Recent Event Highlights: The French Revolution of 1830 , The French Revolution , and 9 more...
Created by alliemeiermicds on Apr 1, 2011
Last updated: 04/10/11 at 10:41 PM
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When Hitler became the leader of Germany, Germany became a one-party state. Hitler started killing Nazis he thought were not loyal. The Nazis learned that Hitler was looking for obedience above all. Hitler looked at Germany’s past. Under the Third Reich, or empire, the German race would rule Europe for 1,000 years. This follows the First Reich which was the Holy Roman Empire. The Second Reich in 1871 which was faked by Bismarck. Hitler’s power is an example of conservatism. In order to maintain stability Hitler looked for obedience. If he did not have complete obedience there could have been room for revolution. This wanting of stability agrees with the conservative characteristic. He looked at how well Germany did in the past with the first two Reich’s and wanted to keep it going with the Third Reich. This corresponds with the idea that tradition should be kept.
Racial segregation had been initiated in South Africa between 1910 and 1940 by white people. Many laws were passed that strongly favored white people. Not only did new laws favor white people, but some even took away rights of black people. In the 1920s the Pan Africanism movement started. This movement supported the unifying of Africans and those of African descent around the world. Africa had been divided into colonies, and Marcus Garvey, one of the leaders of the movement, wanted an end to the colonial rule. The first Pan-African Congress met in Paris in 1919 where the Allies were holding their peace conference. In the Pan-African Congress delegates from African Colonies, the West Indies, and the United States asked the Paris peacemakers to create a charter of rights for Africans. The Western powers did not create a charter, but the Congress did form cooperation between African and African American leaders. Pan Africanism is an example of nationalism. The movement supported the unifying of Africans and those of African descent around the world. This means seeing the common identity they share, which is very important in nationalism. In Africa the movement also meant working to break free from colonial rule. This was a common goal of Africans, and a common goal is a characteristic of nationalism. The fact that a charter of rights for Africans was wanted shows that common purpose was wanted. Not all Africans were under on law system but as segregation against Africans continued they had fewer rights.
World War I caused the end of the monarchy in Russia because of problems in the war and shortages of food and fuel in Russia. A provisional government was set up in Russia to temporarily replace the monarchy. V. I. Lenin was the leader of the Bolsheviks who were a radical socialist group seeking change. The provisional government continued to focus on the war and not on the home front. The Russian army had become very weak and almost useless when the Kerensky offensive was taken against Germany in July of 1917. In November of 1917 the Bolsheviks saw the opportunity to take power. After only days of fighting the provisional government Lenin’s forces had power of Russia. The Bolsheviks taking power from the provisional government is an example of liberalism. The provisional government had gotten caught up in the war and was not worried about the home front in Russia. Liberalism demands protection to the natural rights. The Bolsheviks wanted change fast because they were not happy with the way the provisional government was leading Russia. Fast change is a main characteristic of liberalism.
Alexander III came to rule after his father, Alexander II was assassinated. Alexander II had started to make reforms, but the few reforms he made did not satisfy many Russians who wanted more radical change. The reforms Alexander II made included trial by jury, eased censorship, and extreme discipline was limited. Alexander II was assassinated on March 13, 1881. Alexander III took rule and undid most of the reforms his father had put in place. Alexander III wanted to suppress the revolutionaries that wanted more reforms. He gave the secret police more power, put strict censorship back into place. By reversing the reforms he was closely following the way Nicholas I, his great grandfather, had run the country. Alexander III’s rule is an example of conservatism. He did what he could to stop the revolutionaries from getting the fast change they wanted. He also took back reforms that his father had made that gave more freedoms to the people. He restored a way that Russia used to be run. A conservatism characteristic is slow change, and Alexander III definitely slowed the change that the revolutionaries were seeking.
Invasions from Napoleon made Italy want unity. The Congress of Vienna ignored the fact that Italy wanted to end foreign rule. Because the Congress of Vienna ignored these ideas secret patriotic societies were created and focused on outing the Austrian forces that were in control of northern Italy. There were nationalist revolts between 1820 and 1848. The secret society Young Italy was founded and the goal of this society was to make Italy one free, independent nation. Giuseppe Garibaldi was very much like Mazzini, the creator of Young Italy. Garibaldi’s forces had taken control of Sicily in southern Italy and then marched north to Naples. The Sardinians met up with Garibaldi and his forces in Naples. Garibaldi gave power of Naples and Sicily to Victor Emmanuel who was in charge of the Sardinian troops. In 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was crowned king of Italy. The unifying of Italy is an example of nationalism. The common goal was a free and independent nation, and a common goal is a characteristic of nationalism. Italians realized their common history of ancient Rome and their common language. Nationalism supports all of these commonalities. Italians had pride in Italy and were not interested in the well being of other counties.
Charles X became leader when his brother Louis XVIII died. Charles rejected the charter that Louis had put into place. Charles also put limits on the right to vote, suspended the legislature, and limits were put on the press. Radicals were not happy with Charles because Louis had initiated the Charter of French Liberties that created a two-house legislature, and gave some freedom of the press. Angry citizens were revolting by throwing stones at soldiers, and soon the rebels had gained control of Paris. Charles ran away to England. Non-radical liberals wanted to set up a constitutional monarchy and they chose Louis Philippe as the king. With Louis Philippe as the king the upper bourgeoisie did well. Louis Philippe’s reforms often favored the middle class. The French Revolution of 1830 is an example of liberalism. Radicals were not happy because limits had been put on the right to vote. Freedom and civil liberties are wanted in liberalism. Also, a constitutional monarchy was set up after Charles X ran away, and a constitution run government is favored in liberalism. It is interesting to see that Louis Philippe favored the middle class, which was often liberal.
The social structure of the old regime in France consisted of three estates. The first estate which was the clergy, the second estate was the nobility, and the third estate was the majority of population which was mainly peasants. Only the third estate paid taxes, even though they were the poorest of the three estates. The government in France kept borrowing money to try and make the income equal the expenses, and in 1789 half the government’s income from taxes was working to get out of the debt. When the Estates General met the third estate realized they had power in numbers, because they had a majority of the population. Later the third estate established the National Assembly and promised to not disband until a constitution had been created for France. The National Assembly also passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. France went through a time when there was no main system of government. The French Revolution caused France to no longer have the old social order, or the monarchy, the Church was brought under state control, citizens felt loyal to the nation and not the ruler, states schools took the place of religious schools, and organized systems were set up to help the poor. The French Revolution is an example of liberalism. The radicals of the French Revolution wanted change to come fast which is a characteristic of liberalism. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen stated that men are born free and equal in rights. It also said that the government protects the natural rights of liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression, and freedom of religion. The protection of natural rights is a part of liberalism.
Britain had a group of very helpful colonies in North America. The British treasury had little money after the Seven Years’ War and the French and Indian War. The Sugar Act was passed in 1764 which initiated import taxes on the colonists, and the Stamp Act was passed in 1765 which put taxes on more items. To protest a new tax on tea a group of colonists dumped imported British tea into the harbor. Representatives from each colony met to discuss what actions should be taken next. In April 1775 the American Revolution started as a war in Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts. The colonists were not going to give up and in 1776 they declared independence from Britain. The leaders of the new United States pledged to create and protect the country. The American Revolution is an example of Nationalism. The colonists saw that they were together against Britain. They had the common purpose of helping Britain’s treasury. They shared the common goal of wanting independence. These of ideas of having a common purpose and goal are both parts of nationalism. With pride in the colonies the colonists were less interested in the needs of Britain. One main part of nationalism is that pride in one’s nation may result in disliking other countries.
The Catholic Reformation was the Catholic Church’s response to the Protestant Reformation. The Catholic Church had become corrupted by selling indulgences and getting involved in worldly affairs. The Protestant Reformation showed the Catholic Church everything they were doing wrong. The Catholic Reformation was led by Pope Paul III who wanted to restore the value of the Catholic Church and slow the Protestant Reformation down by counter acting it. The Catholic Church reached out to the Jesuits for help in spreading Catholicism. The Index of Prohibited Books was issued that banned books that were considered immoral and irreligious. There were new strict punishments for the clergy as well. The Catholic Reformation brought back the uncorrupted Church. The Catholic Reformation is an example of conservatism. The main goal of the Catholic Reformation was to bring back the moral power of the Church. The Church had become very involved with the state, and realized that was not the original purpose of the Church. Conservatism supports restoring the tradition which is exactly what the Catholic Church did. The other goal of the Catholic Reformation was to slow the Protestant Reformation. Conservatism wants slow change and the Catholic Reformation did slow the Protestant Reformation down by counter acting it.
The root word in conservatism is conserve, which means to save. Conservatism is the idea that the established or the tradition should be kept or restored. Along with this, little change is supported and when change is made it is to be slowly. Stability is also wanted, which means the ability to withstand disruption and to be organized. Those who practice conservatism tend to be the upper class, people in power, and people that are protected by the people in power.
The root word in liberalism is liberty, which means freedom. Liberalism is an idea that supports the freedom of individuals and changes in politics, society, and the economy. These changes should be made to ensure limitless advancements in all parts of human life. The government is responsible for protecting the natural rights of life, liberty, and property. The government must also guarantee civil liberties, or rights that are guaranteed by the law. When changes are wanted they are wanted to be fast. Those who support liberalism tend to be highly ranked in the middle class. These people are not protected by the people in power and are usually taxed the most. They often think they should be higher ranked, but they are not.
The root word in nationalism is nation, which means an independently run country. Nationalism is the idea that those of a nation share an identity, ideas, and purpose. This idea also consists of the group of people seeking one goal. This group is under one law system. With pride in one’s nation also comes intolerance towards other nations. Patriots are often nationalists as well.