Recent Event Highlights: World War II , World War I and Interwar Period, The Civil War and Reconstruction, Pre-Civil War, and 10 more...
Created by aweisenfels on Aug 28, 2009
Last updated: 03/06/10 at 07:09 AM
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At the end of the 20th Century, democracy was on the rocks and several issues arose in the United States democratic government. Watergate was the main focus in the 1970s, a scandal involving Richard Nixon and his poorly guided quest for reelection. This scandal clearly was a violation of democratic ideals because the president was trying to cheat the system in order to ensure his reelection in the upcoming election and he was in essence trying to find any incriminating information that would hurt the democrats. This time period also marked the tearing down of the Berlin wall in 1989, which showed that communism was being reevaluated by people around the world, and the population of Berlin wanted their democratic freedom restored. Timeline: 1972-1974: Watergate Scandal 1972: Burglars caught at DNC office at Watergate Hotel 1973: Senate committee opens hearing on Watergate Affair 1973: VP Agnew resigns; "Saturday Night Massacre" 1974: Richard Nixon resigns from office 1973: US Ends Direct Intervention in Vietnam 1979: Three Mile Island Nuclear Accident 1979-1981: Iranian Hostage Crisis 1983: SDI ("Star Wars") Missile Defense System Proposed 1985: Iran-Contra Affair 1989: Berliners tear down Berlin Wall Presidents: Richard Nixon 1969 - 1974 (Republican) Gerald Ford 1974 - 1977 (Republican) Jimmy Carter 1977 - 1981 (Democrat) Ronald Regan 1981 - 1989 (Republican) George H. W. Bush 1989 - 1993 (Republican) Bill Clinton 1993 - 2001 (Democrat) Citation: Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/History/
During the 1960s there was universal unrest among the youth of America. While there were several reform attempts by the government to improve life in the United States, there was still a group of people that were unhappy with some of the changes. The Vietnam War brought about unhappiness for the young American men because while they were eligible at 18 years old to be drafted and sent off to war, they were not eligible to vote until they were 21. Therefore, from the years between their eighteenth and twenty-first birthdays, they were not in control of their fate. This did not represent the ideals of a Democratic nation because the people fighting in war were not eligible to vote, and the government was telling them what to do without giving the young men the option of voicing their own opinion. In addition, the civil rights movement sparked upset among many young people in the south. Although the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a giant leap for Democracy in the United States, racism was still very prevalent in the American culture. African Americans were not the only people granted new rights as a result of the Civil Rights Act women were also granted more rights, which again became a controversial issue. While the women and their advocates were happy about the change, many young white men were unhappy because they didn’t want to loose their jobs to women. The young people of America, women and African Americans were all fighting for participatory democracy. The 1960s was a time of change and protest that influenced the development of individual rights of all citizens of the United States of America and both positively and negatively affected Democracy. Timeline: 1960: Kennedy v. Nixon Debates televised 1961: Bay of Pigs 1961: First American in Space 1962: Cuban Missile Crisis 1963: Kennedy Assassinated 1963: Civil Rights March on Washington 1964: Civil Rights Act 1964: Free Speech Movement 1965: Voting Rights Act 1965: Medicare Funding Begins 1965: American Troops in Vietnam 1965: Malcolm X assassinated 1967: Six Days War 1968: Martin Luther King Jr. Assassinated 1968: Robert Kennedy Assassinated 1969: Woodstock 1969: First Moon Landing (AMERICANS)-Apollo 11 1969: Nixon becomes President 1970: Kent State Shootings Presidents: Dwight D. Eisenhower 1953 - 1961 (Republican) John F. Kennedy 1961 - 1963 (Democrat) Lyndon B. Johnson 1963 - 1969 (Democrat) Richard Nixon 1969 - 1974 (Republican) Citation: Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/History/ "1960's Timeline." Timelines.Info . 29 Sep. 2009 . "1960's Timeline." Timelines.Info . 29 Sep. 2009 .
Post-war America was a time when the United States along with allied countries, were all living in fear of Communism. Communism had spread rapidly through Europe and parts of Asia and the Allied countries were in fear that Communism would literally take over the world. Conflicts such as the Korean War and the McCarthy trials directly arose from communism. In the Korean War, the US got involved because South Korea was trying to dodge the grip of the North Korean Communist government. The McCarthy Hearings were a concrete example of the fear of communism that blanketed over the United Staetes in the 1960s. Senator McCarthy had a list of names of people that he said were communists and these people were put on trial. People involved in the trails remember the defendants being "guilty until proven innocent" because the fear of communism was so severe. This event negatively affected Democracy because people were almost automatically thought to be guilty because the paranoia of communism was so vast. However, not all effects on Democracy were negative during this time period. The creation of NASA formally initiated the United States into the space race and united the American people behind a common goal: beating the Soviets. In addition, Alaska and Hawaii were added to the United States, advancing democracy. This was a time period of rebuilding Europe, resisting Communism and reuniting the people of America. Timeline: 1945 - V.E. Day 1945 - Harry Truman becomes president 1945 - Hitler commits suicide 1945 - Potsdam Conference 1945 - Nuremburg trials 1946 - William Churchill announces iron curtain to Europe 1946 - Chinese Civil War 1946 - Baby boom generation begins 1947 - Truman Doctrine 1947 - Marshall Plan 1947 - National Security Act 1947 - Containment Policy 1948 - Communists took over Czechoslovakia 1948 - Berlin Blockade 1949 - NATO established 1949 - Soviets successfully detonated atomic bomb 1949 - Chinese Revolution 1950 - Beginning of Korean War 1950 - McCarthy Hearings ***** 1950 - Rosenberg Trial 1951 - Coast to coast telephone 1951 - 22nd Amendment (Two terms) 1951 - US set off hydrogen bomb 1952 - Dwight Eisenhower elected 1953 - Korean War ends 1953 - Joseph Stalin dies 1954 - Senate condemns McCarthy 1954 - Brown vs. Board of Education 1955 - West Germany Admitted to NATO 1955 - Warsaw Pact 1956 - Suez Crisis 1956 - Highways created 1957 - Soviets launched Sputnik 1958 - NASA formed 1958 - Creation of National Defense Education Act 1959 - Fidel Castro became dictator of Cuba 1959 - Alaska and Hawaii become a state 1959 - Kitchen Debates Presidents: Harry S. Truman 1945 - 1953 (Democrat) Dwight D. Eisenhower 1953 - 1961 (Republican) Citation: Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/History/
Timeline: 1941: WWII begins 1941: Roosevelt and Churchill announce Atlantic Charter 1941: Pearl Harbor 1941: US declares war on Japan 1944: Battle of the Bulge 1945: Potsdam Conference 1945: US drops atomic bombs on Japan 1945: Nuremburg trials 1945: V.E. Day Presidents: Franklin D. Roosevelt 1933-1945 (Democrat) Harry S. Truman 1945 - 1953 (Democrat) Citation: "World War II: Timeline." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. 30 Sep. 2009 http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10007306. Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/History/
World War One broke out in 1914 as a result of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. The US got involved as a result of a German submarine attack on a US passenger ship. After the US got involved into war, the warfare shifted to a new "total war" tactic. Total war involved the entire country and democratically brought the people of the United States behind a common cause. After the war, marked the time of the infamous stock market crash of 1929, followed by the Great Depression. During the depression, poverty infected the United States and hope was scarce. Democracy was advanced during this time because although it was not an economically happy time, the government derived plans to try and heal the economy and stimulate economic growth. Timeline: 1918: WWI ends 1919: Treaty of Versailles is signed 1920: First meeting of the League of Nations 1924: Lenin Dies 1929: Stock Market Crashes 1932: League of Nations Disarmament Conference 1933: Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany 1933: Prohibition appealed 1936: Spanish Civil War 1938: Munich Pact is signed 1939: WWII Presidents: Woodrow Wilson 1913 - 1921 (Democrat) Warren G. Harding 1921 - 1923 (Republican) Calvin Coolidge 1923 - 1929 (Republican) Herbert Hoover 1929 - 1933 (Republican) Franklin D. Roosevelt 1933-1945 (Democrat) Citation: "Interwar Period." Timelines.Info . 29 Sep. 2009 http://www.timelines.info/history/continents_and_countries/north_america/united_states_of_americ a/the_twentith_century/1960%27s/ Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/History/
The progressive era was a time when the people of the country called for all around reform on a local, state and national level. The people wanted the government to become something that aided them, instead of causing constant conflict. This affected Democracy because the people were given their voice in the government, and their voices were heard and changes were made. Various amendments were installed along with funding towards schools and government housing. While all of these reforms were going on in the United States, other countries were busy imperializing African and Asian countries. The United States at first opposed imperialism because it violated the democratic fundamentals of which the United States was established. However, opinion shifted when fear arose of being cut out of the international trade markets because our lack of presence in foreign countries. As a result, the Americans joined the quest of imperialism which led to many protests that called the government hypocritical for forcing democracy upon foreign countries. They were not given the option to choose, which is a huge part of a democracy. Timeline: 1913 - 16th Amendment, creates income tax 1913 - 17th Amendment, direct election of senators 1919 - 18th Amendment, Prohibition 1920 - 19th Amendment, women's suffrage Presidents: Benjamin Harrison 1889-1883 (Republican) Grover Cleveland 1893 - 1897 (Democrat) William McKinley 1897 - 1901 (Republican) Theodore Roosevelt 1901-1909 (Republican) William Howard Taft 1909 - 1913 (Republican) Woodrow Wilson 1913 - 1921 (Democrat) Citation: Source Citation: Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/History/ (shows a picture of young girls holding up anti-American signs in Djakarta in 1964
The Gilded age was an era of economic and moral reform, along with the growing popularity of industry. People began to speak out against the government, and against civil injustices. This has a positive impact on Democracy because people are allowed to voice their opinion about changes that they think should be made in the government. From an economic standpoint, factories opened which greatened the gap between the poor and the rich. The rich were the factory owners and the poor were the factory workers. Most workers were immigrants there were pouring into the States through the East Coast. The government tried to regulate the economy by passing the Sherman Anti Trust Act, giving the government higher presence in the daily lives of Americans. Timeline: 1877: Great Railroad Strike 1877: Compromise of 1877 1877: Great Railroad Strike 1878: Invention of the light bulb 1881: Assassination of James Garfield 1883 : Pendleton Act 1886: American Federation of Labor 1886: Haymarket Riot 1888: Congress Establishes Department of Labor 1889: Johnstown Flood 1890: Wyoming becomes first state to grant women's suffrage. 1890: McKinley Tariff Act passed by Congress 1890: Jim Crow Laws 1892 : Ellis Island opens in New York to screen incoming immigrants Presidents: Rutherford B. Hays 1877-1881 (Republican) James A. Garfield 1881-1881 (Republican) Chester A. Arthur 1881-1885 (Republican) Grover Cleveland 1885-1889 (Democrat) Citation: " http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-ShermanA.html Sherman Antitrust Act." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2008. Encyclopedia.com. 21 Sep. 2009 http://www.encyclopedia.com http://www.encyclopedia.com. “The Gilded Age” Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. 9/28/09 10 Sep. 2009 http://www.gilderlehrman.org/teachers/module12/intro_pop3.html Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/History/
The civil war was a war between the separate parts of America. The two sides were the Confederates, and the Yankees. The war was fought because the south wanted to separate from America because they wanted to run differently then the northern states. However, the northern states, and Abraham Lincoln, wanted to keep the country united and not divided. This event affected Democracy because it indirectly granted African Americans right to vote and country, as a whole, made a unified decision to keep to stay united. Although the war split the country, it eventually ended up unifying the people of America behind the ideas of the basic rights of man and equality despite skin color. Timeline: 1861 - Abraham Lincoln elected President 1861 - Confederate States adopt a constitution 1861 - Civil War begins 1862 - Lincoln signs Homestead Act into law 1863 - Emancipation proclamation takes effect 1863 - Lincoln delivers Gettysburg Address 1865 - Congresses proposes 13th Amendment, abolishing slavery 1865 - Lincoln is assassinated 1865 - Klu Klux Klan established 1868 - 14th Amendment is ratified 1870 - 15th Amendment ratified 1873 - Panic of 1873 1875 - Civil Rights Act of 1875 Presidents: Abraham Lincoln - 1861-1865 (Republican National Nation) Andrew Johnson - 1865-1869 (Democratic Union) Ulysses S. Grant - 1869-1877 (Republican) Citation: "ABC-CLIO Social Studies Databases." ABC-CLIO United States At War. 28 Sep. 2009 "Timeline 1860 - 1898." Pinzler. 28 Sep. 2009 . Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/History/
During this time period, tension rose between the northern and southern states as a result of the ongoing disagreement of the issue of slavery. Eventually, legislators voted based on their region and not based on their political party. Democracy was affected during this time period because slavery clearly violated the primary rights of man, but in addition, democracy fueled the ideas behind Popular Sovereignty of 18 48 proposed by Senator Lewis Cass. Popular Sovereignty stated that states were allowed to vote, a basic democratic right, on whether they wanted to be a slave state or a free state. The election 1848 sparked the creation of the relatively temporary parties, the Free Soil Party (North) and the Southern Party led by John C. Calhoun. Slavery wasn’t the only thing that was democratically influenced during this era. The Seneca Falls convention of 1848 greatly impacted both Democracy and Republicanism because it challenged the government and gave people a voice. In addition, the supporters of this movement wanted to ensure a safeguard to individual rights and expel the exclusion of women from daily matters. Timeline: 1845 - Texas admitted to Union as slave state 1846 - Mexican-American War 1848 - Seneca Falls Convention 1850 - Compromise of 1850 1852 - Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1854 - Kansas-Nebraska Act 1855 - Bleeding Kansas 1857 - Dred Scott v. Sanford 1859 - John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry 1860 - Abraham Lincoln elected Presidents: Martin Van Buren - 1837-1841 (Democrat) William Henry Harrison - 1841-1841 (Whig) John Tyler - 1841-1845 (Whig) James K. Polk - 1845-1849 (Democrat) Zachary Taylor - 1849-1859 (Whig) Citation: Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/History/
Democracy, during this time period, was being stretched Andrew Jackson. Upon his election there were contrasting views of excess of Democracy v. Democratic fulfillment. He shifted his leadership responsibilities towards making changes that would help the "common man." Andrew Jackson was commonly referred to as King Andrew because he firmly expressed his dominance, especially his dominance over Congress. Jackson divided up hundreds of acres of Indian territory for the white men, and although this was a positive gain for the white men, the Native Americans were not given any other option but to give up their land. During this politically controversial time, a two party political system was created. The political party system is a basic principle of Democracy, allowing candidates and representatives to belong to a party which best suites their ideas. The Democrats represented the common folk and stood for liberty and local rule. The Whigs stood for greater wealth and operated based on Clay's American Style, including things such as national banks and tariffs protection for industry. Timeline: 1832 -Force Proclamation 1833 - Andrew Jackson is sworn in as President for a 2nd term. 1833 - Martin van Buren is sworn in as the 8th Vice President of the United States. 1834 - The Indian Territory is established in what is now Oklahoma. 1836 - The Wisconsin Territory is organized. 1836 - Arkansas is the 25th state admitted to the Union. 1828 - Corrupt Bargain 1828 - Tariff Abominations 1832 - Nullification Crisis 1837 - Trail of Tears 1837 - Panic of 1837 Presidents: James Monroe - 1817-1825 (Democratic Republican) John Quincy Adams - 1825-1829 (Democratic Republican) Andrew Jackson - 1829-1837 (Democrat) Martin Van Buren - 1837-1841 (Democrat) Citation: Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/History/
During the Jeffersonian Era, the goal of the government was to shift focus towards a more democratic approach. This time period was a time of discovery, marking the time of Lewis' and Clark's famous journey west. During their journey, they voted on where to sleep on the west coast, before returning home, and this was the first time when a black man, Lewis' slave, was allowed to vote. This time period also marks a change in the way elections were carried out in the future, with the installation of the electoral colleges in order to prevent future elections like the election of 1800 when there was a tie between the two candidates. Timeline: 1800: Election of 1800 1803: Louisiana Purchase 1803: Marbury vs. Maddison 1804: Lewis and Clark 1804: 12th amendment (electoral college) 1807: Embargo of 1807 1807: Burr tried for treason 1808: Congress Prohibits African Slave Trade 1812: War of 1812 (Britain vs US) 1814: Treaty of Ghent 1819: Panic of 1819 1820: Missouri Compromise 1823: Monroe Doctrine Presidents: John Adams - 1797-1801 (Federalist) Thomas Jefferson - 1801-1809 (Democratic Republican) James Madison - 1809-1817 (Democratic Republican) James Monroe - 1817-1825 (Democratic Republican ) John Quincy Adams - 1825- 1829 (Democratic Republican) Citation: Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/History/
This time period was a leap forward for beginning of democracy in the United States. The first president was elected by the people, representing a purely democratic system. In addition, the constitution of the United States was ratified, which set forth the basic principles of the government and it is still in use today. This time is also marked by the constant struggle between the federalist, and the anti-federalists, and their arguments behind their political beliefs. Federalist argued for a strong central government and anti federalist argued against a central government, favoring individual state governing. Timeline: 1789 Constitution is ratified 1789 George Washington is elected as the first president of the United States of America 1796 Election of 1796 (Adams v Jefferson) 1796 XYZ Affair 1798 Naturalization Act 1798 Alien Act 1798 Sedition Act 1799 Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Presidents: George Washington - 1789-1797 John Adams - 1797-1801 (Federalist) Citation: Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/History/
The constitution is the foundation of Democracy and Republicanism in our country. It set amendments to give the citizens undeniable rights in order to give the power to the people and to keep the government from executing too much control over individual rights. The Constitution was a written document expressing the power government, which was clearly outlined, along with the people's basic rights. This affected our countries growth in Democracy and Republicanism because it is what got everything moving, and it was a blueprint for what needs to be done in order for America to have success and happiness among its citizens. Timeline: 1781: Articles of Confederation ratified 1783: Peace Treaty with Britain 1787: US Constitution written at Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia 1788: US Constitution ratified 1789: George Washington elected first President of the USA Citation: Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/History/
This war was fought between Great Britain and the Thirteen colonies of America. The Americans were growing frustrated with Britain because they were being taxed, without representation, for things such as stamps and tea. This affected Democracy and Republicanism because the people of the colonies voted to go to war against their oppressor, representing the basic fundamentals of democracy. Although the democratic system was not yet set up for the American Colonies, basic democratic ideals were used to make decisions against the British and advance the revolutionary cause. Timeline: 1754 French Indian War 1763 Taxation Starts 1776 Declaration of Independence 1783 End of Revolutionary War 1789 Start of French Revolution (Modeled after American Revolution)