Taylor Ciciura Sam Shawver Aireal Green Period 10
Created by airealsamtaylor on Feb 18, 2011
Last updated: 02/18/11 at 09:48 AM
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Bush and Russian President Boris Yeltsin met at Camp David to discuss U.S.-Russian relations and officially declare the end of the Cold War.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union was a process of systematic disintegration, which occurs in economy, social structure and political structure. It resulted in abolition of Soviet Federal Government and independence of USSR's republic on 26 December 1991. The process was caused by weakening of the Soviet government, which led to disentegration and took place from about 19 January 1990 to 31 December 1991. The process was characterized by many of the republics of the Soviet Union declaring their independence and being recognized as sovereign nation-states.
The Berlin Wall was torn down 3 decades after it was built. The date on which the Wall fell is considered to have been 9 November 1989 but the Wall in its entirety was not torn down immediately. Starting that evening and in the days and weeks that followed, people came to the wall with sledgehammers or otherwise hammers and chisels to chip off souvenirs, demolishing lengthy parts of it in the process and creating several unofficial border crossings. These people were nicknamed "Mauerspechte" (wall woodpeckers).
The square was the center of the 4 June 1989 protests, where soldiers opened fire on protesters, killing 400–800, and perhaps many more. The protests were sparked by the death of former CPC General Secretary Hu Yaobang, a Party official known for tolerating dissent, and whom protesters had wanted to mourn. Led mainly by students and intellectuals, the protests occurred in a year that saw the collapse of a number of communist governments around the world.
A Cold War Military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from November 1, 1955 to the fall of Saigon on April 30, 1975. The U.S. government viewed involvement in the war as a way to prevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam and part of their wider strategy of containment. The North Vietnamese government viewed the war as a colonial war, fought initially against France, backed by the U.S., and later against South Vietnam, which it regarded as a U.S. puppet state. Estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from less than one million to more than three million. Some 200,000–300,000 Cambodians, 20,000–200,000 Laotians, and 58,159 U.S. servicemembers also died in the conflict.
Apollo 11 is the designation of the space flight that landed the first humans on Earth's Moon. Launched from Florida on July 16, the third lunar mission of NASA's Apollo program was crewed by Commander Neil Alden Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin Eugene "Buzz" Aldrin, Jr. On July 20, Armstrong and Aldrin landed in the Sea of Tranquility and on July 21 became the first humans to walk on the Moon. Their landing craft, Eagle, spent 21 hours and 31 minutes on the lunar surface while Collins orbited above in the command ship, Columbia.
John F. Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald at 12:30 p.m. on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dealey Plaza, Dallas, Texas. Kennedy was fatally shot while riding with his wife Jacqueline in a Presidential motorcade. Vice-President Johnson (who had been riding two cars behind Kennedy in the motorcade through Dallas and was not injured) became President of the United States upon Kennedy's death. At 2:38 p.m. Johnson took the oath of office on board Air Force One just before it departed from Love Field.
A confrontation among the Soviet Union, Cuba and the United States in October 1962, during the Cold War. In September 1962, after some unsuccessful operations by the U.S. to overthrow the Cuban regime, the Cuban and Soviet governments began to surreptitiously build bases in Cuba for a number of medium-range and intermediate-range ballistic nuclear missiles with the ability to strike most of the continental United States. The quarantine was formally ENDED at 6:45 pm on November 20, 1962.
A barrier constructed by the German Democratic Republic starting on 13 August 1961, that completely cut off West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and from East Berlin. The barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls, which circumscribed a wide area (later known as the "death strip") that contained anti-vehicle trenches, and other defenses.
The Bay of Pigs Invasion was an unsuccessful action by a CIA-trained force of Cuban exiles to invade southern Cuba, with support and encouragement from the US government, in an attempt to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro. The Cuban armed forces, trained and equipped by Eastern Bloc nations, defeated the invading combatants within three days.
The United States U-2 spy plane was shot down over Soviet Union airspace. The United States government at first denied the plane's purpose and mission, but then was forced to admit its role as a covert surveillance aircraft when the Soviet government produced its remains, which were largely in tact, and surviving pilot, Francis Gary Powers. Coming just over two weeks before the scheduled opening of an East–West summit in Paris, the incident was a great embarrassment to the United States.
As the primary leader of the Cuban Revolution, Castro served as the Prime Minister of Cuba from February 1959 to December 1976, and then as the President of the Council of State of Cuba and the President of Council of Ministers of Cuba until his resignation from the office in February 2008. In 1965 he became First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba, and led the transformation of Cuba into a one-party socialist republic. In 1976 he became President of the Council of State as well as of the Council of Ministers. He also held the supreme military rank of Commander in Chief of the Cuban armed forces.
It was launched into an elliptical low Earth orbit by the Soviet Union on 4 October 1957, and was the first in a series of satellites collectively known as the Sputnik program. Apart from its value as a technological first, Sputnik also helped to identify the upper atmospheric layer's density, through measuring the satellite's orbital changes. It also provided data on radio-signal distribution in the ionosphere. If a meteoroid penetrated the satellite's outer hull, it would be detected by the temperature data sent back to Earth. The satellite travelled at 18,000 miles per hour, taking 96.2 minutes to complete an orbit, and emitted radio signals at 20.005 and 40.002 MHz which were monitored by amateur radio operators throughout the world. The signals continued for 22 days until the transmitter batteries ran out on 26 October 1957.
The treaty was a mutual defense treaty subscribed to by eight communist states in Eastern Europe. The Warsaw Pact’s organization was two-fold: the Political Consultative Committee handled political matters, and the Combined Command of Pact Armed Forces controlled the assigned multi-national forces, with headquarters in Warsaw, Poland.
Julius and Ethel Rosenburg (American Communists) were convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage on March 29, 1951. They were selling secret documents containing atomic information to the Soviet Union. This was the first execution of civilians for espionage in United States history.
A military conflict between the Republic of Korea (supported by the United Nations) and the Democratics People's Republic of Korea (supported by the Peoples Republic of China). The war was a result of the physical division of Korea by an agreement of the victorious allies at the conclusions of the Pacific War at the end of World War 2.
During the McCarthy era, thousands of Americans were accused of being Communists or communist sympathizers and became the subject of aggressive investigations and questioning before government or private-industry panels, committees and agencies. McCarthyism was a widespread social and cultural phenomenon that affected all levels of society and was the source of a great deal of debate and conflict in the United States.
An intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic treaty. The headquaters are in Brussels, Belgium. All members, upon signing into the NATO, agree mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party. The organizations first goal was "to keep the Russians out, the Americans in, and the Germans down" -Lord Ismay, the first NATO Secratary General.
Western Berlin Allies organized the Berlin Airlift to carry supplies to the people in West Berlin. The United Kingdom's Royal Air Force and the United States Air Force flew over 200,000 flights in one year, providing up to 4700 tons of daily necessities such as fuel and food to the people of West Berlin.
The Marshall Plan was a large scale economic program of the United States for rebuilding and creating a stronger foundation for the countries of Europe. The plan was in operation for 4 years. During the 4 years about $13 Billion in economic and technical assistance was given to help the recovery of the European Countries that had joined the "Organization for European Economic Co-operation." The Marshall Plan was officially called the "European Recovery Program".
A policy set by president Harry Truman saying that the United States Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent them from falling into the Soviet sphere. 'Truman stated the Doctrine would be "the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures."'
"From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an "iron curtain" has descended across the Continent." -Winston Churchill. The iron curtain symoblized the fighting "boundary" dividing Europe into two seperate areas from the end of WW2 until the end of the Cold War.
The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue. There are currently 192 member states.