Recent Event Highlights: World War II, World War One & InterWar Years (1920's and Great Depression), The Civil War , Pre-Civil War, and 11 more...
Created by ccatsavis on Aug 28, 2009
Last updated: 10/05/09 at 12:39 PM
Democracy and Republicism has no followers yet. Be the first one to follow.
1970-1989 Presidents: Richard Nixon 1969 1974 Gerald Ford 1974-1977 Jimmy Carter 1977-1981 Ronald Regan1981 1989 George H.W Bush 1989-1993 Incidents: 1970: Kent State and Jackson State Shooting 1971:Pentagon Papers Printed 1971:26TH Amendment 1972-1974: Watergate June 1972: Burglars caught at DNC offices at Watergate Hotel May 1973: Senate committee opens hearing on Watergate Affair October 1973: VP Agnew resigns August 1974: Richard Nixon resigns from Office 1973: US Ends Direct Intervention in Vietnam 1979:Three Mile Island Nuclear Accident 1979-1981: Iranian Hostage Crisis 1983:SDI ("Star Wars") Missile Defense System Proposed 1985:Iran-Contra Affair 1989:Berliners Tear Down Berlin Wall Paragraph: This was a very contradicting time for democracy and republicanism. Although you can look at this time period and see that there were moments of democracy, like when students were protesting for the lowering of the voting age and the government responded with the 26th Amendment which did do that, the majority of this time period revolved around Americans questioning and being upset with their governments actions and policy. Between the Kent and Jackson State shootings, Watergate, and Iranian Hostage Crisis it seemed like many people were upset with the way the government was responding to the issues occurring during this time. Sources: Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/History/
Presidents: Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-61) John F. Kennedy (1961-63) Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-69) Richard M. Nixon (1969-74) Incidents: -November 22, 1963- President John F. Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas -1964:24th amendment passed - The Currier Commission -Counter Culture, Hippies, SDS, Malcolm X and the Black Panthers: the idea of making a stronger connection between the government and the people Paragraph: The 1960's were a period of protesting and participatory democracy. Similar to FDR'S New Deal Plan, John F. Kennedy and Linden B. Johnson both worked towards the common goal of forming a stronger connection between the government and the people, (with less government involvement than FDR). Civil Rights triggered the theme of protesting during this time and many other cultural groups were to follow. Americans were frustrated and fed up with the slow legal process and the lack of government attention they were receiving in their fight for equality. This lack of government attention and their need for imitate change resulted in numerous protests that were responded with government violence. This period was defiantly a time of democracy, where people spoke up and protested to the government in hopes that they would provided the changes they needed to better the idea equality in America. Source: Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/History/
Harry S Truman 1945-1953
Dwight David Eisenhower 1953-1961
1945- A bombs, Nuremburg Trials
1946- Iron Curtain speech, baby boom begins
1947- Truman Doctrine, Levittown NY begins
1948- Marshal Plan, Berlin Airlift
1949- Soviet Union explodes atomic bomb, US joins NATO
1950- McCarthy hearings begin, Korean War begins
1951- 22nd Amendment, UVIVAC I
1952- Checkers speech, US detonates Hydrogen Bomb
1953- Korean War ends, Rosenberg's executed
1954- Army- McCarthy hearings and censure, Brown vs. Board of Education
1955- AFL&CIO merge, Montgomery Bus Boycott
1956- Interstate Highway System, Pledge of Allegiance adjusted
1957- Little Rock desegration crisis, Sputnik launched
1958- National Defense Education Act, Explorer space program
1959- Alaska and Hawaii admitted to US, Kitchen Debate
Theme: Fear of communism
Paragraph:• The Post War era was a seen as a good and bad time for democracy in America. While Roosevelt was president for 14 years he put much more government control in place, but the government was also doing and thinking more in terms of the people during this time. His presidency, even though it can be seen as bad for democracy because he was president for so long, shows that if the people continually chose him, that they liked what he was doing and their voices were being heard. During the Interwar years though, Roosevelt's expansion of the central government proved to hurt and go against the original American Republican Ideology. While Roosevelt claimed that more government involvement was good for democracy, he went against the ideals of the founding fathers. The idea of needing a strong central government during this time was mostly caused by the fear of communism. During this time period many Americans feared communism and communist trying to take over America from within. Many government decisions to go to war in Korea, send supplies to Berlin (Berlin Airlift),and join NATO all revolved around the goal of containment, containment of communism. The fear of the spreading of communism led the government, to at times, take to much control and limit the rights Americans should have had during that time. Similar to World War One, war time made it easier for the central government to slip into a more expanded and controlled way of governing where Americans rights were limited in order to keep the country unified.
Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/History/
Presidents: Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933-45) Harry S. Truman(1945-53) Incidents: 1939- Germany invades Poland, World War II begins 1941- Japanese attack Pearl Harbor attacked, bringing US into WWII 1944- D-Day, G.I. Bill of Rights 1945-A-Bombs, Nuremberg Trials Sources: Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/History/
Presidents: Woodrow Wilson 1913-1921 Warren G. Harding (1921-23) Calvin Coolidge (1923-29) Herbert Hoover (1929-33) Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933-45) Incidents: -1917- Espionage Act -1918- Sedition Act 1919- Scheck vs. US -The Red Scare 1926- Revenue Act -October 24, 1929 Black Thursday (Stock Market crashed) 1932-FDR was elected 1933-New Deal Programs Paragraph: During World War One, many aspects of American society were shifted in order to support war efforts. First off, government power had to increase to support the mobilization era that was taking place. Many women started working in factories for the first time, which proved to be important because it showed that women were equal to men in a sense of the types of jobs and work they could do. (many African Americans also migrated for new job opportunities). The idea of more government control wasn’t necessarily all that great though, and as a result Americans rights were limited and taken away with laws like the Espionage and Sedition Acts. This era was defiantly not a time of democracy, because people were not urged to support or oppose their government, whatsoever. Incidents like the Red Scare and the court case of Schenck versus the US, showed how speaking up against the government wasn’t only discouraged but punishable, therefore the ideas of democracy were not reflected during this time of war. Source: Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/History/
Presidents: Benjamin Harrison (1889-93) Grover Cleveland (1893-97) William McKinley (1897-1901) Theodore Roosevelt (1901-09) William H. aft (1909-13) Woodrow Wilson (1913-21) Incidents: 1898-Spanish-American War -Increased education -Taxes *Income taxes regulated (16th amendment) -Voting *Woman get right to vote (19th Amendment) *Direct election of Senators (17th amendment) -Prohibition (18th amendment) *No alcohol -Insurance *Government regulation of business *Wages put in place, no monopoly's -Public Works *Sewer and health sanitation *Food sanitation *Segregation and immigration Paragraph: The Progressive Era was a time of Reform, Democracy, and Public Interest. The Goals of the Progressive Era were to increase education, regulate taxes, give more Americans the right to vote, and over all create a more equal and fair system that would allow the nation to expand and grow and spread their democratic ideals. This period was a good and bad time for democracy in America. In many ways the government was more invested in the people and the people had more control over what the government was doing at this time. The addition of the 19th Amendment enabled twice as many people to be eligible to vote than before which was a huge step for democracy. Although this time period was seen as a huge step for democracy in America, certain groups (African Americans) were not receiving the same benefits. So although this time period was a huge step in forming a more democratic society, it was still limited and not all people were receiving the same benefits. Sources: "Spanish-American War (Visual)." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2009. Web. 1 Oct. 2009. .
Presidents: Rutherford B Hayes 1877-81 James A Garfield 1881 Chester A Arthur 1881-1885 Grover Cleveland 1885-1889 Benjamin Harrison 1889-1893 Incidents: 1877- End of Reconstruction Moral Reforms -alcohol -censorship -Blue Laws -Economic Reforms -Bossism Paragraph: The Gilded age was a time of moral and economic reforms. While there were laws put in place that encouraged purity and censorship, the political situation at this time proved to be the exact opposite. The Gilded Age earned its name because although it looked like society was becoming more democratic and doing things to better the country, the political corruption that lay underneath was like none other the country had ever seen. Bossism was a common political strategy during this time, so, Although voting participation increased during the Gilded Age, it was because people were being paid, threatened and pressured into voting for the "right" candidate. One can look at this time period and say that yes it looked very democratic because more people were voting than every before which means that more voices are being heard, but under the blanket of lies laid every branch of government knee deep in corruption. People were voting, but not for the right reasons, not for democratic reasons. For instance, Congress, during this time had more power than any branch of government, but they were basing their decisions off of things that would get them reelected. It was a time were people were once again not voting by party lines but by what people were promising them. Source: Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC/
Presidents: Abraham Lincoln (1861-65) Andrew Johnson (1865-69) Ulysses S. Grant (1869-77) Incidents: 1865-13th Amendment : Abolished slavery 1868-14th Amendment: cannot deny citizen ship, equal protection, due process to anyone based on the color of their skin -15th Amendment: every man despite the color of their skin can vote 1865-66: Presidential Reconstruction 1866-77: Congressional Reconstruction 1876-Election of 1876 1877-Hayes Tilden Compromise Paragraph: The Civil War left every form of American society including government and land, in ruins. The Reconstruction Era was a period of reforms that took place in on every level of government and society. During the Civil War, half a million people were killed, but the issue of the country being separated over slavery still hung heavy in the air, where tensions between the north and south were still clear and in existence. As a result of these tensions, President Lincoln came up with the 10% plan. Lincoln wanted the country to get moving quickly to rebuild after the war was over , his plan suggested that southern states would be allowed to gain back their full rights as American citizens, but only once 10% percent of the population in each state abolished slavery. Although Lincoln died before his plan could go into effect, the fight for reconstruction only continued when Andrew Johnson took office and Presidential Reconstruction began. Johnsons plan of reconstruction involved giving the south more rights, and ultimately failed. In 1866 congress had become so fed up with the situation that they took over and began the third phase of Reconstruction, Congressional Reconstruction. This resulted in the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments being passes which abolished slavery, protected the rights that African Americans had as US citizens, and allowed African American men to vote. These amendments resulted in a more democratic system in America, although restrictions on African Americans in the south still did not go away. Sources: "The First Vote." Student Resource Center - College Edition. Gale. MARY INSTITUTE & ST LOUIS DAY SCHOOL. 30 Sep. 2009 .
Presidents: Abraham Lincoln- 1861-65 Incidents: Presidents: Abraham Lincoln (1861-65) Incidents: 1861- Battle of Fort Sumter 1862- Emancipation Proclamation *Important moment for democracy and republicanism because the war becomes about getting slaves right, getting closer to the idea that slavery is not ok and that people should participate in government more 1863- Battle of Gettysburg 1863- Lincolns 10% Plan 1865- Abraham Lincoln is assassinated, 13th Amendment passed Paragraph: The Civil War was a time of separation for all Americans, separation cause because of opposing view points on the issue of slavery. Because numerous southern states were breaking out and leaving the country, it was hard for the government to technically enforce rules and regulations for them to follow. The issue of slavery was the center of the conflict between the north and the south and with the writing of the Emancipation Proclamation, the war became solely a fight for the end of slavery. In many way this period was a time of democracy because people were fighting for what they believed in, and the outcome of their feuding was translated into the government in some sense. The outcome of this war, with a victory by the north resulted in a more democratic system where more people were insured of their rights that were protected by the government. Sources: "Lincoln meets with Union Generals during Civil War." (Lincoln, Abraham, with generals, photograph. Corbis-Bettmann. Reproduced by permission. ).Student Resource Center - College Edition. Gale. MARY INSTITUTE & ST LOUIS DAY SCHOOL. 30 Sep. 2009 .
Presidents: William Henry Harrison-1841 John Tyler-1841–45 James Knox Polk-1845–49 Zachary Taylor-1849–50 Millard Fillmore-1850–53 Franklin Pierce-1853–57 James Buchanan-1857-1861 Incidents: -Seneca Falls Convention -Election of 1840 and the idea of Popular Sovereignty -The Compromise of 1850 was first proposed by Henry Clay (KY) and then revised. The Compromise: -California admitted as a free state -No restrictions on slavery -Popular Sovereignty in Utah and New Mexico territories (MO Compromise line repealed) -Nebraska territory divided into two territories--Nebraska and Kansas -Slave trade ended in D.C -Called for a new, strengthened fugitive slave law -The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850: -Fugitive denied jury trial -Commissioner appointed by the courts -Discrepancy in the fee (commissioner paid $5 for setting fugitive free, $10 for returning fugitive) -Citizens must aid in the enforcement *The south bought into this because they now had the power to go to the north and say someone was their slave (even if they weren't) and take them back to the south as their slave. It also made it much easier to capture and retrieve slaves. Result of the Slave Laws- It was easier for slaves owners to catch and return fugitive slaves. The northerners and the rest of the country started to see first hand how bad slavery in the south was. -Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) Paragraph: This era marked the breakdown of the political party system. Growing cultural differences in the views and lifestyles of southerners versus northerners forced people to vote geographically, which caused the break down of the political party system. The continued existence of slavery in the south and the growing division of ideology sentiment caused continuous conflict between the north and south. The Compromise of 1850 kept the nation united but the solution was only temporary. Over the following decade American citizens became further and further divided over the issue of slavery. Sources: "Reforming America, 1815-1850 (Overview)." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2009. Web. 27 Sept. 2009. . -Library of Congress
Presidents: Andrew Jackson 1829-37 Martin Van Buren 1837-41 Incidents: -The Election of 1828 -12th Amendment Paragraph: The Jacksonian Era was most defiantly a time of democracy, a time where the government had the interest of the "common man" in mind and a time where people were encouraged to vote and have input in their government. During this time period more states eliminated property qualifications. To encourage voting participation in politics, states reduced residency requirements for voting, opened polling places in more convenient locations, and eliminated the practice of voting by voice. Direct methods of selection presidential electors and county officials, state judges and governors replaced the indirect methods used in the past. Although many more people were able to vote, African Americans and women were still denied their right to vote. After Andrew Jackson took office in 1829, the most controversial election in American History thus far, he opened the doors to the white house and threw a big party to symbolize that everyone had a say in government. This resulted in the white house getting trashed and defined the differences between the Jeffersonian and Jacksionian Era. While Thomas Jefferson had believed that ordinary citizens could be educated to determine right versus wrong, Andrew Jackson believed that he thought that they knew right by instinct. Jackson, being the dominate political figure of the era helped defend the spoils system, opened millions of acres of Indian lands to white settlement and vetoed the recharter of the second Bank of the United States. Despite the things he accomplished for the "common man", many people thought he took a lot of control for himself and thus gave him the nick name, "King Andrew". (This shows some of the irony that went on during the time he was president) Sources: "Andrew Jackson." American Government. ABC-CLIO, 2009. Web. 27 Sept. 2009. . "Jacksonian Era." Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. 2006. 22 September 2009. [ http].
Presidents: Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, John Quincy Adams Incidents: *Louisiana Territory was Purchased (1803) *War 1812 (1812) *Aaron Burr charged with treason (1806) *Lewis and Clark expedition (1804-1806) *Us ends slave trade (1808) *Missouri Compromise (1820) *Monroe Doctrine (1823) Paragraph: During this era republicanism became stronger. In the election of 1800, James Bayer saved the ideas of Democracy and Republicanism by switching his vote from Burr to Jefferson. By switching his vote he showed the system worked. This was a strong moment of republicanism because, if Bayer had done what the people wanted from Delaware, he would have had to keep voting for Burr which would cause the two candidates to keep ting in votes. Under these circumstances he made a decision for what he thought was the best for his state, although it was without their approval. This was a huge moment for republicanism and when you think about representatives and their rights. Sources: "Lewis and Clark." Student Resource Center - College Edition. Gale. MARY INSTITUTE & ST LOUIS DAY SCHOOL. 22 Sep. 2009 .
Presidents: George Washington 1789–1797, John Adams 1797-1801 Incidents: 1789:George Washington becomes president. 1796:The 1796 election between John Adams and Thomas Jefferson was some what of a disaster that resulted in a divided executive branch 1797:XYZ Affair (with France) 1798: Alien, Naturalization, and Sedition Act -VA-KY Resolutions Paragraph: The new nation time period focused on checks and balances, and the over arching fear of keeping Americas new government from turning into a monarchy. As George Washington made the critical decision of not taking a third term, he then set the president that one single person should not governing over a long period of time, much like a monarch does. While the election of 1796 resulted in a disastrous divided executive branch, Thomas Jefferson struggled to minimize the authority and power John Adams was trying to personally protect with the addition of the Alien, Naturalization, and Sedition Acts, all of which were put in place to protect his power. After much frustration and fear that Americans government was headed down the path of becoming a monarchy, Thomas Jefferson went home to Virgina to set the stage for the up coming election of 1800. Sources: "Washington Creates the Presidency (Visual)." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2009. Web. 27 Sept. 2009. .
Presidents : NONE Incidents: 1777: Articles of Confederation written, this was the first moment when Americans officially declare their independence and take their first attempt at creating a government 1781: The Articles were ratified, and formally approved five years later. This meant that America went five years with out a government 1787: Constitution written, after six years they decided to throw out the articles of confederation and replace it with the Constitution 1788:Constitution Ratified Paragraph: The creation of the Articles of Confederation was the first point in what would soon become American History, where the colonists declared their independence from Britain and attempted to form a new type of government suitable for their new nation. It was soon recognized however, that the Articles of Confederation were a good start in creating a governing system but lacked complexity. In 1787 the Constitution was written with many of the same ideas that made up the Articles of Confederation, but blended with new ideas like the addition of an executive branch, a judiciary system with a supreme court, a national military and a bicameral legislative branch. The creation of the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution were both examples of democracy because this was the first time in American history where the people were agreeing on the type of government they want to create and only the peoples voices mattered at this point. Sources: 1787: Signing of the Constitution of the USA. (Photo by MPI/Getty Images) -- Image Date: 1/1/1787 -- Image Date: 1/1/1787 GETTY. Student Research Center. Digital image. [1787: Signing of the Constitution of the USA.]. 1787. ebscohost . 23 Aug. 2009 .
Presidents:NONE Incidents: 1764-Sugar Act, Currency Act 1765-1766-The Stamp Act 1773-Tea Act 1765-Quartering Act 1770-Boston Massacre 1772-Samuel Adams and committees of Correspondence 1773-Tea Act and Boston Tea Party 1774-Coercive Acts, Boston Committee of Correspondence responds 1774-First Continental Congress April 1775-Lexington& Concord 1775-1781-Second Continental Congress Paragraph: Before the Revolutionary War, The British, who were currently governing the colonists at that time began to treat them unfairly, by taxing them with out them having representation in the government. During the Revolutionary war, the colonists used protests and forming a congress to show that they wanted a government that represented and protected them. Sources: "Organizing Colonial Resistance (Overview)." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2009. Web. 22 Sept. 2009. . "Organizing Colonial Resistance (Visual)." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2009. Web. 22 Sept. 2009. .