Recent Event Highlights: World War II, World War I and Interwar Period, The Civil War/Reconstruction, Pre-Civil War, and 11 more...
Created by ahyken on Aug 28, 2009
Last updated: 10/05/09 at 08:25 AM
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Presidents: Richard Nixon: 1969-1974 Gerald Ford: 1974-1977 Jimmy Carter: 1977-1981 Ronald Reagan: 1981-1989 George H Bush: 1989-1993 1970: Kent State and Jackson State Shootings 1971: Pentagon Papers Printed 1971: 26th Amendment (Lowers Voting Age to 18) 1972-1974: Watergate June 1972: Burglars caught at DNC offices at Watergate Hotel May 1973: Senate committee opens hearing on Watergate Affair October 1973: VP Agnew resigns; "Saturday Night Massacre" August 1974: Richard Nixon resigns from Office 1973: US Ends Direct Intervention in Vietnam 1979: Three Mile Island Nuclear Accident 1979-1981: Iranian Hostage Crisis 1980: Russian-U.S. hockey game; U.S. wins 1983: SDI ("Star Wars") Missile Defense System Proposed 1985: Iran-Contra Affair 1990: Berliners Tear Down Berlin Wall Throughout the 1970's the American citizens continue their distrust in Democracy. The combination of police shootings, papers leaking, the President lying, and 60 Americans getting taken hostage continues the anxiety that the American people feel. However, the Cold War comes to an end in 1991, and this puts trust back into the democratic government because the people now feel pride in their country. Democracy at the end of the 20th Century was marked by an unlikely combination of distrust and pride. "Richard Nixon." 9 August 1974. Online Image. Flickr. 3 October 2009. http://www.flickr.com/photos/35341519@N02/3275406112/.
John F Kennedy: 1961-1963 Lyndon Johnson: 1963-1969 1960: The "Sit-In" Movement Begins in order to protest segregation 1960: Birth Control approved 1960: First televised debate 1960: Creation of Young Americans for Freedom 1960: Counter Culture Created 1961: Peace Corps Created 1961: Freedom Riders leave Washington D.C. 1962: Cuban Missile Crisis 1963: "I Have A Dream" Speech 1963: President Kennedy Assassinated 1964: 24th Amendment Ratified 1964: Civil Rights Act of 1964 1964: Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 1965: Voting Rights Act of 1965 1965: Malcolm X Assassinated 1966: Creation of Black Panthers 1967: Thurgood Marshall is the first African American on the Supreme Court 1968: MLK Assassinated 1969: First Man to Walk on the Moon: Neil Armstrong Democracy is greatly effected in the 1960's by many aspects of the time period. People truly take advantage of their freedom of speech during this time period as the blacks, women, Mexican-Americans, Native Americans, and environmentalists fight for their rights. A completely undemocratic act is committed during this time period, and John Kennedy is assassinated, creating a sense of distrust and fear among the population. Citizens are frustrated by the Vietnam War, and are using their rights to protest; however, the government is fighting their own citizens with force. During this time period, while taking advantage of the 1st Amendment, the people have a fear and distrust in the American democracy, creating the counter culture. Wolfe, Frank. "Vietnam War Protest in Washington D.C." 21 October 1967. Online Image. Flickr. 3 October 2009. http://www.flickr.com/photos/39735679@N00/272804879/
Harry Truman: 1945-1953 Dwight Eisenhower: 1953-1961 1945: Hitler commits suicide 1945: V-E Day in Europe 1945: US drops 2 atomic bombs on Japan 1945: V-J Day 1945: Start of Nuremburg Trials 1946: Iron Curtain across Europe 1946: UN meets for the first time 1946: Start of the baby boom generation 1946: Soviet Union rejects US proposal for an international agency to control nuclear energy production and research 1947: Truman Doctrine created 1947: Jackie Robinson becomes first African-American baseball player 1947: Containment policy 1947: Countries meet to determine fate of Germany 1948: Congress organizes Marshall Plan 1948: Berlin Blockade and Airlift 1949: US joins NATO 1949: Chinese Communist Revolution 1949: Soviets obtain Atomic Bomb 1950: Start of Korean War 1950: McCarthyism idea created 1950: Rosenberg's convicted of treason and executed 1950: US crosses 38th parallel into North Korea 1951: 22nd Amendment created (2 terms for each president) 1951: US detonates Hydrogen Bomb 1953: Korean War ends 1954: Brown vs. Board of Education 1954: Segregation is deemed illegal 1954: McCarthy is condemned/censored Senate 1955: Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat on a bus 1955: Emmit Till killed 1956: Montgomery Bus Boycott 1957: Start of the space race 1957: Little Rock 9 1958: Congress passes National Defense Education Act 1959: Fidel Castro marches into Havana 1959: Alaska and Hawaii become states 1959: Attempt to deal with Kitchen Debate 1960: John Kennedy wins Presidential Election 1960: First televised debate As the United States grew as the world's biggest super power externally, it contained many conflicts internally. Although the African Americans technically had a right to vote, segregation and discrimination still continued, and during the 1950's African Americans pushed harder than they had before to gain their natural rights. A new kind of youth grew from the era, threatening their parents' ideals of the American citizen. Throughout the Post-War Period, because the United States citizens were changing, democracy was changing as well. "Berlin Wall." Online Image. Mississippi State University. 3 October 2009. http://guides.library.msstate.edu/Berlin_Wall.
Franklin Roosevelt: 1933-1945 1941: Lend Lease Act 1941: President Roosevelt freezes trade to Axis Powers 1941: Pearl Harbor 1942: Bataan Death March 1942: Battle of Midway 1943: Racial Riot in Detroit 1944: D-Day 1944: GI Bill of Rights 1945: Hitler commits suicide 1945: V-E Day 1945: US drops atomic bombs on Japan 1945: V-J Day 1945: Start of Nuremburg Trials "Nagasaki." Online Image. Mississippi Public Broadcasting. 3 October 2009. http://www.etv.state.ms.us/about_us/pr-contribute/071002-WWII_Writers.htm.
Presidents: Woodrow Wilson: 1913-1921 Warren Harding: 1921-1923 Calvin Coolidge: 1923-1929 Herbert Hoover: 1929-1933 Franklin Roosevelt: 1933-1945 1917: U.S. intervenes in WWI 1917: Bolshevik Revolution 1917: Espionage Act 1917: The Red Scare begins 1917: Zimmerman Note intersected by U.S. 1918: Woodrow Wilson's 14 Points Plan 1918: Sedition Act 1919: Bolsheviks proclaim goal of worldwide communism 1919: Schenck vs. U.S. 1919: Versailles Peace Treaty 1920: 19th Amendment, Women allowed to vote 1920: Prohibition 1920: Suspected Reds in Chicago 1920: Election of 1920 1926: Revenue Act 1929: Black Tuesday 1929: Stock Market Crash 1929: Industrial production decline by 50% 1932: Election of 1932 1933: Employment raised 25% 1933: FDIC created 1933: Agricultural Adjustment Act 1935: Wagner Act 1935: Works Progress Administration 1935: Social Security Act 1938: Fail Labor Standards Act Because of World War One, the United States became the world's major world power. Although people were no longer trying to make the U.S. conservative, they continued reforming America by creating the modern consumer society. Even though the government claimed the Americans were united under the goal of defeating Communism, the trust in the government was very limited considering the fact that the government limited the right to freedom of speech because of the Communistic threat and WWI. On the other hand, throughout the Great Depression, people became more reliant on the government, and the government was working directly for the people, supporting democratic ideals. "Pictures of Soldiers Fixing a Trench." Online Image. About.com. 3 October 2009. http://history1900s.about.com/library/photos/blywwi15.htm.
Presidents: William Harrison: 1889-1893 Grover Cleveland: 1893-1897 William McKinley: 1897-1901 Theodore Roosevelt: 1901-1909 William Taft: 1909-1913 Woodrow Wilson: 1913-1920 1890: Congress passes the Sherman Anti-Trust Act 1890: Mississippi Plan is created 1892: Ellis Island opens to screen immigrants 1901: American Socialist Party 1903: First successful flight by a powered aircraft 1904: Roosevelt announces the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine 1906: San Francisco Earthquake 1906: Pure Food and Drug Act 1906: Anti-black Riot in Atlanta 1908: Anti-black riots in Springfield, IL 1909: First explorer reaches North Pole 1909: NAACP forms 1910: The Mann Elkins Act created 1912: Titanic sinks 1913: 16th Amendment: Income tax 1913: 17th Amendment: Direct Election of Senators 1913: Henry Ford introduces the assembly line 1914: Harrison Act 1914: Panama Canal Opens 1914: The Federal Trade Commission 1916: Zimmerman telegram 1917: Espionage Act 1918: creation of Sedition Act 1919: 18th Amendment: Prohibition 1920: 19th Amendment: Women's Suffrage Democracy evolved greatly during the Progressivism Era. The election process was made more democratic as the polls were opened up to African Americans and women. The government became more "for the people;" for example, the government regulated businesses, gained control in federal banks, addressed health issues, improved working conditions, issued minimum wages, restricted child labor and more. By helping the people, the American citizens came to trust and rely on the government more, and that is what democracy is supposed to be about. "Downtown Atlanta, 1906." Online Image. News VOA. 3 October 2009. http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2006-09/2006-09-21-voa46.cfm?moddate=2006-09-21.
Presidents: Rutherford Hayes: 1877-1881 James Garfield: 1881-1881 Chester Arthur: 1881-1885 Grover Cleveland: 1885-1889 1872: The Compstock Act 1874: The Women's Temperance Union 1877: Official end of Reconstruction 1877: Utah becomes first state to prevent the sale of drugs for non-medical purposes 1880: "Blue Laws" in Massachusetts 1881: Assassination of James Garfield 1882: Chinese Exclusion Act 1883: Pendleton Act 1884: Civil Service Exam necessary in New York 1884: Presidential Campaign 1885: Massachusetts becomes second state to adopt civil service exam 1886: Statue of Liberty 1886: American Federation of Labor is founded; membership restricted to craftsmen 1887: Interstate Commerce Act 1887: The Dawes Severalty Act The Gilded Age was a period in U.S. history when democracy seemed to be growing, but was also somewhat corrupt underneath it all. During this period, the modern industrial economy was created, a national transportation and communication system was set up, and businesses were changed. On the other hand, laws were being made to keep the country more conservative. Even though there were laws against it, discrimination and segregation continued. However, acts were passed during this time in order to try and fix the corruption of the government. Although there were faults during this time period, the corruption helped teach the Americans what was needed in a democratic society. "Statue of Liberty 2009." Online Image. Flickr. 3 October 2009. http://www.flickr.com/photos/scottdunn/3684773387/.
Presidents: Abraham Lincoln: 1861-1865 Andrew Johnson: 1865-1869 Ulysses Grant: 1869-1877 1860: Election of 1860 1860: 7 states secede the Union 1861: First shots of Civil War fired 1863: Emancipation Proclamation 1863: Gettysburg 1863: The Ten Percent Plan 1864: The Wade-Davis Bill 1865: Surrender of Southern Forces 1865: Lincoln's Assassination 1865: The Freedman Davis Bureau 1865: Black Codes 1865: 13th Amendment Ratified; abolishes slavery 1865: 14th Amendment Ratified; equality under the law 1866: Congressional Reconstruction 1866: The Civil Rights Act of 1866 1868: Impeachment of Andrew Johnson 1868: U.S. Grant Won Election 1870: 15th Amendment Ratified; voting to all men no matter the race 1873: Financial Panic 1875: Charles Sumner’s Civil Rights Bill passed 1877: Compromise of 1877 Throughout the Civil War, the United States' democracy was threatened. Until 1860, a new kind of government was developing and forming, but one conflict was preventing the complete success of the republic. This issue was slavery. Slavery tore apart the United States, creating the Union and the Confederates. However, democracy grew during this time period because at the end of the war, the Union and the Confederates joined again. They compromised in order to remain a whole country. Compromising is a key component of democracy, and these arrangements helped to develop a more united and better United States. "Civil War Soldiers." Online Image. Alice's Restaurant. 3 October 2009. http://alicesrestaurantblog.com/?m=200905.
Presidents: William Henry Harrison: 1841 John Tyler: 1841-1845 James Polk: 1845-1849 Zachary Taylor: 1849-1850 Willard Fillmore: 1850-1853 Franklin Pierce: 1853-1957 James Buchanan: 1857-1861 1845: Texas admitted to Union as slave state 1846-1848: Mexican-American War 1846: Wimont Proviso 1848: Seneca Falls Convention 1848: Election 1850: Compromise of 1850 1850: Fugitive Slave Laws 1852: Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1854: Kansas-Nebraska Act 1855-1856: Bleeding Kansas 1857: Dred Scott v. Sanford 1859: John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry 1860: Abraham Lincoln elected 16th POTUS Throughout the pre-civil war time period, the United States was threatened by slavery. However, although the country was constantly being questioned, democracy was growing because of the attempts to compromise. The American democracy is based off the fact that people must remain lawful and have the right to maintain control over the government. However, if the people are split into two groups, it is very difficult to maintain this government. Therefore, democracy grew by the ability to compromise and try and make an agreement where the government would work for everyone making everyone able to be lawful. "Compromise of 1850 and Popular Sovereignty Map." Online Image. Thomaslegion. 3 October 2009. http://thomaslegion.net/thecompromiseof1850andpopularsovereigntymap.html.
Presidents: John Quincy Adams 1824-1828 Andrew Jackson 1828-1837 Martin Van Buren 1837-1841 1820: Creation of Land Act 1820: Missouri Compromise 1824: Election of 1824, Adams wins due to a "corrupt bargain" 1828: Jackson wins election During the Jacksonian Era, more democratic rights were given to the people. In order to encourage political participation a more direct voting system was put in place where many poll qualifications were eliminated, making it possible for nearly 80% of white males to vote and voting by voice was eliminated. Also, the judiciary branch started to become stronger and the people started to trust it more. Throughout the Jacksonian Era, Americans were able to put more trust in their government. Thomas Sully. "Andrew Jackson." Online Image. U.S. Senate: Art and History. 3 October 2009. http://126.96.36.199/artandhistory/art/common/image/Painting_32_00018.htm.
Presidents: Thomas Jefferson 1801-1809 James Madison 1809-1817 James Monroe 1817-1825 John Quincy Adams 1825-1829 1800: Election of Thomas Jefferson 1803: Marbury v. Madison (Judicial Review); Supreme Court listened and judged, set a precedent for how the Supreme court was run 1803: France and Britain go to war again 1803: Louisiana Purchase given to U.S. 1804: Twelfth Amendment ratified, electoral college 1804-1806: Lewis and Clark 1808: Prohibition of the African slave trade 1810: Spain gives up Florida 1811: Slave insurrection in Louisiana 1812: War of 1812; U.S. vs. British 1814: The Star Spangled Banner was created 1820: Missouri Compromise; made many Southerners concerned 1823: Monroe Doctrine 1828: Jackson wins Presidential election Throughout the Jeffersonian Era, democracy continued to grow. One major step was the fact that for the first time in modern history, there was a transfer in power from one political party to another that did not result in bloodshed; this was proof that the democratic system was working. Also, the United States expanded their land and won a second war of independence with the British. The Jeffersonian Era represented a strengthening of democracy because more land was able to be given to the people and people were able to accept a multi-party government. "Thomas Jefferson." Online Image. Beacon Press. 3 October 2009. http://www.harvardsquarelibrary.org/beacon/?page=11.
Presidents: George Washington: 1789-1797 John Adams: 1797-1801 1789: Bill of Rights 1792: Emergence of Democratic Republicans 1793: Jefferson resigns from his position in Washington's cabinet 1796: Election, Adams wins 1798: Naturalization Act 1798: Alien Act 1798: Sedition Act 1798-1800: Quasi War 1799: Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions 1800: Election of 1800 (Jefferson v. Adams) In the early years of the United States, the government was very shaky and needed more support. In order to build the strength of the new country, the Bill of Rights was created. These ten amendments to the constitution supported the democratic ideals of freedom of expression, to peaceful assembly, to petition the government, and to a free trial by jury. As the years wore on and elections of the president continued, political parties came about, creating a political system similar to how we see it today. The first time a true election was held, Congress had to figure out what was missing from the Constitution, so the electoral voting system was instated. Over the course of these eleven years, democratic ideals emerged in the society that created a basis for how our democracy is run today. Stuart Gilbert. "George Washington." 1795. Online Image. Flickr. 3 October 2009. http://www.flickr.com/photos/wallyg/2227423560/.
Presidents: George Washington: 1789-1797 1781: Articles of Confederation ratified 1783: Peace Treaty with Britain By 1786, escalating debate between Federalists, who believed the Articles to be too deficient and that a stronger national government was necessary, and the Anti-Federalists, who feared dangers posed to individual liberties by consolidated power 1787: US Constitution written at Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia 1788: US Constitution ratified by 9 states and becomes a law 1789 George Washington elected first President of the USA and First Congress met in New York, NY (then the nation’s capital) As the Constitution was created, put into effect, and acknowledged, democracy became real for the United States. To Americans, democracy meant breaking away from the confines of monarchal society. With a new set of rules to abide by, the people now held the power and were able to have a say in the government. The creation of the Constitution was almost like the true birth of democracy because it meant that Americans were actually going to strive to build this type of society. Small, Scott. Class notes. September 8, 2009. "The Constitution of the United States of America." Online Image. PatriotPost.US. 3 October 2009. http://188.8.131.52/histdocs/constitution/img.asp.
There were no presidents during this time period. 1754: French and Indian War 1765-1766: The Stamp Act 1766: The Stamp Act Congress 1770: Boston Massacre 1772: Committee of Correspondence 1773: Tea Act and Boston Tea Party 1774: Coercive Act 1774: First Continental Congress 1775: Lexington and Concord 1776: Declaration of Independence 1783: Final Treaty of Peace During the Revolutionary War, democracy greatly evolved due to the changes in society. At the time, the colonists were most likely not thinking about the fact that they were forming a democracy; however, because of their differences from England, they needed a different kind of government. Because the Americans felt that their rights were being infringed on by the British, they made it a point not to violate anyone's rights in America. Therefore, a democracy slowly developed in a cause and effect manner. Coming together to voice their opinions in the First Continental Congress and, while not ready to rebel quite yet, speaking out against the British were two things that contributed to an early form of republicanism and democracy. Throughout the Revolutionary War, as the Americans break away from the British, democratic and republican values started to build. "The Revolutionary War." Online Image. Schoolnotes. 3 October 2009. http://new.schoolnotes.com/xpages/view/9624.