Created by allanammar on Dec 5, 2008
Last updated: 07/14/12 at 03:34 PM
Sunni Ali was a coinquering hero. He was one of the extrarodinary rulers, Sunni Ali was a Muslim. Sunni Ali built a vast empire by military conquest. Sunni Alis rule began in 1464 and lasted for about 30 years. Sunni alis military consited of a professional riverboats, and a fleet of war canoes and a mobile force on horseback. Sunni ali expanded the Songhai empire through military uses and aggressive leadership. In 1468 Sunni Ali had a his first major mlitary triumph, his a triumph was capturing the city of Timbuktu. 5 years later he captured Djenne a trade city that had an universty. Djeene fell in 1473 after 7 years of it being surronded by Sunnia Alis military. After counqring Djeene Sunni Ali married Djeenes queen. Sunni Ali died in 1492 by drownding in a river after a victory in a war.
Born at Domremy in Champagne, probably on 6 January, 1412; died at Rouen, 30 May, 1431. The village of Domremy lay upon the confines of territory which recognized the suzerainty of the Duke of Burgundy, but in the protracted conflict between the Armagnacs (the party of Charles VII, King of France), on the one hand, and the Burgundians in alliance with the English, on the other, Domremy had always remained loyal to Charles.
The Hundred Years’ War was a great time in history that led to many changes. This war, which was fought between England and France, was a defining time in history for both these countries. The Hundred Years’ War lasted from about 1337 until about 1453, which was about 116 years. The battles of this war were fought primarily in France and the Low Countries. One of the causes that led to the war is that Charles IV, the last Cepetian King died without a successor. After his death, Edward III, King of England, grandson of Philip IV, claimed the right to the French throne, a title held by Philip VI, the grandson of Philip III. The Hundred Years’ War was launched by Edward III for the throne. Throughout the years, victory between the two countries passed back and forth. At the siege of Orleans, Joan of Arc led the French to victory which led to the French gaining the upper hand. Throughout the next 25 years, the French seen many victories and eventually drove the English out of France except for the port city of Calais. The Hundred Years’ War led to many changes in Europe. One of these changes included the longbow changing warfare in Europe.
Mansa Musa is mostly remembered for his extravagant hajj, or pilgrimage, to Mecca with, according to the Arab historian al-Umari, 100 camel-loads of gold, each weighing 300 lbs.; 500 slaves, each carrying a 4 lb. gold staff; thousands of his subjects; as well as his senior wife, with her 500 attendants. With his lavish spending and generosity in Cairo and Mecca, he ran out of money and had to borrow at usurious rates of interest for the return trip. Al-Umari also states that Mansa Musa and his retinue "gave out so much gold that they depressed its value in Egypt and caused its value to fall."
The hajj planted Mali in men's minds and its riches fired up the imagination as El Dorado did later. In 1339, Mali appeared on a "Map of the World". In 1367, another map of the world showed a road leading from North Africa through the Atlas Mountains into the Western Sudan. In 1375 a third map of the world showed a richly attired monarch holding a large gold nugget in the area south of the Sahara. Also, trade between Egypt and Mali flourished.
Mansa Musa brought back with him an Arabic library, religious scholars, and most importantly the Muslim architect al-Sahili, who built the great mosques at Gao and Timbuktu and a royal palace. Al-Sahili's most famous work was the chamber at Niani. It is said that his style influenced architecture in the Sudan where, in the absence of stone, the beaten earth is often reinforced with wood which bristles out of the buildings.
Mansa Musa strengthened Islam and promoted education, trade, and commerce in Mali. The foundations were laid for Walata, Jenne, and Timbuktu becoming the cultural and commercial centers of the Western Sudan, eclipsing those of North Africa and producing Arabic-language black literature in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Diplomatic relations were established and ambassadors were exchanged between Mali and Morocco, and Malinke students were sent to study in Morocco.
For the forty-seven years between the time of the death of his grandfather's brother, Sundiata, and Mansa Musa's accession to the throne, Mali endured a period of political instability. Mansa Musa ruled for 25 years, bringing prosperity and stability to Mali and expanding the empire he inherited.
Mali achieved the apex of its territorial expansion under Mansa Musa. The Mali Empire extended from the Atlantic coast in the west to Songhai far down the Niger bend to the east: from the salt mines of Taghaza in the north to the legendary gold mines of Wangara in the south.
Mansa Musa died in 1337. He had brought stability and good government to Mali, spreading its fame abroad and making it truly remarkable.
John Wycliffe was born in 1320 in a small village. John Wycliffe was the first man to disagree with the Roman Catholic Church. He believed that Jesus Christ was the true head of the Church, not the pope. John Wycliffe was also offended by the worldliness and wealth many clergy displayed. Wycliffe also believed that the clergy should own no land or wealth. John also taught that the Bible alone, not the pope, was the final authority for Christian life. John Wycliffe did a brave thing in his life time because people were usually killed if they disagreed with the Church.
Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Battuta, also known as Shams ad - Din, was born at Tangier, Morocco, on the 24th February 1304 C.E. His travels lasted for about thirty years, after which he returned to Fez, Morocco at the court of Sultan Abu 'Inan and dictated accounts of his journeys to Ibn Juzay.
The Great Wall of China is not a continuous wall but is a collection of short walls that often follow the crest of hills on the southern edge of the Mongolian plain.Some additions and modifications were made to these simple walls over the next millennium. Its so long you can see it from the moon
Kublai Khan was claimed "Great Khan" after becoming the mongol leader. He had to defeat his younger brother Arigh Boki in a challenge to become the leader. Kublai was tolerant of other relegions which gave him and his people a better relationship then past leaders (Genghis Khan, Kublais grandfather). Kublai Khan proved his strong, rulership by doing the following to help Chinease culture... providing religious freedom, created aid agencies, increased the use of postal stations, established paper currency, reorganized and improved roads, and expanded waterways.
Marco Polo is famous for his travels throughout Asia. Marco polo was born in Venice, Italy in 1254. He set out on the journey when he was 17 with his father and uncle. Marco polo liked the Philosophy kublai khan the mongol emperor. Marco polo found many discoveries that he liked in China like eye glasses, spaghetti , ice-cream and seen more riches in china. When he returned to Venice he told many of his stories and people were impressed. Marco polo got arrested when the conflict between Venice and Genoa ocured. In jail Marco wrote a book of his travel to China, the book was called The Travels Of Marco Polo. Europeans were eggered to trade with china after they read the book. This led to explorations of Columbus and other explorers when they were searching for a quicker way from China to India. Marco polo was a very strong explorer and determined. He never gave up and told his stories as often as he can many Europeans should thank him because he helped there trade with far east countries. Marco Polo died in 1324.
Sundiata was born in 1210 and dies in 1260. He was an ethnic Malinké (also known as Mandinka), Mari Diata was the son of Nare Maghan, ruler of the small state of Kangaba in present-day Mali, West Africa. When Mari was a young man, Sumanguru Kante, king of the nearby Soso Empire, killed Nare and annexed Kangaba. From around 1230 to 1234, Mari Diata united the chiefs of various Malinké clans. He led them to war and defeated the Soso around 1235. This marked the decline of the Soso Empire. Mari Diata then took the name “Sundiata” meaning “lion prince.” “Keita” is the name of his dynasty. With his capital at Niani, Sundiata consolidated his power over the Malinké and forged the Mali Empire. The empire grew rich from the gold mines of what is today Ghana and through control of the lucrative trade routes linking West Africa's Atlantic coast with the Arab trading posts in the Sahara.
Genghis Khan a universal ruler. acording to the legend Genghis Khan was born with a blood clot in his fist. his hands were often covered with the with the blood of other people. Genghis Khan led the mongols in conquring most of asia his frist goal was china after i9nvading the northern jin empire in 1211 however his atention turned to the islamic region
The Children's Crusade consisted of 2 different movements in which thousands of children set out to help conquer Jerusalem. This movement began in 1212.
One of these movements was led by Stephen of Cloyes who was 12 years old. He began an "army" of 30,000 children. This began in France and they marched South of the Mediterranean, but eventually these children either died or were sold as slaves.
The second movement was in Germany and was led by Nicholas of Cologne.His "army" consisted of 20,000 children. They went towards Rome but thousands died crossing the Alps Mountains. The children who survied met the pope in Italy; he told them to go back home and to come back when they are older. 2,000 survived the trip back to Germany and a few boarded a ship to Jerusalem, but were never heard of again.
The Children's Crusade was the movement in which the children were involved in to attempt to conquer Jerusalem.
The Fourth Crusade started in 1202 and ended in 1204. In 1204 the fourth crusade to capture Jerusalem failed. The Knights did not reach the Holy Land. Instead, they ended up looting the city of Constantinople. In the 1200s, four more crusades to free the holy land were also unsuccessful. They burned down a great part of Constantinople. They slaughtered the inhabitants. The crusaders destroyed monuments, statues, paintings, and manuscripts. Constantinople, after the fourth crusade, declined in strength and could no longer cope with the barbarians menacing it. The Crusaders of the fourth expedition captured Constantinople instead of Jerusalem.
Revered as a hero of Islam, Saladin a kurdish warrior United Arab forces and recaptured the holy city of Jeruslem from Christian crusaders in the 12th centuray AD. As soon as that happened Saladin became the Vizer of Egypt in 1169 and then took full control of the country in 1171 and later in Egypt built the most known city Cairo. But more importantly as Saladin went back to Jeruslem he went through a conquest in around 1187 or 1188 that was prompted by the third crusade, which was led by Richard I of England. Richards forces defeted Saladin in many batteles but could not retake Jerusalem. As difficult as it was, Saladin and Richard I signed an armistice in 1192 or as known as a treaty to end the war.
Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 6 July 1189 until his death. He also ruled as Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Lord of Ireland, Lord of Cyprus, Count of Anjou, Count of Nantes and Overlord of Brittany at many times during the same period. He was known as Richard the Lion heart, or Cœur de Lion, even before his accession, this all led because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior. At the age of 16, Richard was wanting and commanding his own army, putting down rebellions in Poitou against his father. ( King Henry II). Richard was a central Christian commander during the Third Crusade, leading the campaign after the departure of Philip Augustus, and having many victories against his Muslim counterpart, Saladin. He spoke very little English, and spent very little time in his Kingdom, in oppose to using it to support his armies, he was seen as a respectful hero by his environment. He remains one of the very few Kings of England remembered by the people in England.
the first crusade was launched in 1905 by pope urban the II with the goals of reconqeuring jerulesm, holy land, and freeing the eastern christians from islamic rule. the first crusade was part of the christain response to the islamic conquests as well as the first steps towards reopening international trade in west since the fall of the western europe
William was an invader, duke of Normandy, who became known as William the Conqueror. Normandy is a region in the north of France that had been conquered by the Vikings. Their name comes from the French tern for the Vikings North men, or Norman. The Normans came from the Vikings but they were French in language and culture. As King Edward’s cousin, William claimed the English crown invaded England with a Norman army. William’s enemy was Harold Godwinson, the Anglo-Saxon who claimed the throne. Harold had the same goals as William. On October 14, 1066, Normans and Anglo-Saxons fought the battle that changed the course of English history. It was the battle of hasting. After Harold was killed Normans won the battle. After Williams’s victory he declared all England his personal property. William kept about one-fifth of England for his self. The English lords that were on Harold’s side lost their land .William then granted their lands to about 200 Norman lords who swore oaths of loyalty to him personally. By doing this, William unified control of lands and laid the foundation for centralized government in England. William the Conqueror owned land both in Normandy and England.
Macbeth defeats Duncan I of Scotland and makes himself king.
whose proclamation of the First Crusade marked the papacy's assumption of the leadership of Western ChristeDuring the first six years of his pontificate Urban II was kept out of Rome by Antipope Clement III, who had been selected by Henry IV, Holy Roman emperorndom.
In 771, Carloman's death led to Charlemagne ruling the Frankish Empire. He stood tall at six feet and four inches. He names monk Einhard as his secretary.
Charlemagne built an empire greater than any known since Rome. He fought Muslims in Spain and tribes from other Germanic Kingdoms. He than conquered lands from the south and the east. Through these skirmishes he spread Christianity. He brought hope to Western Europe since the Roman Empire. Finally, in the 800s, Charlemagne's empire grew most powerful and even larger than the Byzantine Empire.
Traveling to Rome, Charlemagne crushed all mobs attacking the pope. As a result Pope Leo III than crowned Charlemagne emperor. This was magnificent because a European King was gained the title as "Roman Emperor." This event joined Germanic power and the Roman Empire.
A year before Charlemagne died in 814, he left his son Louis the Pious as emperor. Then Louis let Lothair, Charles the Bald, and Louis the German to fight for power. Then they all signed the Treaty of Verdun which separately divided the land into three kingdoms.
The battle at the French city of Tours won by Charles Martel and his Franks stopped the spread of Islam into Western Europe.
The battle pitted Frankish and Burgundian forces under Charles Martel against an army of the Umayyad Caliphate led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Governor-general of al-Andalus. Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi was killed in the battle which created a power vacuum, consequently starting a miniature civil war over the commanding role, weakening the Muslim army. The Franks were victorious, and Charles subsequently extended his authority in the south.
The battle also helped lay the foundations of the Carolingian Empire and Frankish domination of Europe for the next century.
With the personal name Li Shiming emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty lived between 599 and 649 AD. He was the second emperor of the dynasty also one of the emperors with good achievements in Chinese history. During his reign the country was prosperous and the people were at peace with booming economy and strong military ruler.
Abu Bakr was always very close to the holy Prophet. He knew him better than any other man. He knew how honest and upright his friend had always been. So he was the first among men to believe in the Prophet's mission. He was the first adult male to accept Islam. After the first revalation, the holy Prophet told him what had happened at Mount Hira. He told him that Allah had made him His Messenger. Abu Bakr did not stop to think. He at once became a Muslim. Once the holy Prphet himself remarked, "I called people to Islam. Everybody thought over it, at least for a while. But this was not the case with Abu Bakr. The moment I put Islam before him, he accepted it without any hesitation
Sanit Scholastica was born in 480 in Nurcia, Italy she died in 543 in Mont Cassino, Italy.
Saint Scholastica, twin sister of Saint Benedict of Nursia who founded of the
Benedictine order, was consecrated to God at a very early age but probably
continued to live in her parents' home.
Saint Scholastica is usually depicted in art as a habited nun, holding a crozier and
crucifix, with her brother.Saint Scholastica is one
of those who learned the lesson of her own helplessness. Everything that we now about her came from Saint Gregory. Scholastica founded a convent in nearby Plombariola.
By the age of 15 Beneidict had already left school and became a hermit living in a cave on Sabine Hills. A group of monks learned about Benedicts religious conviction they persuaded him to be there monastery. He declared, "we must perpare out hearts and bodies for combat under holy obedience to the divine commandments.... We are therefore going to establish a school in which one may learn the serives of the lord." Benedict wrote a book that told others the ruleing of a monastices life stilye also a blance betwwen work and study.