Democracy and Republicanism
Created by amna13 on Sep 22, 2009
Last updated: 10/05/09 at 02:52 PM
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The Gilder Lehrman Institute. Stephen Mintz Modules. "Presidents." White House. 09-25-09. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/.
Presidents: Richard Nixon (1969-1974) - Republican Gerald Ford (1974-1977) - Republican Jimmy Carter (1977-1981) - Democrat Ronald Reagan (1981-1989) - Republican Events: 1972 - Watergate Scandal; Richard Nixon's conspiracy against the National Democratic Convention...an attempt for eavesdropping/spying at the convention. Resulted in Nixon's resignation. 1970 - Kent and Jackson State Shootings 1971 - 26th Amendment (age of voting -18) 1974 - Nixon's resignation...Ford takes office 1979-1981 - Iranian Hostage Crisis 1985 - Iran-Contra Affair 1989 - Berliners tear down Berlin Wall 1989 - Communist Government falls; Soviet Union ends Summary: At the end of the 20th Century, America had transformed its principles and views. The Watergate scandal emphasized the corruption in American society and went against the morals of democracy. By the government continuously lying to its citizens, true democracy was not practiced. Another factor that showed the lack of democracy in this era was the increase in war activity. Wars are not democratic and the increase of potential nuclear warfare during this era showed this. Throughout this time, however, there were some attempts to appropriately use democracy: the 26th Amendment, which set the voting age to 18, showed an increase in democratic ideals in America. With a set age for voting, we upheld the principles of democracy and gave more people a say in government. Picture: "Watergate Scandal." Online Image. Britannica. 10-05-09. http://www.britannica.com/blogs/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/nixonresignation.jpg.
Presidents: John F Kennedy (1961-1963) - Democrat Lyndon B Johnson (1963-1969) - Democrat Events: 1960s - end to all kinds of segregation(bus, school, society); MLK; Malcolm X; 1962 - March on Washington to get Congress and Kennedy to hasten civil rights acts 1963 - MLK's "I Have A Dream" speech 1963 - Equal Pay Act (men & women) 1964- Civil Rights Act - prohibits discrimination in public areas 1965 - Voting Rights Act - blacks allowed to vote 1966 - CORE and SNCC join Black Nationalistic movements 1966 - Blank Panther group gets noticed...very radical Throughout the 1960s a call of attention came to the USA. Civil liberties and equality became the hot topic between blacks, women, gays and other minorities. It was in this time that civil rights finally came around to making America a truly free country. The "tumultuous" 60s launched a wave of democratic reform in America where new rights and liberties were made. It was in this time that America stood behind its Constitution and granted the natural rights to all of its citizens, regardless of race and sex. Picture: "America in the 1960s." Online Image. 10-04-09.
Presidents: Harry Truman (1945-1953) - Democrat Dwight Eisenhower (1953-1961) - Republican Events: 1945-1991 - Cold War between USSR and USA 1947 - Truman Doctrine & Marshall Plan; containment policy so that no communism spread 1948 - Communist take over Czechslovakia 1949 - formation of allies NATO...led to axis' Warsaw pact 1949 - China establishes Communist Govt 1950 to 1953 - Korean conflict 1951 - Rosenberg Case in US; atomic espionage crimes 1953 - US set off first H-Bomb 1955 - Soviet Union tested their first H Bomb 1961 - Berlin wall put up 1961 - Bay of Pigs invasion 1962 - Cuban Missile Crisis; Soviet Union v USA in Cuban land and politics During Postwar America, trust was not a familiar word. Most nations were very antsy with each other and America became very suspicious of its own members, as well as any hint of communism growth. One of the most important factors in postwar America was the containment policy. Postwar America represented American democracy at its strongest; determined to undermine any hint of Communism and replace it with democracy. It seems to me that during the postwar era, America's growth of democracy idealism truly sprouted in order to prevent Communistic growth. Picture: "Harry S. Truman." Online Image. Business Week. 10-04-09.
Presidents: Franklin Roosevelt (1933-1945) - Democrat Events: 1939 - Nazi Soviet Pact 1939 - Britain & France declare war on Germany after Germany & Russia invade Poland 1940 - Hitler invades Belgium 1940 - Election between FDR & Willikens; Roosevelt wins. 1941 - Hitler negates Soviet Nazi Pact and invades Soviet Union 1941 - Roosevelt offers "lend lease" act to USSR 1941 - Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor; America enters war 1942 - OPA rations food and other items in America 1944 - Roosevelt vs Dewey Election; Roosevelt wins with GI Bill and hesitance to switch leaders during war period. 1941-1944 - Concentration camps by Nazi's are occurring...Holocaust. 1945 - V-Day and V-E-Day (Allied powers victory over both Germany and Japanese forces) Picture: "World War II's Opening." Online Image. 10-04-09.
Presidents: Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921) - Democrat Warren Harding (1921-1923) - Republican Calvin Coolidge (1923-1929) - Republican Herbert Hoover (1929-1933) - Republican Franklin Roosevelt (1933-1945) - Democrat Events: 1920 - Prohibition laws come into effect 1920s- the 1920s was time of social and cultural changes to the American society. After the victory in WWI, Americans thought themselves to be the best. During this era, new music, dances, fashion styles and attitudes appeared. While some categorize the Roarin' 20s as a time with no worries, other remember the ills of society that appeared. The KKK, prohibition and "red scares" were quite prominent during this era. Racial divisions, as well as political ones (communism scare) became apparent and society quickly divided. The 20s paved the ground for the upcoming Great Depression America was to face. 1929- Black Tuesday. Stock Market crashes, starts the US Depression 1933 - FDR's Presidency begins; 100 Days, New Deal, other major reforms start. 1933 - NRA gets put into action; establishes stability in economy but gets mixed reviews. 1935 - REA gets signed to bring electricity to every rural area. Throughout the 1920s and the Great Depression many democratic principles were challenged. The 20s showed democracy through the reforms and the acts of civil disobedience, i.e. KKK and underground alcohol places. The Great Depression, however, showed a sudden change from the 20s. The Great Depression strengthened federal involvement in the lives of US citizens and sparked political and economic reform. During the Great Depression America's capitalistic demeanor showed its dark side; we were shown that without careful government regulation, our country could perhaps collapse. Democracy, in these tough times, was thought of the government stepping in and fixing the society's problem. Whether through prohibition laws or economic regulation, the government played a large role during the 1920s and the Great Depression. The Great Depression, especially, showed US citizens that federal interference was needed during times of crisis and that it should have a set place in American democracy. Picture: "Roaring 20's" Online Image. 10-03-09.
Presidents: Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921) - Democrat Events: 1914 - Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand (triggers WWI) 1914 - Germany invades Belgium (triggers WWI) 1917 - Germany attacks Allies ships. ATTACKS US...leads to US involvement in war March 1917 - Zimmerman Telegraph... leads to US entry into War 1917 - Russian Revolution, as a result of Russian involvement in WWI Summary: World War I was a great war that devastated the lives of millions and cost billions of dollars in damage. The war started with the European nations but quickly came to a world war with the entry of the United States. Although at the beginning of the war, President Wilson declared neutrality but when Germany attacked US boats and sent the Zimmerman Telegraph the US entered the war. Within a few months of US entry, the Allied Powers declared victory in WWI. After the Allies victory, treaties were thought up to make a peace settlement between Germany and the Allied Powers. President Woodrow Wilson, keeping American democracy in mind, came up with the 14 points that were largely influenced by President Wilson's progressivistic background. The 14 points emphasized morality and a legitimate peace treaty; rather than punishing Germany and allowing space for newfound hatred, the 14 points clearly confined Germany to certain terms. The 14 points, instead of the Treaty of Versailles, was in fact a true peace treaty that would have prevented World War II. Picture: "World War One." Online Image. 10-02-09.
Presidents: William McKinley (1897-1901) - Republican Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909) - Republican William Taft (1909-1913) - Republican Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921) - Democrat Events: 1913 - Benjamin De Witt's "The Progressive Movement" book is published that underlies progressivism's main principles. 1916 - first birth control clinic opens 1914-1918 - World War I 1916 - compulsory school attendance laws passed (except in Mississippi) 1917 - Espionage Act 1918 - Sedition Act This era was a great showcase for democracy because it took all the ideals that the founding fathers had written in the 18th century and actually started applying them to the modern day. Democracy is having power lying in the hands of the people. During this era, the citizens of the United States wanted to change, so they did. That is, in theory, the greatest form of democracy; wanting something and then working to achieve it. Picture: "Woodrow Wilson." Online image. Wordpress. 10-02-09.
Presidents: Rutherford B Hayes (1877-1881) - Republican James Garfield (1881-1881) - Republican Chester Arthur (1881-1885) - Republican Grover Cleveland (1885-1889) - Democrat Events: 1870s - Myra Bradwell applies for license to practice law 1885 - Cocaine introduced as a pain reliever 1872 - Compstock Act banned obscene literature in the mail 1882 - effort to stop immigration occurred. Mark Twain defined the Gilded Age as an age of greed. The end of the 19th century saw the United States forming into the modern world. Through corruption and greed, modern day principles and rules were formed. This period of time is usually known as the formative era as it was the foundation of America today. During the Gilded Age, many reformers tried to make society purer. Many lobbied for the prohibition of alcohol, censoring of obscene literature, and used the government to implement a pure and clean society. Picture: "Mark Twain with Book" Online image. 09-30-09. /08/mark_twain_book.jpg
Presidents: Andrew Johnson (1865-1869) - Democrat Ulysses S. Grant (1869-1877) - Republican Events: 1866 - Civil Rights Act 1870 - 15th Amendment gives Blacks right to vote 1870-1871 - The Force Act and Ku Klux Act that makes it illegal for anyone to use force in order for another to not vote Summary: The Civil War Reconstruction era was very tense and attempted to solve the problems that arouse from the civil war. During this time, voting rights were extended to Blacks and slavery was abolished. The Reconstruction era upheld many Constitutional beliefs such as equality. Due to this era, women's rights expanded and the government attempted to create social welfare programs. Although the government attempted reform during the Reconstruction era, it did not work out so well. The end of the Civil War brought immense segregation's and created a racially divided society. The Ku Klux Klan and other racially targeted groups came from the Reconstruction era and did not represent the American democratic society at all. Picture: McGregor. "U.S. Grant" 1885. Online image. 09-30-09.
Presidents: Abraham Lincoln (1861-1865) - Republican Events: 1861-1865 - Civil War between South and North due to slavery 1862 - Emancipation Proclamation 1865 - 13th Amendment ended slavery! :) 1862 - Homestead Act gave free land to Western settlers The Civil War was a monumental war in American history. It involved around 3 millions American fighters, each fighting for what they believed to be right and good. The Civil War showed the world the problems with a democratic society. Through democracy, agreement over vital issues, such as slavery, were not easily settled and could often lead to disaster...in this case a war that killed more than World War I and World War II combined. This war also divided up the "not so" United States into a Confederacy and Union. The Northern part of the US was against slavery while the South vied for states to allow slaves. This controversy lead to one of the most defining moments in US history as slavery became outlawed at the conclusion of the war. Picture: "Brotherhood." Online Image. Masonic Sourcebook. 09-29-09.
Presidents: William Harrison (1841-1841) - Whig John Tyler (1841 - 1845) - Whig James Polk (1845 -1849) - Democrat Zachary Taylor (1849-1850) - Whig Millford Filmore (1850-1853) - Whig Franklin Pierce (1853-1857) - Whig James Buchanan (1857-1861) - Democrat Events: 1848 - Whigs and Democrats come together for abolitionist efforts in the Free Soil party 1851- First Statewide alcohol prohibition law in Maine 1850s - New York starts to offer free schooling from elementary to college levels The Pre-Civil War era was one of intellectual and reason based reforms. A lot of attention was brought onto educating the youth and living a better life - prohibition. Another very popular topic during this era was slavery and women's rights. Although this era seemed to grow democratically in the areas of morality by prohibiting the sale of alcohol and making education more accessible, it was a greatly troubled time. Slavery and women's rights forced the nation to look upon itself and lose all unity, as well as democratic ideals. Whereas we were working to enlighten our citizens through education for all, we regressed into a Civil war with the issue of slavery. Picture: "Slaves." The Baltimore Sun. Online Image. 09-28-09. http://weblogs.baltimoresun.com/news/opinion/mdslavery.jpg
Presidents: James Monroe (1817 - 1825) - dem republican. John Adams (1825-1829) - dem republican Andrew Jackson (1829-1837) - democratic Martin Van Buren (1837-1841) - democratic Events: Anti Masonic movement - This movement created a new political party in the United States. It went against the Democratic party and later evolved into the Whigs. The founder, William Mason, wanted to start a party that did not use money to achieve political success. 1819-1820 - Large scale controversies arouse due to slavery issues between the North and South. Election in 1828 between Andrew Jackson & John Adams 1840 - almost 80% of white males voted! Summary: During the Jacksonian Era the first formal political parties were formed, the Whigs and the Democrats. Not only was this revolution extraordinary, but a truly democratic ideal arouse - most states had eliminated voting prerequisites. No longer were there property requirements needed for the WHITE MALE. It wasn't until later when Blacks and Women could vote, but this era gave hope that one day a truly universal suffrage would arise. This era also faced many obstacles; there was great financial crises and political divisions (due to slavery) in the United States. The era paved the path to the Civil War and a new turn in American democracy. Picture: "Andrew Jackson." Online Image. 09-28-09. http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_qgStQmLSSmw/Sld5bHA1OXI/AAAAAAAAAuc/OY_qa_65qMw/s400/andrew_jackson.jpg
The Jeffersonian Era was the period of time where Jefferson Republicans grew immensely. The main accomplishment of the era was the purchase of the Louisiana Purchase from the French. The Louisiana Purchase was made by President Thomas Jefferson in 1800 at the cost of $15 million. The three Presidents who served during the Jeffersonian Era were Thomas Jefferson, the founder of the Democratic Republican, James Madison and James Monroe. Thomas Jefferson doubled the geographical range of the United States in mere seconds with the speedy purchase of the Louisiana Purchase. Once he had acquired this land he sent explorers Lewis and Clark to obtain information on the new land. Another important event of this Era was the duel between Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton. Federalists became very alarmed with the purchase of new territory as they saw it could ruin the unity of the United States and wanted to form the "Northern Confederacy." Hamilton was very against this, but Burr supported it heavily. The immense differences between these two led to the duel in which Burr shot and wounded Hamilton, thus forever ruining Burr's political career. The Jeffersonian Era was a volatile one, filled with conspiracies and great revenues for growth; Thomas Jefferson expanded the USA and appointed a new political race in office. Although the 1800-1828's was a rough time in conflicts, it greatly impacted the United States. Picture: "Thomas Jefferson." Online Image. Wordpress. 09-24-09.
The New Nation came in a time when the stability and success of America was in question. This decade came with the creation of political parties, economic growth and overall growth in America. During this decade, John Adams was the President and Thomas Jefferson served as vice president. John Adams won the election between Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton by a very minuscule amount. He, however, proved to be a great President. Through his terms (1797-1801) he successfully kept peace with foreign countries and oversaw all the problems that were arising. One important aspect he avoided had to do with the XYZ Affair. The XYZ affair was the French people's way of demanding money and support for their war against Britain from the US. The US declined to give their support and a war against France was favored throughout the country; John Adams averted this sticky situation though. Democracy was greatly displaced in this era through the unity of the States and their follow up of the President. Picture: Brown, Mather. "John Adams." 1789. Flickr. Online Image. 09-23-09. .
The Constitution is the backbone of American society. It was written in 1787 at the Second Conventional Congress and ratified one year later. The Constitution put divisions of power between the national country as a whole and individual state powers. The Constitution was written in Philadelphia by the delegates. They had originally wanted to re write the Articles but came up with the Constitution. The main authors were Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. The Constitution is still, to date, the overarching theme of America and its stability. Picture: Hintermeister, Henry. "The Foundation of American Government." 1925. Online Image. ABC-CLIO. 22 Sept 2009.
The Revolutionary War was the result of British over control on the American Colonies. Its true start was in 1754 with the French and Indian War and ended in 1783 with the peace treaty between England and America. Because the British implemented silly taxes and started restricting the colonies rights, the colonists fought for their own self rule. The colonists did not think that the revolution would form their own nation, but it did. The President during the Revolutionary War was George Washington. George Washington was the first President of the United States and thus it would be obvious that at the start of the Revolution War he was in charge of forming the new nation. Washington served from 1789 to 1797 with John Adams as his vice president. Picture: Arttoday. Socialstudiesforkids. 09-18-09.