Image: "Betsy Ross: sewing the American flag." Image. Library of Congress. American Government. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 20 Sept. 2010.
Created by aputnam23 on Aug 27, 2010
Last updated: 09/30/10 at 10:35 AM
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In the early 70's, Middle Eastern oil was made inaccessible and the result was a serious energy crisis in the United States. Completely dependent upon fossil fuels as an energy source, the crisis threw the American society for a loop. Skyrocketing gas prices took a major toll on the economy. The result was the Oil Embargo of the early 1970's. Congress, in an attempt to conserve the dwindling reserves, put a halt on all uses of oil and in the aftermath the public panicked. President Nixon even announced that the national Christmas tree would not be lit due to insufficient energy supplies. The embargo is representative of democracy because the country was thrown into chaos. Despite this, the elected officials strove to maintain order in the disintegrating society. Information: "energy crisis." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 29 Sept. 2010. Image: "Energy crisis." Image. UPI-Bettmann/Corbis. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 29 Sept. 2010.
In the tumultuous age of civil equality and the Vietnam War, the nation was at the breaking point. With the nation in such distress, President Lyndon B. Johnson saw that drastic steps needed to be taken in order to install some stability. The result was the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The majority of the bill focuses on segregation and voting rights. Originally conceived for the blacks, it was used my many ethnic groups in their debates for equality. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is related to democracy in that the government gave more civil liberties to the part of the nation that had been disenfranchised for so long. By giving the minorities more voice in their government, the United States achieved a more democratic and universal system for governing the people. Information: "Civil Rights Act (1964)." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 29 Sept. 2010. Image: "Civil Rights Act (1964)." Image. Lyndon B. Johnson Library. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 29 Sept. 2010.
In the Red Scare, the people of the United States were fearing for their safety. In the height of the Cold War, the greatest threat to American society was an infestation of Communists. Under President Nixon, the public was condemning potential spies left and right. However, in 1951, legitimate traitors were found within the US. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, spawn of Jewish immigrants in New York, were caught relaying information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. This even is related to democracy because the people were panicking about the Red Scare, so the government gave them a face to place that fear on. With the death of the Rosenbergs, the people saw that the government was making headway in the infiltration, thereby relieving some of their fears. Information: "Rosenberg v. United States (1953)." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 29 Sept. 2010. Image: "Ethel and Julius Rosenberg." Image. Library of Congress. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 29 Sept. 2010.
On December 7, 1941, Pearl Harbor was attacked by the Empire of Japan. In response to this all out assault, the United States under President Roosevelt declared War on the Axis powers. However, the first major invasion was not into Japan, but instead into Europe. The first major landing, the invasion of Normandy, was viewed as a dark day in American history. Upon arriving at the beach, the US forces were immediately decimated by German gun emplacements and the German anti-storming fortifications. D-Day is representative of republicanism because the government devoted all of its energy to defending the public and the allies to the nation without official consent. Elected to lead the country, the officials immediately identified the best interests of the people and reacted accordingly. People sacrificed much during the time to better the war effort, aptly named the "Home Front." Information: "D-Day invasion." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 29 Sept. 2010. Image: "D-Day (Battle of Normandy)." Image. National Archives. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 29 Sept. 2010.
During the era of Progressivism, the government instituted several laws to prevent monopolies and better the general quality of life for the average person. Under President William Taft, the laws were aptly named anti-trust laws. In response to this, Standard Oil of New Jersey sued the US government in an infamous trial. The court ruled in favor of the oil monopoly, saying that the laws should only prevent monopolies if the control seemed "too extreme." The anti-trust laws are an example of republicanism ideals because the government took control of the monopolies to protect the interests of the majority. Information: "Standard Oil v. United States (1911)." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 28 Sept. 2010. Image: "Standard Oil." Online Image. Bilderberg.org. September 29, 2010.
The Pendleton Act, or Civil Service Reform Act, was the first real attempt at attianing civil equality in America. Under president Chester A. Arthur--for President Garfield had died in office-- the Act was put in place to prevent corruption within the government itself. It required rigorous entrance exams be passed before an applicant could be admitted into the body. The Act is related to republicanism because the government decided to take control of the situation and prevent members from disenfranchising certain members within the country. In assessing the country's needs and repsonding accordingly without official request from the public, the government showed great republican ideals. Information: "Civil Service Reform Act (1883)." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 28 Sept. 2010. Image: "G.H. Pendleton." Image. Cirker, Hayward and Blanche Cirker, eds. Dictionary of American Portraits, 1967. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 29 Sept. 2010.
Under President Lincoln, the Freedmen's Bureau was a program under the War Department that was instated on the premise that the federal government was responsible for the well-being of the recently freed slaves in the Reconstruction after the Civil War. The bureau provided the free men with food and clothing in the most extreme of instances, but more importantly advised the ex-slaves to avoid the horrible sharecropping set up by the landowners. The Freedmen's Bureau is an example of republicanism because the government saw the people most in need and acted accordingly. In aiding the recently freed slaves, the elected officials sought to maintain the general interests of those they governed. Information: "Freedmen's Bureau." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27 Sept. 2010. Image: "Freedmen's Bureau." Image. North Wind Picture Archives. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27 Sept. 2010.
In the December of 1860 under the presidency of James Buchanan the Southern States officially declared the Confederate States of America. The major reason for the division was the preceding 70 years of conflict, centered around the implementation of slavery and nullification. The country was divided along the 36-30 latitude line, which was the official boundary of slavery. This separation tore the country in two. The Secession is related to republicanism in that the senators of the individual states fought to further the wishes of those they were responsible for. The South, with its agriculture based society, needed the free labor to maintain their current status. The North sought for civil equality and strove to better the lives of minorities. Information: "Civil War." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27 Sept. 2010. Image: "Flags-crossed." September 27, 2010. Online Image. United Daughters of the Confederacy.
Under President James Buchanan, the Harper's Ferry Raid was an attempt by radical abolitionist John Brown to overrun the local weapons depot and distribute the arms to slaves. Although the revolt ended in a failure, it showed the tensions leading up to the Civil War. Slavery, an issue often discussed, was tearing the country apart. The democracy of this action, or lack thereof, shows that the people were unwilling to compromise and find a solution to the problem, so conflict ensued. Information: "Harpers Ferry raid." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 25 Sept. 2010. Image: "The Tragic Prelude." Image. National Archives. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 25 Sept. 2010.
The Annexation of Texas, under President Polk, was the addition of Texas to the United States. Mexico, infuriated by this, led to extreme tensions until May of 1846 when the Mexican-American war erupted. Under the Imperialism mindset, the US acquired land and infuriated the Mexicans. In Mexico, another name for the war is the "American Invasion of Mexico." The relation to democracy is that war could have been avoided if the United States and Mexico had found a diplomatic solution to the situation. If The US had purchased the land from Mexico, the nations would have better relations and there would have been no Zimmerman telegram. Information: "Texas Annexation Act (1845)." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 25 Sept. 2010. Image: "Texas Flag." September 25, 2010. Online Image. Texas Flag Symbolism and History..
Jackson, in 1928, won a landslide victory over John Quincy Adams. However, the major conflict during his presidency was nullification, meaning a state's ability to render a federal law ineffective. This lead to conflict because the states could essentially ignore the laws passed by Congress. The result was a recurrence of the Confederation, and tensions ran high. Nullification is related to Democracy because much of the conflict could have been resolved if a compromise had been formed between the federal and state governments. Though cooperation is required for a functioning nation, states deserved some rights and individual codes in order to further the desires of the particular state. Information: "nullification." American Government. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 23 Sept. 2010. and "Andrew Jackson." American Government. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 23 Sept. 2010. Image:"Andrew Jackson." Image. Library of Congress. American Government. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 23 Sept. 2010.
in 1819, Missouri applied for statehood. The controversy surrounding the application was whether the state should be admitted as a slave state or a free state. Under President James Monroe, the result was the Missouri Compromise. All states above the 36-30' north latitude line were permitted to abolish slavery, while all states south would remain slave states. The Compromise was related to democracy because the Senate tried to find the will of the people, and felt that a compromise between the two ideals was the best solution. Leaning in either direction, slave state or free state, would have tipped the scales to either side chosen. By compromising, the Senate prevented serious issues within the nation. Information: "Missouri Compromise (1820)." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27 Sept. 2010. Image: "Missouri State Flag." September 27, 2010. Online Image. Missouri Kids!.
At the turn of the century, the American people were in an uproar over the Alien and Sedition Acts, imposed by John Adams as a means of preventing the French infiltration of America. Jefferson, believing in the rights of the individual, rejected these laws which resulted in his election. During his reign, his ideals shifted form small, frugal government to a large, expansionist nation. In changing his goals, Jefferson showed republicanism because even though he was elected and promised a completely different presidency, he saw the needs of the people and adjusted accordingly in the most beneficial manner. Information: "Thomas Jefferson." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 16 Sept. 2010. Image: "Thomas Jefferson." Image. Library of Congress. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 16 Sept. 2010.
The election of 1796 was the first election in which voters could choose between two competing parties-- the Democratic-Republicans and the Federalists-- and the President and Vice President were voted on separate ballots. After George Washington's farewell address, the struggle began for the next leader of the recently United States. Thomas Jefferson of the Democratic-Republicans and John Adams of the Federalists were the most prominent candidates on the ballot. John Adams defeated Thomas Jefferson by a few electoral votes. Democracy and republicanism is displayed in this instance by the diversification of the political parties in that the multitude of possibilities, a better representation may be selected that would serve the largest majority of the public's needs and desires. Information: "Development of Political Parties, 1789-1800 (Overview)." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 16 Sept. 2010. and "Election of 1796". Gilder-Lehrman. 2010. Web. 16 Sept. 2010. Image: "John Adams." Image. Library of Congress. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 16 Sept. 2010.
On December 7, 1787, the Constitution of the United States of America was presented before the 13 recently formed states. Despite fierce conflict between the Federalists and Anti-Federalists, the document had finally been written. The Anti-Federalists believed that the Constitution was an infringement of personal rights, while the Federalists countered by saying that a state must be created in order to prevent the loss of rights. For example, America was in the midst of a power struggle between France and England, both of which wished to use the New World as a means of funding and control. Through compromise, the Federalists appealed to their opposition by allowing amendments to the Constitution, the first ten of which are known as the Bill of Rights. By securing freedoms, the Federalists managed to rally the separated states under a single flag, thereby securing the country's future. In compromising, the Federalists displayed the level of democracy required to appease the discouragement and attain their goal. The theme of democracy allowed for all states to accept the Constitution, as apposed to a new law forced upon them. This was a step forward toward the ultimate goal of a truly free nation. Information: "Ratifying the Constitution (Overview)." American Government. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 13 Sept. 2010. Image: "Independence Hall." Image. Library of Congress. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 13 Sept. 2010.
At the Second Continental Congress, Richard Henry Lee of Virginia stated that "these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States...and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved." This bold statement led to the drafting of a revolutionary bill: the Declaration of Independence. The committee assigned to writing the document consisted of Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Robert R. Livingston, and Roger Sherman. The bill was ratified on July 4, 1776. Within days all of the colonies had been sent copies of the Declaration and pledged their support. On August 2, 1776, the bill was signed by all 56 delegates. This event is an example of democracy because the colonists wanted a direct voice in the government. After waging small scale riots, the people rallied and transformed their intentions from rebellion to full scale revolution. Infotmation: Stockdale, Nancy. "Declaration of Independence." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 7 Sept. 2010. Image: "Signing of the Declaration of Independence." Image. Corel. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 13 Sept. 2010.