Major Events of WW1
Created by Tmonty on Nov 23, 2010
Last updated: 12/19/10 at 03:58 PM
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-Former President Theodore Roosevelt had been the frontrunner for the Republican nomination, but his health collapsed in 1918 and he died in January 1919 -Democrats nominated newspaper publisher and Governor James M. Cox -Republicans chose Senator Warren G. Harding, another Ohio newspaper publisher
-21 nations in attendance -Germany and the other defeated Central Powers were not allowed to sit at the conference table -Extremely harsh on germany
-Signed in a railway carriage in Compiègne Forest -Called for a cease fire -Marked a complete defeat for Germany, but was neither an unconditional surrender nor a treaty
-After the failure of the Spring Offensive the tide of war turned decisively against the Central Powers -Both Austria and Hungary became republics. -Exiling the Habsburg family in perpetuity
-Congress denied it which gave Wilson limited power at meeting in Paris after germany's defeat -Germany was not allowed to join -Goal was to stop major wars
-The Wilhelmshaven mutiny was a major mutiny by sailors of the German High Seas Fleet -The mutiny triggered the German revolution which was to sweep aside the monarchy within a few days -It ultimately led to the end of the First World War and to the establishment of the Weimar Republic.
-Ottoman Empire turned into Turkey after the war -Both lost much land -Close to end of war
-U.S. First Army Composed of Three American and One French Corps -1st battle involving the U.S. soldiers -Allied win -The First Army took 15,000 prisoners and 257 guns at a cost of about 7,000 casualties
-Also called the Battle of the Argonne Forest -Part of the final Allied offensive of World War I that stretched along the entire western front. -The whole offensive was planned by Marshal Ferdinand Foch to breach the Hindenburg line and ultimately force the opposing German forces to surrender
-forbade the use of "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" about the United States government, its flag, or its armed forces -Also anything that caused others to view the American government or its institutions with contempt -repealed on December 13, 1920
-Been used in the U.S. and in many European countries since WW1 -Britain started on, on May 21, 1916 -Not formally adopted in the U.S. until 1918. -Meant to conserve fuel
-Lenin insisted on ending the war with Germany at any price -Believed that such action was necessary if the Bolsheviks were to stay in power -The treaty required Russia to give up Finland, Poland, Bessarabia, Ukraine, Estonia, Livonia (now Latvia), and Lithuania. Germany agreed to allow the Russian government to continue ruling the rest of Russia
-Postwar peace for countries fighting -Intended to stop major wars altogether -The speech was delivered 10 months before the Armistice with Germany and became the basis for the terms of the German surrender
-1st time tanks were used in significant force -Lieutenant-Colonel John Fuller of the Tank Corps recommended wide-scale use of tanks upon the dry battlefield -Within hours the lightly defended Germans were forced back some 6 km to Cambrai -The three trench systems of the Hindenburg Line pierced for the first time in the war.
-Sponsored by Rep. Asbury F. Lever, a Democrat of South Carolina -Official name was "An Act to Provide Further for the National Security and Defense by Encouraging the Production, Conserving the Supply, and Controlling the Distribution of Food Products and Fuel." -Sometimes called the Lever Act or the Lever Food Act.
-Encouraged companies to use mass-production techniques to increase efficiency and urged them to eliminate waste by standardizing products. -The board set production quotas and allocated raw materials -Under the War Industries Board, industrial production in the U.S. increased 20%. -The War Industries Board was decommissioned by an executive order on January 1, 1919.
-John J. Pershing was the commander of U.S. forces deployed in Europe -Sent small force at 1st -Had a very large force by the end of the war
-Passed by the Congress of the United States on May 18, 1917 -Also known as Selective draft Act -1st envisioned in Dec. 1916 and brought to Pres. Woodrow Wilson's attention shortly after the break in relations with Germany in Feb. 1917
-German proposal that promised Mexico U.S. lands if they went to war with the U.S. -When this become public it turns public opion against Germany and was a mjor reason for the U.S. jioning the Allies -Mexico declined the offer
-Woodrow Wilson outlined the case for declaring war upon Germany in a speech to the joint houses of Congress on 2 April 1917 -A formal declaration of war followed four days later, on April 6, 1917 -The resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare by Germany on Feb. 1, 1917 was the key event that turned the American public
-Destroyed the Tsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Soviet Union -The Tsar was deposed and replaced by a provisional government in the first revolution of February 1917 -focused around Petrograd which is now St. Petersburg. -In the chaos, members of the Imperial parliament or Duma assumed control of the country, forming the Russian Provisional Government
-Took place while Europe was in WW1 -Public sentiment in the neutral U.S. leaned towards the Allied Forces -Due to harsh treatment of civialians by the German Forces -Charles E. Hughes was the Republican nominee -Woodrow Wilson was the Democratic candidate
-Entered on Allied side -Bulgaria entering on central Powers helped for Romania to enter with Allies -Invaded parts of Austia-Hugray with Romanian populations and were warmly welcomed by the citizens
-The battle consisted of an offensive by the British and French armies against the German Army -Sine invading France in 1914 they had occupied parts of the country -The Battle of the Somme was one of the largest battles of WW1 -by the time fighting had petered out in late autumn 1916 more than 1.5 million casualties had been suffered by the forces involved, making it one of the bloodiest military operations ever recorded.
-promise made in 1916 during WW1 by Germany to the United States that said: -Passenger ships would not be targeted -Merchant ships would not be sunk until the presence of weapons had been established, if necessary by a search of the ship -Merchant ships would not be sunk without provision for the safety of passengers and crew
- Fought between the German and French armies -hilly terrain north of the city of Verdun-sur-Meuse in north-eastern France - universally described by historians as a French tactical victory but it is also viewed as a costly stalemate in terms of strategic results
-Entered on side of Central Powers -Thought it would be better economically to enter with Central Powers -Also were enemies with Serbia who was with Allies
-The tank was first used at the little known Battle of Flers -Then used with less success at the Battle of the Somme -The leading support of the tank was Lieutenant-Colonel Ernest Swinton -The Germans, British, Austrians, Russians and French all had armoured fighting vehicles that could fight on ‘normal’ terrain, but these vehicles could not cope with trenches
-Count Ferdinand Zeppelin, a German army officer, began developing his ideas on airships in 1897 -The first Zeppelin flew on 2nd July 1900 -The LZ-3 Zeppelin was accepted into army service in March 1909 -By the war the Germans had 7 military Zeppelins
-Treaty of London helped persuade Italy to join on Allies side -Promised them large territorial gain from Austria-Hungary at the close of the war -They did not get the land promised from the war.
-Thought to have a major impact on America and WW1 -America still didn't join the war for 2 more years -Had on board American civilians -!915 America was still nuetral
-Limited killing power -Only 4% of combat deaths were from the gas. -Made mainly of tear gas, mustard gas, phosgene and chlorine
-Germans 1st used poison gas -Many Germany died from the Gas -Only major attack by Germans on the western front in 1915 -Eventually gave up trying to take the town and just bombed it
-Allied Victory -Ended the month long german offensive toward Paris -Consisted of 6 French field Armies and 1 Britsh Army -Germans fell back and dug trenches
-Declared war because Germany would not withdrawl ships from the far East -Entered with Allies -Japan had acted in this matter upon request of Great Britain, with they had signed a treaty of alliance, on August 12, 1905
-Adressed Congress and made public the neutrality -warned U.S. citizens against taking sides in the war for fear of endangering the wider U.S. policy. -Said the effect of the war on the U.S. will depend on what the citizens say and do.
-Germans invaded Belgium -Serbia was allied with Belgium -Serbia had to protect their allies
-Austria-Hungary was allied with Germany -Russia was allied with Serbia
-Britian declared war because of German refusal to withdraw from Belgium -Britian allied Belgium -Needed to protect their ally -Germany invaded Belgium to get to France quickly
-No dispute with France but still declared war because it was Russia's ally -Germany wanted to knock France out of the war early then deal with Russia -Alliances caused most of Europe to get involved
-Germany was Austia-Hungary's ally -Russia was Defending Serbia -France got involved because it was Russia's ally
-Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers to form the Triple Alliance with the signing of the August 1914 Turco-German Alliance -Turkey formally entered World War I on Oct. 28 1914 with the bombing of Russian Black Sea ports -Allied Powers declared war on the Ottoman Empire on Nov. 4. -German pressure and early wins for Germany in the war caused the Ottoman involvement on the side of the central powers
-War declared because of the archdukes assassination -Got Germany's support -Serbia had Russia's support
-Started in 1914 and lasted through much of the war -Considered one of the key element of victory for the Allies -Stopped the supply of raw materials and food to Germany -Lasted even after the Armistice of Nov. 11
-Both he and his wife were killed -Spark that started WWI -All assassins were caught
-Born Dec. 28, 1856
-Beat Howard Taft and Theodore Roosevelt for presidency
-April 2, 1917 Wilson asks Cogress to declare war on Germany
-April 6, 1917 war is declared
-Born June 3, 1865
-From 1914 to 1918 Britain was at war with Germany
-On 17 July 1917, George pleased British nationalist feelings by issuing an Order-in-Council that changed the name of the British Royal House from the German-sounding House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to the House of Windsor
-Born Jan. 27, 1859
-German foreign policy under Wilhelm II was faced with a number of problems
-Kaiser encouraged attacks by Germans on Chinese civilians