Recent Event Highlights: Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, Reconstruction Act , Reconstruction Act , Civil Rights Act of 1866, Important People: beginning of Civil War , The Kansas Nebraska Act of 1854, and 36 more...
Created by capsmaddie on Nov 5, 2010
Last updated: 02/16/11 at 07:35 PM
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-->there were an estimated 2 million children working under Age 15; many worked in hazardous conditions; little time for schooling; little hope to advance in life 5. Dangerous Work a. Lung damaging dust, Mine cave-ins and gas explosions; molten steel *Damaged health, severe injury, Death occurred too often 6. How could workers fight back? a. Gain improvements in the terms and conditions of employment -Through unity of action -The formation of labor unions
-->Public Outcry -->New Laws, Regulations -->Growth in garment worker union membership, unions formed
1. J.P. Morgan—The “Titan” of Banking Morgan consolidated and stabilized our banking system and served as a “central” bank at the time when the U.S. had no Federal Reserve Bank o By 1900 he was involved in almost every major financial undertaking in the U.S. (He and his business associates owned nearly all of America’s railroad track; and, high rates were set) a. In 1900, Morgan met Carnegie at a party and scribbled a figure on a piece of paper, and handed it to Carnegie, he offered to buy Carnegie Steel for $492,000,000 b. United States Steel Corporation was created—the world’s first billion dollar company
- The Moving Assembly Line a. Made reliable cars affordable, greater availability b. Model T (cost 200-300) • Later he vertical integrated • Treated workers very well
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)—created “Separate but Equal” requirement in public facilities
banned the forming of trusts and monopolies
• Cotton Industry slowly recovered (by 1880, production equaled 1860) • Textile Mills built to turn Cotton into Cloth • Tobacco Industry growth into North Carolina • Steel from Iron Ore and Coal Deposits • Oil, Copper, Granite, Marble • Pine, Cyprus, Shingles, Furniture
•Samuel Tilden (Democrat) and Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican) -Tilden won the popular vote but the election outcome depended on 20 disputed votes in the electoral college -A commission, made-up of democrat and republican leaders, was created to resolve the election and a secret deal was made -Hayes was awarded the victory but agreed to end reconstruction and remove federal troops from the south. Lasting Impact of Reconstruction • South is solidly Democratic for the next 100 years • Black Southerners lost most of the rights they had gained
Restored voting right to nearly all White Southerners, who are eager to vote for Democrats and rid the South of Republican rule
o By 1876, America’s attention begins to turn to its bright future, and interest in reconstruction starts to evaporate. o Slow erosion of rights gained by the freedmen begins • 1870, Grant was re-elected as President in 1872, widespread corruption hurt Republicans. •Corruption, Grant popularity goes down -Republicans lose power in Congress •Radicals begin to lose power in Congress—Nation grows weary of Reconstruction
a. Terror • A secret society which sought to regain power • They used threats, cross burning, violence and murder • Clan in power during Reconstruction, 1920s Fight Republicans and the Freedmen 1870, Congress passed a law deeming the use of force to prevent voting a crime but, intimidation worked in the South • Terror just to keep black people down, rules separate and unfair.
1. A refinery is a factory for making oil into a usable product 2. Steel Mills mold steel into a usable product a. Horizontal Integration, when competing companies in an industry are taken over or merged into a larger company 3. His childhood a. His mother was really stern and religious, his father lead a footloose life, traveling salesman, very shady b. His dad ran away after being accused of a crime, and left the mother and 5 children to deal with the scandal, grew up with the need for constant security 4. Teenager a. He decided that oil refining was less risky than digging for oil b. He built his refinery right next to the railroad that traveled to the source c. Got a job as a bookkeeper, very serious and studious. • By age 25 his refinery was one of the biggest in the world 5. Marriage a. His wife was a woman that was really involved with women’s rights, and thought his business was just as interesting as he did • Standard Oil Company (1870) a. In exchange for large, regular shipments he received lower transportation costs, so he had the money to lower the price of his products, so consumers bought from him b. Ida Tarbell was the daughter of a man who owned a small oil company, Rockefeller bought the company out 6. Tactics • Buy up all the barrels • Buy up all the available chemicals
-Where did they come from? • 1st – 1840s-1870s -Majority from Northern and Western Europe Sweden, Norway, Finland, Germany, England, France, Ireland • 2nd – 1870s-1914 (and beyond, though WWI certainly interrupted) -Majority from Southern and Western Europe Italy, Poland, Greece, Russia, Spain, Hungary, Turkey
a. Vote and Ran for office themselves (elected sheriffs, mayors, and legislators b. 16 elected to House of Representatives between 1869-1880 c. 2 elected to the Senate (Hiram Revels, the 1st, Blanche Bruce, 1st full term, 6 years) d. Only in South Caroline did Freedmen elect a majority in one house of the State Legislature (More African Americans than white people in the state)
• Bought railroads in NYS and wanted to buy the New York Central; its owners refused • Used ruthless, but legal, business tactics, not allowing other passengers to transfer to his trains) to gobble up others, expanding from Buffalo to Chicago
*The duty of the President is to enforce and execute laws. Congress felt President Johnson was not doing so,  He had fired several military commanders, and  directly challenged the TENURE OF OFFICE ACT, a law which attempted to limit Johnson’s authority by requiring him to get congressional consent to dismiss anyone who had been appointed with congressional approval. Johnson fired Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, the last holdover Cabinet member from the Lincoln administration -Lengthy trial was conducted through May, 1868 (Congress voted to impeach in February) -Senate voted 35 to 19 in favor of conviction (removal), but not the 2/3 vote required (36 to 18) -Consequently, Johnson survived and finished out his term
• Aided by many of the Southern states having rejoined the Union under the “radical” Reconstruction program • 500,000 blacks voted—nearly all for the Republican candidate, Grant o First election African Americans voted in • The 15th Amendment—guaranteed the right to vote, regardless of race, color, or prior servitude. o Proposed in 1869, and ratified in 1870 • Republicans had both moral (the right thing to do) and political (blacks will vote overwhelmingly for Republicans) motives for proposing the Amendment • Voting rights for blacks in both the North and South would help Republicans
• The Radicals’ plan for Reconstruction (compare to other plans, chart on page 22) • Sometimes called “Military” Reconstruction o South split into 5 military districts • Nullified, did away with, most of the Johnson Plan The Plan -Divide the South, (The former confederacy, except Tennessee) into 5 military districts -Forced each state to design state constitutions acceptable to Congress, giving all adult males the right to vote—regardless of race -Forced each state to ratify the 14th Amendment --> • New southern state governments were formed • Former Confederate Officials were banned from voting • Freedmen voting for the first time, in these state elections • Many whites refused to vote in protest • Republicans gained control in all new Southern State Governments
• Sometimes called “Military” Reconstruction -Divide the South, (The former confederacy, except Tennessee) into 5 military districts *Forced each state to design state constitutions acceptable to Congress, giving all adult males the right to vote—regardless of race *Forced each state to ratify the 14th Amendment
• During the campaign, -->President Johnson actively campaigned against republicans -Mob Violence in New Orleans • Results Radicals gained strength in Congress—huge majorities in both Houses “veto-proof” Greater than 2/3 vote • Radical Republicans in Congress, could easily override any veto • Relationship between the President and Congress had totally deteriorated
• Vetoed by President Johnson • Veto overridden by 2/3 vote in each house
-Citizenship Right to African Americans • Vetoed by President Johnson • Veto overridden by 2/3 vote in each house
• Citizenship, Equal Protection of the Laws • Punishment of former confederates ineligible for Congress • Reduced representation for voting restrictions against anyone • Punishment against former Confederates, who left when seceded • Government Debt, the U.S. is not paying any dues, debts to Europe. “But all such debts, obligations, claims shall be held illegal and void” • President actively campaigned against ratification by the states
-Grant said to his men, “when Lee comes, treat them with respect, from this day forward we are all Americans” -Negotiate, Signs, Wars over
More than 25 million immigrants
7000 miles of Railroad Track laid
• Congress and the President did agree to create a government agency to help former slaves • Sought to provide food, clothing, jobs, education—for the former slaves • Assistance was provided to poor whites as well Some Results a. Medical care was provided to more than 1 million b. Schools were set up staffed by volunteer teachers from the North c. The foundation was laid for the public school system in the South d. Colleges were created (ex. Howard, Morehouse and Fisk) All black universities e. Approved by Lincoln
-Same day, Major Robert Anderson, Fort Sumter, raising of the flag -4,000 Free Blacks -John Wilkes Booth, “My American Cousins” Ford’s Theater -Louis Pain, was to kill the Secretary of State, George Aserad was to kill Andrew Johnson -He shot Lincoln with a pistol in the head, wound mortal *Soldiers carried the President into a boarding house -Before 7:00, with his son and his wife -7:30 AM April 15, Abraham Lincoln died, he was 56 years old
On Sherman's March to the Sea Union, Sherman fought
•Scorched Earth, nothing is left for the enemy -Sheridan *Crops, livestock, barns, railroads, destroyed
Lincoln vs. McClellan *Lincoln wins, runs with Andrew Johnson, doesn't agree with his views on equality.
• A stricter alternative to the Lincoln plan offered by Republicans in Congress (Senator Benjamin Wade and Representative Henry Davis) a. A majority of adult, white males in a state would be required to take an Oath of Loyalty b. Each state would be required to Abolish Slavery c. All former Confederate Government officials and military leaders barred (blocked, preventing them) from voting or holding office d. Lincoln refused to sign this proposed law passed by Congress, believing it to be too harsh on the South
• Across Georgia • 1864—Grant was appointed by Lincoln to be commander of the Union forces • Grant devised a plan to end the war, destroying food, equipment, and anything else useful to the enemy, the end of the war (Confederate surrender) would be accelerated • Civilians would feel the same pain, and hardships of war that the soldiers had to go through • Generals Sheridan and Sherman carried out this plan, occupy more and more of the South, (ex. Crops, livestock, barns, railroads, destroyed)
• 1869—Westinghouse Air Brake, safe, able to stop faster more efficiently , more people rode • 1864—Pullman Car, sleeping, bathrooms • Later, dining cars and increased level of service, conductors, porters, waiters—creating more jobs
-272 words of classic elegance, simple beauty were spoken -Written by a man who had none of the advantages of wealth or formal education -He spoke of a Nation, instead of a Union, connected the birth of the United States of America to the Declaration of Independence -He gave life to a beautiful idea, a truth which to that point elusive and uncertain “all men are created equal”
*Grant keeps trying and trying to get control of the Mississippi, can’t do it -Mississippi, key location. Union victory would secure full control of the Mississippi River and split the Confederacy into two. -Prior attempts by the Union had failed, but now, Grant’s army surrounded the city and put it into a state of siege, cut off from the world -(“Prairie dog town” it was called by Union soldiers) Robert E. Lee goes to Jefferson Davis and convinces him to allow him and his army to attack the Union in PA, and possibly put pressure on Washington D.C.—this would force Grant’s army to return east, to defend the capital, leading to Grant leaving Vicksburg • Plan doesn’t work, end up having a battle • Grant remained at Vicksburg and the South surrendered on July 4, the river (Mississippi) was not a Union “highway” • July 4, Independence Day, was not celebrated in Vicksburg for 81 years, not until 1944
*I need 200,000 troops and he was laughed at. They called him insane, and he got depressed about it, and nervous and very suicidal. -At the end of the war, going to be very important, not helpful in the beginning.
• Began to enlist in the Union Army • Earlier, they were legally prevented • All-Black Units; commanded by a white officer, non-combat duties, cooking, cleaning, ½ pay and rarely promoted -Segregation: Separation of groups -Discrimination: Treating groups differently 1863 • Were allowed to fight, participate in combat • U.S. War Department allowed equal pay By War’s End • Approximately 200,000 had fought • 400,000 lost their lives
• removes inepts with regulars (experienced soldiers, generals) • Take control of the Mississippi River, block off water ways and remove the trade from other countries • Appoints him to general, head replacing Winfield Scott
-Lee’s Army advanced into Pennsylvania, hoping to draw away Grant’s army from Vicksburg -Other Union forces moved to meet Lee’s challenge -Over the next 3 days, a massive battle, 85,000 Union soldiers, and 65,000 Confederates -The Union forces held a key advantage, they occupied the high ground, places known as “Little Round Top” and “Big Round Top” in addition, Lee lacked his usual advanced scouting (or intelligence) which he relied on to make his plans -After 2 days of standoff, Lee stubbornly attempted an all-out assault (“Pickett’s Charge) on the Union forces, against the advice of his subordinate officers, a disaster, 13,000 men across an open field, Lee offered to resign -Total casualties over 50,000 (Union 23,000/Confederate 28,000); the July heat and the death toll required a cemetery be created, immediately -This was the bloodiest battle of the Civil War • Lee’s Army retreated and escaped, gravely weakened and never again able to invade North, however they bravely defend Virginia for the next 2 years
• The Conscription or Enrollment Act -July, 1863 Ages 20-45 -South, April, 1862 Ages 18-35, later 45, then 17 to 50. Law favored the rich, two ways • $300 escape—communication fee • A substitute could be hired (example, the fathers of Theodore and Franklin Roosevelt, as well as J.P. Morgan, Andrew Carnegie) • South exempted owners of 20 or more slaves -Big plantations, wanting the crops and cotton to continue to be produced
*Confederate Victory in the East -Lee’s triumph, “Masterpiece” though outnumbered 2 to 1, he split his army and encircled Hooker with a surprise attack, storming the Union army from a thickly wooded area -Stonewall wounded by “friendly fire” died a week later from pneumonia -Lee: “He last lost his left arm, I have lost my right arm”; Union lost 17,000 men
a. When 10% of a state’s voters (1860 presidential election) had taken an Oath of Loyalty, to the U.S., the state would be allowed to form a government. b. Each state would be required to abolish slavery (ratify the 13th amendment) c. Amnesty (or pardon), to confederates who swore loyalty to the union, but not to former leaders of the Confederacy. (Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson)
Matthew Brady photographs the casualties of Antietam and people are amazed, they have never seen anything like it before.
Happens in one day, 3 places • Cornfield • The Sunken Road, “bloody lane” • The Bridge -6:00 AM, to attack Stonewall hidden in a corn field -Major Joseph Hooker • For a Union group, in a matter of minutes, 200 out of 300 people die. • Union chasing the Confederacy, Rebels running for their lives o “I have never in my life seen such a sight, the dead covered the ground” • 8,000,000 men had died, in 4 hours • Jackson “God has been very kind to us this day” Part 2, the Sunken Road “Bloody Lane” • Army moves, around 11:00 AM • Lee ordered they held at all cost • The Union attacked • Gordon let the blue line get within a few yards, and then they get the orders to fire. • Shot down, came back at the Confederates 5 more times. • Confederates held, New Yorkers found place where they could fire down from the top on to the road • Clara Barton tends to the wounded Part 3: The Bridge • Burnside tried to find a way under the bridge to go to the town • 400 Confederates • 3 hours for the Union to get over the bridge *10,318 casualties for Lee, ¼ of his army gone *Well over 21-22,000 casualties *Bloodiest single day in U.S. History
• “Bounty jumping” became a profession (reward received for enlisting, then deserted to do same thing elsewhere) • The first, “conscientious objectors” Conscience says it is not right. (example, the Shakers, religion group, refused to fight. “Our religion says, we cannot fight”) • NYC contemplated secession itself—the city experienced draft riots and the immigrant Irish were very angry and feared the impact of the blacks, “the black people are the ones, forcing us to fight”
George B. McClellan, ..removes inepts with regulars (experienced soldiers, generals • Take control of the Mississippi River, block off water ways and remove the trade from other countries • Appoints him to general, head replacing Winfield Scott Ulysses S. Grant -They won a victory, out in Kentucky. Got over confident and took things from others, they relaxed and were counter attacked. • William Tecumseh Sherman said "I need 200,000 troops" and he was laughed at. They called him insane, and he got depressed about it, and nervous and very suicidal. -At the end of the war, going to be very important, not helpful in the beginning.
• Confederate Victory in the East • Robert E. Lee’ Ambrose Burnside (replaced McClellan) • Fredericksburg was a key transportation link to Richmond, Burnside needed to cross the Rappahannock River • Lee’s army occupied the high ground with an open field between the armies • Burnsides army foolishly attempted to charge up the hill in full view and were mowed down—12,600 casualties •Burnside replaced by Joseph Hooker
-2 day battle in Southern Tennessee -Union movement toward the Mississippi River -Approximately 24,000 casualties (5X as many as Bull Run) -Nation was horrified by the carnage -Though harshly criticized, the battle demonstrated Grant’s resolve and determination to win, something which was lacking among other Union generals *Union victory