A visual presentation of the effects of terrorism on tourism across the globe and exploring the concept of tourists as targets
Created by YangAndGustavo on 13/08/2011
Last updated: 18/08/11 at 18:14
Tags: Travel Tourism Terrorism
The regular UNWTO World Tourism Barometer publication forecasts growth in the global tourist sector with the exception of North Africa and the middle east
Cafe popular with tourists targeted in bomb attack in Marrakech killing at least 15 and injuring 20
"Since the attacks of September 11, 2001, tourist travel to the United States has been 20% lower than previously, and Americans' outbound tourist travel has been down about 14%, economist Alan King of the University of Otago in New Zealand reports on the basis of a study of travel payments and receipts. Other studies that have shown just a transitory effect on tourism don't take into account the dollar's depreciation after the attacks, King says."
Marnie Hunter of CNN reports "Most of the tourist bookings for February have been canceled" and downturn in tourism likely to deepen Egypt's economic problems
56 year old Italian woman on a tourist trip to the Sahara desert in Algeria has been kidnapped along with her guide and cook by al Qaeda insurgents
In response to public complaints and criticism of scanning technology that generates near-naked images of Travelers the TSA announces trials of new generic representation of passengers as they are scanned
Media reports of growing Traveler and airline resentment of TSA security measures including invasive pat downs and full body scans
8 Hong Kong Tourists die when lone gunman hijacks their tour bus in Manila, Philippines
23 year old Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, charged with trying to blow up a transatlantic jet on Christmas Day with explosives sewn into his underwear
8 men attempt to hijack a tourist plane as it landed in Mexico City on a flight from the tourist resort city Cancun. Police storm plane and release US, French and Mexican hostages unharmed
Bllomberg reports: "The killing of a French teenager and the wounding of 24 people in a Cairo bombing, the first such fatal attack on foreign visitors to the capital in almost four years, put more strain on Egypt’s ailing tourism industry."
Goes on to state Egypt's tourist industry in decline:
"EFG-Hermes, the biggest publicly traded Arab investment bank, said on Feb. 16 that Egypt’s revenue from tourism was expected to fall 15 percent this year.
The number of tourists is expected to decline 18 percent to 10.1 million in 2009, Cairo-based CI Capital Research said today in a report prepared before last night’s bombing. "
Bomb kills a French tourist and wounds at least 20 other people near a popular tourist bazaar
1 Briton, 2 Swiss and 1 German kidnapped on the Mali Niger border after returning from a cultural festival
Attacks by 10 gunmen on the The Cafe Leopold restaurant, the Taj Mahal Palace hotel and the Oberoi-Trident Hotel plus other major landmarks, fighting takes place for 3 days killing 164 people and wounding at least 308
5 Italian tourists, 5 Germans, 1 Romanian and their 4 Egyptian guides kidnapped while on Safari in Egypt's western desert. 10 days later the hostages are freed by troops 6 kidnappers were killed in that fight, and 2 captured
10 Australian Travel Agents held hostage on tour bus by man claiming to have a bomb strapped to his body. He is later shot by a police sniper and hostages are freed unharmed
A bomb exploded near the Maldives main mosque a popular tourist sight. 12 tourists were injured including two Japanese and eight Chinese as well as two Britons.
SwissInfo reports "International tourism experts meeting in Switzerland say natural disasters or terrorist attacks have not affected growth in an industry where competition is fiercer than ever."
Experts are quoted:
"Swiss professor Thomas Bieger of St Gallen University said travellers were becoming immune to such shocks. There was only a slight drop in bookings for Sharm el-Sheik after the attack on the seaside resort earlier this year, but it took the Egyptian tourist industry 12 months to fully recover from the 1997 massacre of tourists, including more than 30 Swiss, in Luxor."
Statistics published by the World Tourism Organization show that people in the industrialised world and increasingly in emerging markets like India are quite simply no longer willing to forego their holidays abroad.
Three suicide bombers attacked Bali restaurants in Kuta and Jimbaran Beach Resort, killing themselves and 20 others including four Australians
Daily international visitor arrivals drop in the days after the attacks
A Car Bomb exploded in the Market Bazaar of the resort town of Sharm el-Sheikh, another in the lobby of the Ghazala Gardens Hotel and a suitcase bomb exploded outside the Moevenpick Hotel, killing six tourists. In total 88 die and over 200 are injured
Primarily aimed at London commuters, bombers target 3 underground trains and 1 bus in London killing 52 and injuring 700
Days later Jean Charles de Menezes a Brazilian man is mistaken for a fugitive bomber and shot repeatedly in the head by police
Gurtner notes resilience of locals and return to 80% occupancy levels 18 months after the bombing
34 killed and more than 100 injured in bomb attacks on tourist resorts on Egypt's Sinai Peninsula including the Taba Hilton hotel a restaurant and camping grounds
Vogel noted many Balinese who relied on tourists for their livelihoods returned to their villages when tourist numbers dropped after the bombing
Attack planned when trains are full as millions of Spanish families set off on their Easter holidays. Following the earlier Madrtid train bombing that claimed 191 people
191 people killed and 1,800 wounded by a number of bombs timed to cause maximum devastation among commuters in Madrid.
Car bomb outside JW Marriott Hotel kills 12, injures 150 including 2 Chinese Tourists, 1 Dutch and 1 Danish Businessmen
Perpetrated by Jemaah Islamiyah
Jakarta stock-market index falls 3.1 percent after the attack.
Indonesian currency, the rupiah, lost 2 percent.
Australian Government issued a warning for its citizens to avoid all international hotels in Jakarta
2 suicide bombers target popular tourist destinations in Kuta, Bali killing 202 and wounding 209. Among the dead:
Australia 88, Indonesia 38, United Kingdom 24, United States 7, Germany 6, Sweden 5, Netherlands 4, France 4, Denmark 3, New Zealand 3, Switzerland 3, Brazil 2, Canada 2, Japan 2, South Africa 2, South Korea 2, Ecuador 1, Greece 1, Ireland 1, Italy 1, Poland 1, Portugal 1, Taiwan 1, Unknown 2
"Most tourism indicators declined in relative terms immediately following the twin crises of the terrorist attacks and Ansett's demise. In recent periods, however, most of the series presented in this article have shown signs of recovery.
Takings and occupancy in most types of tourist accommodation fell after the events of September 2001. Temporary falls were also evident in the retail turnover series for Hospitality and services. The number of overseas arrivals to Australia decreased before beginning to show signs of recovery. The Consumer Price Index for Holiday travel and accommodation recorded an increase in prices relating to tourism.
Most businesses expected profit to decline in the aftermath of September 2001. In particular, the short-term outlook for the March quarter 2002 compared to the previous quarter reflected the pessimism of some Australian businesses. However, when last surveyed, the medium-term expectations of two of the three industry categories presented had improved."
On board American Airlines Flight 63 Richard Reid is stopped while trying to ignite explosives hidden in his shoe. He later pleads guilty to terrorism charges and admits to links with Al Qaeda.
"The month of October 2001 probably saw the low point in demand for travel and tourism following the terrorist attacks, but
it is now becoming clearer that the impact of those events, exacerbated by recession and economic weakness, will be more profound and will last longer than many had initially hoped."
In response to 9/11 the Australian Federal Police set up a unit of Air Security Officers "responsible for the containment or resolution of high-risk security incidents on domestic and international flights"
4 coordinated suicide attacks by al-Qaeda upon the United States crashing hijacked commercial passenger jet airliners into the World Trade Centre and the Pentagon
Nearly 3,000 victims and the 19 hijackers died in the attacks. 1 plane did not reach it's target crashing into a field in Pennsylvania.
Ugandan rebels target American and British nationals. 8 tourists were killed by the kidnappers
Although probably not a primary target tourists including day trippers and 2 Spaniards among the 29 killed by a car bomb attack carried out by the Real Irish Republican Army in Omargh, Northern Ireland
"BBC correspondent in Cairo, Barbara Plett, said she believed that it would be quite difficult to persuade visitors that Egypt was a safe tourist destination.
In recent years, the Egyptian government has successfully played down attacks on tourists, capitalising instead on Egypt's lure as an exotic destination"
The report goes on to say:
"The most serious downturn in Egypt's tourist industry took place following a wave of attacks against foreign visitors in 1992 and 1993. Hotels emptied and stayed that way until tourists returned last year in record numbers - 3.1 million according to government statistics. "
6 members of Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya armed with guns and knives massacred 62 people at the famous tourist attraction including 58 tourists
3 gunmen attack tourist buses killing 9 including 6 German tourists
17 Greek tourists and an Egyptian tour guide were killed and 15 injured when the gunmen opened fire on them outside the Europa Hotel in Cairo
2 Australians, 2 Germans & 2 New Zealanders were injured in an explosion aboard a train after it left the station at Assiut, one of the centers of the Muslim militant group al-Gama'a al-Islamiya.
A bomb placed in a busy coffee shop in central Cairo kills 1 Turk, 1 Swede and 2 Egyptians and wounds 15 other patrons.
LA Times labelled attacks as "fundamentalists' war on foreign tourism"
5 German tourists together with Egyptians were wounded when their bus was attacked by gunmen in the town of Qena.
Militants ambushed a tourist bus near Dayrut, killing a British woman & injuring two British men
Gama'aal-Islamiya (Islamic Group) gunmen fire upon a Nile cruiser carrying 140 Germans near Assiut, injuring three Egyptian crew.
243 passengers and 16 crew and 11 people on the ground killed when a bomb planted by Libyan Abdelbaset al-Megrahi explodes on board Pan Am flight 103