These events demonstrate a timeline of significant events in Latin American history that led to independence of those countries from their European colonizers. Also included are relevant events that occurred outside of Latin America as a backdrop for these revolutions.
Prince Pedro declared Brazilian independence from his father's reign. His father John VI had returned to Portugal in 1820 after fleeing there from Napoleon's invasion of Portugal. Later, Prince Pedro was crowned as Emperor Pedro I of Brazil.
Iturbide led fight against rebels and then switched sides and joined them. He established an independent Mexico based on the following three principles:
2. Catholic Church to be official church
3. creoles and peninsulares to be equal.
He later became Emperor Agustin I of Mexico.
Jose de San Martin led the independence movement in much of southern South America. In 1816 he led the movement that declared independence for Argentina. He then defeated the Spaniards and declared independence for Chile.
Simon Bolivar was part of a wealthy creole family in the area now known as Venezuela. He led a 10 year battle against the Spanish and drove them out of most of northern South America by 1821. Known as "the Liberator" he attempted to set up one large country, but this did not work.
Creole priest, Father Miguel Hidalgo, rang a bell and then delivered a speech shouting "Death to bad government and death to Spaniards." He helped to lead the revolution against the peninsulares. The Spaniards caught him and executed him.
Legally freed Toussaint L'Ouverture led slave rebellions against the French who controlled the colony of Saint Domingue, located on the western half of the island of Hispaniola. He agreed to a cessation of hostilities, but the French violated it by taking him prisoner and he died in France in 1803. A year later, the revolutionaries were able to complete their victory, declared their independence, and renamed their country, Haiti.
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was passed by the French National Assembly. It stated "liberty, equality, and fraternity" and that all men were born equal and remained so before the law. This was an inspiration for Latin American independence movements.
The Declaration of Independence has been used as an inspiration for many subsequent independence movements. The American colonists, led by General George Washington, and aided by the French, fought a 7 year war against the British who surrendered at Yorktown.
This treaty drew a vertical line through the Atlantic Ocean in which all lands to the east were given to Portugal and all lands to the west were given to Spain. This established Brazil as a Portuguese colony. It ignored the possible colonization of Latin America by the Dutch, the British, and the French.