Created by chlferris on Dec 8, 2009
Last updated: 12/09/09 at 05:17 PM
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The Arms Race between the U.S. and the Soviet Union began after WWII as each nation competed to make nuclear weapons and bombs. In 1954, the Soviets tested the world’s first H-bomb from an airplane. Because of the Arms Race, the U.S. was forced to expand its nuclear program as well as its technology. In 1957, the Soviets launched Sputnik, the first man-made satellite to orbit the earth, thus the Space Race began. The Space Race is significant to expansion because it expands U.S. dominance internationally as well as in space. In 1969, the U.S. successfully sent the first man to the moon. As Eisenhower described the military industrial complex as expensive and unnecessary, the race to create better missiles, spacecrafts, and spy satellites impacted industrialization by focusing it solely on defense and military rather than consumer products. The U.S. was forced to expand technologically, innovatively, and industrially to compete with the Soviets. The Arms Race and the Space Race allowed the U.S. to boast its power and dominance thus expanding its ego even further. Sources Sputnik. Photograph. Sputnik Traveling Companion. Greg T. Harber. Web. 9 Dec. 2009. . "Nuclear Weapons and Arms Control in the 1960s." DISCovering U.S. History. Gale Research, 1997. Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC/
In 1947, President Truman declared that it was the U.S. new foreign policy "to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures." It was in response to the spread of Soviet communism. During the Cold War conflict with the Soviet Unions, the Truman Doctrine established the spread of U.S. influence and aid to foreign nations in the hopes of stopping communism and promoting American ideals. After the Truman Doctrine, America took other measures to spread its influence and inhibit communism. In May of 1947, the Marshall Plan was enacted to provide aid to Eastern Europe in order to strengthen the continent. Soviets saw U.S. providing money for European reconstruction as a direct threat: money in exchange for dominance, a buying of influence. Both the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan impacted heavily U.S. expansion of influence and political dominance. The U.S. used the Truman Doctrine as justification to intervene in support of other nations ultimately expanding American ideas and influence. The Marshall Plan expanded U.S. support; for example, the Berlin Airlift helped Europeans as well as persuaded them of America’s good intentions. Sources Berlin Airlift. Photograph. Franz J. Kuzay. Web. 9 Dec. 2009. . "Truman Doctrine." The Cold War, 1945-1991. 3 vols. Edited by Benjamin Frankel. Gale Research, 1992. Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC/
The Spanish American War was the war that made the U.S. an international power. As Cuba struggled for independence from Spain, the U.S. decided to break away from its isolationist policy and intervene in the international affair. This war is significant to expansion because it ultimately left America an international power; in territory it gained the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam. The war impacted expansion by expanding the U.S. dominance internationally as well as granting it more land as territories. Sources Mintz The United States Becomes a World Power Module Battle of Manila Bay. Photograph. Library of Congress. ABC-CLIO: American History. Web. 9 Dec. 2009. .
By late 19th century, the U.S. entered into an Age of Imperialism in which the U.S. established itself as a dominant world power by extending control and influence over other areas. Roosevelt issued the Roosevelt Corollary which established the U.S. as the police of the Western Hemisphere ready to use its economic and political power and influence. One example of U.S. imperialism occurred in 1898 with the annexation of Hawaii. The Hawaiian Queen Lily was overthrown by Americans via American economic dominance. In 1903, the U.S. had the Panama Canal built using its political dominance to insure economic control and expand trade. American imperialism impacted expansion by both expanding trade and influence around the world. It established the U.S. as a powerful nation capable of further expansion. Sources Class Notes Annexation of Hawaii. Photograph. Library of Congress. ABC-CLIO: American History. Web. 9 Dec. 2009. .
In 1867 Secretary of State, William Seward purchased Alaska from the Russians for $7.2 million. While many critics called it “Seward’s icebox” and saw little gain in its purchase, American pioneers and traders proved it to be a substantial benefit to the nation. Not only did they see it as fulfilling Manifest Destiny, but Alaska was beneficial to fur traders as well as provided profit and gold. The purchase of Alaska impacted American expansion by pushing Russia off the continent and gaining land valuable to expanding trade with Asia. Sources Class Notes "Alaska Purchase." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History. Gale Group, 1999. Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC/ Purchase of Alaska. Photograph. From Russia with Love. Web. 8 Dec. 2009. .
Rapid industrialization, the industrial revolution, was caused by the dramatic increase of technology and innovations. Inventions such as the steam engine and electricity allow for more efficiency leading to industry. The vast number of immigrants entering the country contributed to an abundance of labor. Entrepreneurs seeking to make profits stimulated this drive towards industry. The government supported it as stimulation of the economy. The nation itself was favorable to industrialization because of the abundance of natural resources. Industrialization, factories and machines, allowed for efficient mass production which lowered prices which allowed American’s to spend more and buy more in excess. Industrialization impacts expansion by greatly expanding economic growth and business. It expanded consumerism and increased life expectancy. Industrialization forever changed the nation’s economy into industry based modern America. Industrialization, however also increased corruption, hence the Gilded Age, as everyone greedily sought profit with little concern for morals. Sources Class Notes Currier, and Ives. Industrial Revolution. Photograph. PBS.org. Web. 8 Dec. 2009. .
The Homestead Act was passed in order to place public land in the hands of western settlers; in essence the government gives land to individuals who will farm it. Jefferson envisioned the Louisiana territory divided into small farms functioning as ideal democracy. The Homestead Act was intended to push people West as well as benefit the government by improving the economy. Free soilers supported it because small farms were too small for plantations and slavery. Immigrants supported it because of the opportunity it granted them. Southerners were opposed because they did not those opposed to slavery or immigrants to gain land. The Homestead Act is significant to expansion because it moved people westward and opened territories to settlement. Sources Class Notes "Homestead Act (1862)." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History. Gale Group, 1999. Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC/ Homestead Act. Photograph. The National Archives. Web. 8 Dec. 2009. .
Congress Passed the Pacific Railway act in 1862 in order to create the first transcontinental railroad as well as the first transcontinental telegraph wire. Railroad owners and big business profited greatly monetarily while immigrants gained opportunity. Reforms saw it is a vast giveaway of money, and environmentalists disliked its impact upon resources, buffalo, and what not. The Pacific Railway had a huge impact upon the nation’s expansion; railroads increased efficiency, which sped up the process of American expansion all together. Railroads expanded economic opportunities as well as transformed American culture by binding the people physically. Sources Class Notes
In 1848 gold was discovered in Sacramento Valley California. Thousands migrated west to mine for gold. By 1849 California’s population rose from 14,000 to 100,000. The Gold Rush transformed California from a “sleepy society” to a wild and violent one (Mintz). By 1860 the gold mining era in California was over. The rush of men to California expanded the nation’s population west, which created a demand for mass transportation; therefore new methods of transportation were developed. The Gold Rush also led to California’s major cities emergence and expansion. The Gold Rush united Americans in hope to fulfill big dreams as well as in major disappointments. Sources "United States-Mexican War." Encyclopedia of the American West. 4 vols. Macmillan Reference USA, 1996. Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC/ Mintz Westward Expansion Module California Gold Miners. Photograph. North Wind Picture Archives. ABC-CLIO: American History. Web. 6 Dec. 2009.
After the annexation of Texas in 1845, the U.S. and Mexico went to war over America’s attempts to expand southward. With a strong belief in Manifest Destiny and with the Polk Administrations expansionist attitude, America fought Mexico with the intent of acquiring land. America won the war in 1848 with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. As a result of the Mexican War, America increased itself in size by one third. The Mexican War is significant because of its profound impact upon southern expansion. This expansion led to deeper conflicts revolving slavery and possible expansion of slavery which inevitable contributed to the beginning of the Civil War. Sources Mintz Westward Expansion Module "United States-Mexican War." Encyclopedia of the American West. 4 vols. Macmillan Reference USA, 1996. Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC/ General Winfield Scott enters Mexico City Image. Photograph. Library of Congress. ABC-CLIO: American History. Web. 6 Dec. 2009. .
Manifest Destiny was the belief that American expansion was a right, inevitable, and divinely ordained; it was the movement to expand westward. It inspired and united many Americans to migrate West to fulfill a special destiny of American expansion. Some looked to expansion to bring enlightenment and modernization while others sought land, gold, freedom. There was a fear that if America did not expand into western territory then someone else might. There was the desire of some to expand slavery into the west. Manifest Destiny embodies the passion of Americans to move westward which equates American expansion into the West; however, the idea of Manifest Destiny also invoked ideas of general American expansion and many used it to justify Indian removal, Mexican War, and America’s dominance in the Western Hemisphere. Manifest Destiny was the spirit of U.S. nationalism combined with desire to expand and a self-righteous attitude which ultimately led the country to encompass land from coast to coast. Sources Class Notes Mintz Westward Expansion Module Gast, John. American Progress. 1872. Photograph. ABC-CLIO: American History. Web. 6 Dec. 2009. .
The Monroe Doctrine has profoundly influenced American foreign policy. It contains four key points regarding U.S. role on the world stage as well as its position on expansion. First, American continents are no longer open to further colonization by European powers. Second, the new, American political system and the Old European one are inherently different and therefore separate. Third, European political interference with an independent state in Western Hemisphere would be seen as a direct threat to the U.S. Fourth, the U.S. will not interfere with internal European affairs or with existing European colonies in the Western Hemisphere. This response to British proposal established U.S. dominance in the Western Hemisphere. The central idea of Europe and the U.S. staying separate allowed the U.S. to continue to expand by warning Europe to stay out of key issues such as disputes over the Oregon Territory and the Mexican War. Presidents also cited the Monroe Doctrine as justification for U.S. intervention in the Western Hemisphere. This gain in political clout in the New World and increase in national pride significantly supported American expansionism. Sources "Monroe Doctrine (1823)." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2009. Web. 6 Dec. 2009. http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display.aspx?categoryid=31&entryid=254712&searchtext=monroe+doctrine&type=simple&option=all Monroe Doctrine Political Cartoon. Photograph. WorldPress.com. Web. 6 Dec. 2009. .
The Louisiana Purchase was Thomas Jefferson’s acquisition of 909,000 square miles of land from the French in 1803. The Louisiana Territory contained land from British Columbia to New Orleans, from the Ohio River to the eastern border of New Spain. Jefferson’s $15 million purchase effectively doubled the size of the U.S. and allowed readily for expansion, especially continued westward which French territory once blocked. The new land also included ports such as the New Oreland Port which allowed for an expansion of trading. Sources "Louisiana Purchase." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2009. Web. 6 Dec. 2009. Peale, Rembrandt. Map of the area of the U.S. procured with the Louisiana Purchase. Photograph. Web. 6 Dec. 2009. .
In May of 1607, the first colonists arrive in Jamestown to establish the first permanent English settlement In America. It was difficult to survive in the New World, so colonists relied heavily on the natives; however, the colonists brought the natives only disease and harm. The colonists’ arrival marks the beginning expansion; this initial acquisition is expansion. People moved to the colonies in order to gain opportunity and freedom and profit. The colonists themselves were people who did not want to serve England and wanted to expand in order to increase land. Their desire to expand combined with Britain’s disallowance of expansion united colonists which eventually led to their independence. Sources Arrival of Colonisits in Jamestown, Virginia. Photograph. Library of Congress. ABC-CLIO: American History. Web. 8 Dec. 2009. . Class Notes "The Settlement of Jamestown, May 24, 1607." DISCovering World History. Online Edition. Gale, 2003. Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC/