Recent Event Highlights: Joan of Arc led the French army into battle at a fort city in Orleans., and 20 more...
Created by allanammar on Dec 5, 2008
Last updated: 03/12/10 at 05:54 AM
In 1468, invited by the people of Timbuktu, Sunni Ali Ber embarked on his military career by invading Timbuktu.Timbuktu fell easily as Akil, the Tuareg chief, fled to Walata. Sunni Ali Ber looted and burned the city and is said to have murdered most of the priests and scholars there. Sunni Ali Ber then headed south and, in 1473, captured Jenne after a siege reputed to have lasted seven years, seven months and seven days. By contrast, Sunni Ali Ber was merciful at Jenne.During his reign, Sunni Ali Ber showed little respect for the Muslim religion. He kept up the outward appearance of a Muslim, primarily for political purposes, as parts of his kingdom practiced the faith. He neither relinquished the traditional Songhai religion, or did he recognize Islam as the state religion. Sunni Ali Ber was a great leader,he conquered alot of land and expanded the Songhai empire.
The Wars of The Roses were civil wars that broke out in England between the house of York and the house of Lancaster, with the families fighting over who had the right to the throne,with having Henry VI and Edward IV. The name of the war comes from the two emblems the families own, the white rose of York, and the red rose of Lancaster.the two houses had equally had the throne once, within 15 years of fighting. the York's wanted to annihilate the Lancaster's. this was The Battle of St. Albans.(1455)They killed thousands. but Edward IV had to kill the rest of the eligible men to take the throne in the house of Lancaster. the significance of the beginning of the wars of the roses was the political weakness of Henry VI. He was also becoming mentally ill. This war also weakened the financial power of the crown. The most significant thing in the beginning of the war was the growth of noble powers and local rivalries.
Joan of Arc was also known as "the Maid of Orleans," was a 15th century Catholic Saint, and national heroine of France. A peasant girl born in Eastern France, Joan led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years' War In the 1420's rumors spread among the French that a young woman would save France from the English. So when Joan arrived on the scene she was considered a fulfillment of that prophecy.Joan cut her hair short,wore suit of armor, and carried a sword. Her unusual appearance and extraordinary confidence inspired French troops.Eventually she was given command of troops that broke the siege of Orléans.Joan of Arc guided the French onto the path of victory. On May 7, 1429, Joan led the French army into battle at a fort city in Orléans. In 1430 she was turned over to a church court for trial.The English were determined to prove her as a fake and weaken her image. They condemned her as a witch and a heretic because of her claim to hear voices,Joan was burned at stake on May 30,1431.
The Hundred Years' War brought a change in the style of warfare in Europe. At this time same combatants were still operating under medieval of chivarly.In 1337, most of the English nobility spoke French, although most knew enough English to deal with their subjects.When duke William of Normandy conquered England in 1066, he did so as a French noble. But since duke William had conquered a kingdom, he had become king of England while remaining duke of Normandy.In the 13th century, a particularly able French king (Philip the Strong) took most this land away from the English king.For the first few years of the war there wasn't much happening except English raids into France and Flanders. in the 1340s, England and France took opposite sides in the long-running civil war over who should be the duke of Britanny.The English then rampaged through western France, until a truce was signed in 1354.The truce didn't last. In 1355, the war began again. In 1356 another major battle was fought at Poitiers and the French king was captured. English raids continued until 1360, when another truce was signed.Between 1368 and 1396, the French won back much of what the English had taken by adopting "pillage and raid" tactics.During all this, Edward III died in 1377, the year after his heir, the Black Prince passed away. In 1397, Charles VI of France and Richard II of England agreed to a 30 year truce.The English were still in France, the French still wanted them out, and bands of brigands were rampaging all over the countryside. Civil war was brewing in both England and France.In 1413, Henry V (the great-grandson of Edward III) came to power in England. He defeated the French king Charles VI at Agincourt in 1415 and forced a treaty favorable to the English.In 1421 Henry V was declared the heir to the French throne (Charles VI disinherited his own son, the Dauphin) and Henry married Charles' daughter. The son of this marriage (Henry VI) would be the king of France and England. It looked as though England had finally won. But the disinherited Dauphin continued to resist. Henry V unexpectedly died in August 1422, followed in October by Charles VI, with the nine month old Henry VI not yet ready to receive the two crowns.The long exhausting war finally ended in 1453. Each side experienced major changes. A feeling of nationalism emerged in England and France. New people thougth of the king as a national leader, fighting for the glory of the country, not simply a feudal lord. The power and prestige of the French monarch increased. The english suffered a period of internal turmoil known as the War of the Roses , in which two noble houses fought for the throne. Some historians consider the end of the Hundred Years' War in 1453 as the end of the Middle ages. The twin pillars of the medieval world, religious devotion adn the code of chivarly, both crumbled. The Age of Faith died a slow death. This death was caused by the great schism, the scandalous display of wealth by the church, and the discrediting of the church during the bubonic plagues. The Age of the chivarly did on the battlefeilds of crecy, poitiers, and agincourt.
Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn ِAbdullah Al Lawati Al Tanji Ibn Battuta (Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد ابن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي ابن بطوطة) born February 24, 1304; year of death uncertain, possibly 1368 or 1377) was a Moroccan Berber scholar and jurisprudent from the Malawi Madhhab (a school of Fiqh, or Sunni Islamic law), and at times a Qadi or judge. However, he is best known as a traveler and explorer, whose account documents his travels and excursions over a period of almost thirty years, covering some 73,000 miles (117,000 km). These journeys covered almost the entirety of the known Islamic world and beyond, extending from North Africa, West Africa, Southern Europe and Eastern Europe in the West, to the Middle East, Indian subcontinent, Central Asia, Southeast Asia and China in the East, a distance readily surpassing that of his predecessors and his near-contemporary Marco Polo.
Marco Polo was the most famous European to ever step foot in China during the time he was a Venetian trader. He came to China with his father and uncle on the Silk-Roads. Marco Polo provided a detailed account of the rise of the Mongol and Great Khan's life and empire. Polo served Khan for 17 years and left to Europe in 1292, bringing back his tales of his adventure. Till today Marco Polo's tales of his great adventure and accomplishments is not believed, but he replied that he had told barely half of what he had seen.
Thomas Aquinas was a saint philosopher, his writings focused on questions of faith versus reason and logic.The duties of Thomas Aquinas were to explain "Sentences" and "The Summa Theologica".The "Summa Theologica" was composed at the request of St.Raymond because he desired to have a philosophical exposition and defense of the christian faith, to be used against the Jews and Moors in Spain.The "Summa" models patience and sound also in the "Summa" there are quotes from the writings of forty six philosophers and poets.The "Summa Theologica" was not only a textbook of the study of theology but also a manual piety.
The Jurchen Dynasty was large dynasty that was really powerful. In 1211, Genghis Khan and his army attacked. The Jurchen (Jin) dynasty had a large and effective army but they were hard pressed by both the Mongols and by a border war with the Tangut. They were also under attack by Chinese from south of the Yangzi River, the Southern Song emperor wishing to take advantage of the Jurchen-Mongol conflict to liberate northern China.Genghis Khan (Chinggis Khan) (c.1162-1227), founder of the Mongol empire, the largest continuous land empire in the history of the world, ultimately stretching from Korea to Hungary. He was born in the north-east of the modern Republic of Mongolia, the son of a tribal chieftain who was murdered when Genghis was a child. His early life was a hard one, but he gradually attracted followers by virtue of his increasing reputation as, in effect, a highly successful bandit. Mongolia in Genghis Khan's day was inhabited by a mosaic of nomadic tribes, some speaking Mongolian, others various forms of Turkish. The tribes' principal activities were herding (mainly horses and sheep), hunting, and raiding each other and the Chinese to the south. By a series of judiciously chosen marriage and other alliances with tribal rulers more powerful than himself, and by choosing the right moment to rid himself of such allies, as well as by military means, Genghis was able by 1206 to unify the tribes of Mongolia under his rule. This process took two-thirds of Genghis's life: only two decades remained in which he could attempt the conquest of the rest of the world.
Sundiata is a national African hero. Because of his victory over the Kingdom of Susu. Sundiata is the founder of the Mali Empire. It was a great economic empire. Sundiata had found this empire after the request of the people of the Susu Empire. Which was originally his fathers Nare Maghan, the ruler of the Kangabas Empire before being taken by Sumanguna Kante. Sundiata ruled the Mali Empire for over 25 years. Building his capital in Niani. Sundiata was a Muslim but allowed his people to practice any religion. After his death his son Uli became King of Mali.
In the 4th crusade, there were many problems and effects.The Venitians, of Venice, later persuaded the crusaders to turn their arms against Constantinople. The crusaders soon captured the city of Constantinople instead of their holy land, Jerusalem.They slaughtered the inhabitants and destroyed monuments, statues, paintings, and manuscripts. Crusaders never declared an eye-witness of the scene.The chief crusaders formed part of the remaining territory into the Latin Empire of Constantinople and was organized in fiefs, after the feudal manner. Many consequences occured in the Fourth Crusade. The knights did not reach the Holy Land but they ended up looting the city of Constantinople which was mentioned in this passage earlier. This crusade failed because the land that the Christians needed at first was remained under muslim control.
In July 4,1187 Saladin wins the Battle of Hattin and takes most of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem.In May,1189 the emperor Frederick the 1st leaves Europe on the 3rd Crusade.In June 10,1190 Federick the 1st drowns in Anatolia,also in July 1190,King Philip of France and King Richard of England set out on the 3rd Crusade.In the winter the French and English make camp in Sicily.In July 12, 1191 Acre surrendered to King Philip,King Richard,and King Guy;King Philip departs the Holy Land for France shorty afterward.In September7,King Richard meets Saladin at the Bttle of Arsuf.IN November-December,Richard's Crusaders march toward Jerusalem but turned back to the Coast.In June 1192,Richard's Crusaders marched again toward Jerusalem but again they turned back.Finally in October 9,1192, King Richard the Lionhoated departs the Holy Land for home.
Saladin was the most famous muslim hero/leader of the 1100s. His family was kurdish and grew up in Syria. As a young boy, he started to work in the service of a syrian ruler, Nur Al-Din. He served as a second to the Commander In Chief of the syrian army in 1169. Saladin also conquered lots of places including Damascus, Aleppo, and Mosul in the northern Iraq. While still in Jerusalem remaining under Saladin's control, The Third Crusade managed to enlarge the coastal area of Palastine. He was best known as the man who took back Jerusalem. During the year, 1193, Saladin died in Damascus after a short illness.
Richard the lion hearted was the son of Henry II, and the King of England from 1157 to 1199.He was born in Oxford, England, but spent most of his life in France He was the first king of the Plantagnet Dynasty, and Eleanor of Aquitaine. He joined Philip II in the crusade to capture the holy land. Leopold V, Duke of Austria had captured Richard I and held him in prison of the Holy Roman Empire, for a ransom. Later, he was released by Henry IV in 1194.
Richard I earned his nickname "lionhearted" by his bravery, and great leadership. Richard the lionhearted was struck by an arrow during a seize of a castle and dies. His brother John became the next King.
When she was 15 she married Louis VII she borne him 2 daughters then she and Louis VII got divorced because there was no heir for the thrown then later she marryed Henry Fitz-Empress, duke of Normandy and borne him three daughters and five sons.Then later on In 1173, Henry's sons rebelled against Henry, and Eleanor supported her sons. Eleanor became more active in the ruling of Aquitaine. Henry II died in 1189 Richard, was Eleanor's favorite son, became king.when Eleanor was 70 she traveled over the Pyrenees to escort Berengaria to Cyprus to marry to her son Richard.When her son John joined forces with the King of France whereas he went aganist his brother on the process Eleanor backed Richard and helped him rule when he was on crusade. In 1199 she went with John's claim to the throne against her grandson Arthur of Brittany. When Eleanor was 80 she helped hold out Geoffrey's army until John could arrive, defeating Arthur and his supporters. John lost Normandy, but .Eleanor of Aquitaine died on April 1, 1204.
The second Crusade launched in 1145. It was announced by Pope Eugene III. The second crusade was for the crusaders to reconquer the cities. After peace in which the muslims and the christians co-existed in a holy land, The Muslims conquered a town of Edessa. Then a new crusade was called by different kind of preachers, like Bernard and Clairvaux. The French and Germans armis under King Louis the 7th and Conradd the 3rd marched into Jerusalem in 1147 and failed to accomplish. But armies straggled home in defeat. The both leaders returned to there countries by 1150 without something happening bad. But then it was shocking in 1187 when Jerusalem fell into the hands of Kurdish warrior and Muslim leader saladin.
The First Crusade played a very important part in Medieval England. The First Crusade was an attempt to re-capture Jerusalem. After the capture of Jerusalem by the Muslims in 1076, any Christian who wanted to pay a pilgrimage to the city faced a very hard time. Muslim soldiers made life very difficult for the Christians and trying to get to Jerusalem was filled with danger for a Christian. This greatly angered all Christians.
One Christian - called Alexius I of Constantinople - feared that his country might also fall to the Muslims as it was very close to the territory captured by the Muslims. Constantinople is in modern day Turkey. Alexius called on the pope - Urban II - to give him help.
The battle at the French city of Tours won by Charles Martel and his Franks stopped the spread of Islam into Western Europe.
The battle pitted Frankish and Burgundian forces under Charles Martel against an army of the Umayyad Caliphate led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Governor-general of al-Andalus. Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi was killed in the battle which created a power vacuum, consequently starting a miniature civil war over the commanding role, weakening the Muslim army. The Franks were victorious, ‘, and Charles subsequently extended his authority in the south.
The battle also helped lay the foundations of the Carolingian Empire and Frankish domination of Europe for the next century.
At the age of 13 arrived at the court of tang taizong to became one of the emperors secondary wives. wu zhao soon rose above rival wives and became the emperess or emperors chief wife. Wu zhao (625 - December 16, 705), personal name Wu Zhao, was the only female emperor in the history of China, founding her own dynasty, the Zhou, and ruling under the name Emperor Shengshen from 690 to 705. Her rise and reign has been criticized harshly by Confucian historians but has been viewed under a different light after the 1950s.
Her family was from Wenshui, part of Bingzhou prefecture (now called Taiyuan in Shanxi province). Wenshui is now a county inside Lüliang prefecture and located 80 km.(50 miles) southwest of Taiyuan. Her father was Wu Shihuo (577-635), a member of a renowned aristocratic family of Shanxi, and an ally of Li Yuan, the founder of the Tang Dynasty, in his conquest of power (Li Yuan was himself from a renowned aristocratic family of Shanxi). Her mother was Lady Yang (579-670), a woman from the Sui imperial family. Wu Zetian was not born in Wenshui, as her father was a high ranking civil servant serving in various posts and locations along his life. The most serious claimant for her birth place is Lizhou prefecture, now the prefecture-level city of Guangyuan, in the north of Sichuan province, some 800 km.(500 miles) southwest of Wenshui, but other places have been proposed, including the capital Chang'an
Hijrah means migration. The Hijrah refers specifically to Muhammad’s flight from Mecca to Medina, which occurred in 622 CE. Muhammad’s teachings were not well received in Mecca, which ironically became the most holy of cities to the religion of Islam.
With his followers, Muhammad fled to Medina, called Yathrib at the time, and the Islamic religion likely owes its survival to the Hijrah. In Medina, the teachings of Muhammad gained a larger, and much more receptive audience. Thus the Hijrah is to many the time at which Islam becomes an established religion.
Al-Hijra, the Islamic New Year, is the first day of the month of Muharram. It marks the Hijra (or Hegira) in 622 CE when the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) moved from Mecca to Medina, and set up the first Islamic state.
The Muslim calendar counts dates from the Hijra, which is why Muslim dates have the suffix A.H. (After Hijra).
It's a low-key event in the Muslim world, celebrated less than the two major festivals of Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha.