator that moved to New York in 1905. The New York: Limited editions club published this particular Arabian Nights Series in 1934. Since it was made for the New York club and the illustrator migrated to New York I located it in New York. This is copy 612 (added by Rebecca Rupff)
T.E. Shaw, a.k.a. Lawrence of Arabia, published a translation of what he called "the first novel of Europe..."
This English schoolmaster's translation has been exceedingly popular, especially amongst the educated in England.
Presentation date: November, 20th
Odysseus tells Alcinous who he is and what things have happened to him since he left Troy. With 12 ships he sailed first to Ismarus, where he foolishly sacked the city of Cicones. Zeus punished them with a storm that left them drifting aimlessly for days. They finally stopped at the land of the Lotus-Eaters (and his men didn’t want to leave), and then went to the land of the Cyclopians. He describes the Cyclopians as violent and lawless, and he and his men run into trouble with one of the Cyclopians. Men are killed and Poseidon's vendetta against Odysseus begins.
On 14 November 1922 the first daily radio service, with the code name "2LO," was launched by the British Broadcasting Company (BBC) in London.
I would like to look for this translation while we are at Special Collections. I have not read an unabridged version of this book so I think it will be interesting. I placed this marker in Madrid, Spain, because it is where Cervantes spent much of his life.
The Gold Coast in 1920 was one of the examples used in "Ideological and Economic Cross-currents of Empire," by Janina Brutt-Griffler to demonstrate an example of the employment of nationals in colonies to control "imperial administration" in the lower, or less important ends. Used by the British to cut down costs. Furthermore, with so many colonies, England couldn't spare enough civil servants to employ all colonies. This marker/date in Gold Coast is significant because it indicates the height of colonial manipulation of masses.
p.41 of World English: A Study of Its Development
I pulled this from the recommended reading by Janina Brutt-Griffler, page 45. It talks about one of the administrators placed in Africa during the early 1900s, and this one was Sir Frederick Lugard. Lugard developed a policy that would be used for the rest of the century -- indirect rule. This really relied on keeping up good relations with those already in charge in the country, and then getting what the colonizer wanted. Lugard believed that relations with the natives were terribly important to creating a good colony, and made sure to keep it up even when he went to Hong Kong after Nigeria.
located in the Special Collections
I chose the date 1900 because that is when it was published.
What interested me most about the title of the essay is the fact that he is comparing two totally different heroes from two completely different backgrounds.
Artist William Morris, founder of the Arts and Crafts movement in England, translated the Odyssey in a style that shows his interest in the political implications of the decorative.
In the year 1884, Imperialist countries began to infiltrate into the continent of Africa. As a result, the colonizers imposed the English language upon all of African civilians, thus changing their culture forever. According to the author, since 1884, imperialist nations have "affected and continue to affect the lives even of the peasants in the remotest corners of our countries." (Wa Thiong'o pg. 2)
The Arabian nights entertainments, with an introduction illustrative of the religion, manners, and customs of the Mohammedans, by Jonathan Scott ... With nineteen original etchings by Ad. Lalauze. This was published in 1883 in London.
It also mentions that there were only 150 copies of this edition, and that it contains proof etchings on Japanese paper, have been printed, and are numbered consecutively. This particular edition is No. 26.
The book of the thousand nights and one night: now first completely done into English prose and verse, from the original Arabic, by John Payne ... In nine volumes ...
The British Government took over the colonization of India from the Dutch-East India company, handing India, one of the British Empire's most important colonies, to the British Government. This rule would last until 1947. India was to be ruled "In the name of the Queen", under the directive of the Secretary of State.
I chose India for one of my markers after reading Janina Brutt-Griffler's "Ideological and Economic Cross-Currents of Empire." In it, she talks about the Macaulay Doctrine: "In this document, Macaulay argues for the implementation of English education as a means for the 'intellectual improvement of those of people who have the means of pursuing higher studies' (quoted in C. H. Cameron, 1853: 68). His philosophy for English education stemmed from his belief that 'the dialects commonly spoken among the natives of this part of India contain neither literary nor scientific information' (68). For Macaulay, that conviction constituted a compelling reason to advocate English education in India" (39-40).
The Macaulay Doctrine represents many of the wrongdoings that were happening in Africa as well as India, and displays many of the racist qualities of the colonists. Macaulay believes that the people need English to even attempt to be intelligent.
I chose the date 1853 because that is the time period that Macaulay was quoted on these ideas.
I chose Sakuntala, by Kalidas, because I am excited to read it and learn more about it. I chose my date and place based on where and when the work was published for the edition in Special Collections.
An Indian drama called the "Fatal Ring" I chose this translation because it is an older translation from the peak of the British Empire and colonial rule. In addition, I have never heard about Indian literature, and am interested in reading a work.
Besides being famous for his hymns, the oftentimes gloomy and yet religiously passionate William Cowper is known for his translation of Homer's _Odyssey_ into blank verse
This is the date of the first translation of the work, which was originally set somewhere between the first century BC and the fourth century AD. It is the first Indian drama to be translated into a western language, which is why this date is significant--the actual work was written in Sanskrit and was a well-known story at the time, though it was a play.
The British established the first Birish Penal Colony in 1788 in Sydney, Australia.
Groups came from England, Nova Scotia and Jamaica in the 1780's. It became a base for anti slave-trading squadrons. The main form of communication was an English-based Creole, Krio, which spread along the West African Coast rapidly. It shows the significance of English as a unifying language.
This translation of Homer's Odyssey by one of the most revered (and most quoted) English poets was characteristically daring and hugely popular in its day. George Steiner tells us he used heroic couplets to "'keep alive that Spirit and Fire' which are Homer's distinctive glory." (Homer in English, 78)
An early translation of Homer's Odyssey and Illiad done by John Ogilby , who was well known in England for printing a series of atlases.
First published in London, his translation is also accompanied by a series of woodcut blocks and plate illustrations. I chose to place this work in London because it is the earliest translation of the Odyssey done in English located in Special Collections.
It is now placed in Special Collections in Ann Arbor.
This was the oldest English-translated copy of Homer's Odyssey I could find, which is why this date is important. The reason I chose the oldest translated copy I could find is that I wanted to see if there was emphasis on different elements of the story compared to the English copy I've read. I also want to see how the story is told differently, and get a feel of a different English language.
Dutch colonists arrived in 1652, while British activity only dates form 1795. However the British exerted control by 1820 (only 25 years later) and in 1822 English became the official language and the African population was to learn the language. Why is it that the Dutch although in the area for over 140 years never imposed there language on the native peoples? (added by Rebecca Rupff from "Why English? The historical context," page 43)
We have put the location where it was published (by M. Flesher) in London, even though now it is housed at Special Collections at the U of M library.