Created by christinadaley on Mar 31, 2011
Last updated: 04/08/11 at 12:35 PM
Events Leading to the Civil War has no followers yet. Be the first one to follow.
•The main issues in the United States were distrust and Disunity, most of which was caused due to debates on slavery. The fighting between political parties was also a major issue. The debates over slavery were a major factor that affected the outcome of the new election dramatically. •Several People were running for President such as Lincoln (Republican), Breckenridge (Southern Democratic), Douglas (Northern Democratic), and Bell (Constitutional Union). South associated the Republican Party to abolitionists and said that a republican victory would mean disunion. •First presidential nominee was from the democrats in 1860. They met in Charleston, South Carolina to decide. The northern and southern members of the party could not reach a decision, so they met 6 weeks later. They still could not make a decision causing the party to split into two different groups. Northern Democrats nominated Senator Stephan Douglas. Southern Democrats= vice president, John C. Breckinridge (strongly supported the spread of slavery). •Some Northerners and Southerners mad e a new political party called the Constitutional Union Party. Its rules were no political principals other than the Constitution of the country, the Union of the States, and the enforcement of laws. They supported John Bell (Slaveholders, and opposed Kansas Nebraska Act. •Republican convention Senator William Seward as leading candidate. Republicans feared that his anti-slavery beliefs mad him a bad candidate. •Lincoln won. The south did not like this. He wanted the spread of slavery to stop, but he would leave slavery alone where it already was (south). •Southerners felt that: there economy and ways of life would be destroyed without slavery, they could not live in the U.S. when Lincoln was president, and they wanted to leave the Union. •This resulted in the South seceding from the Union. They were later joined by other countries and formed the Confederate States of America.
•At the time, slavery was in full affect and John Brown did not like that. John Brown was frustrated upon arriving to New England from Kentucky because most abolitionists only wanted to end slavery civilly by talking it out. This bothered Brown because he said that talking will never free the slaves, and if they wanted slavery to end, they needed to take forceful action. •John Brown and his twenty-two followers were involved in The Raid on Harper’s Ferry on October 16, 1859. They believed that something needed to happen in order to aid the abolitionist cause and help rally antislavery Americans to act. They wanted to raid a federal arsenal in Virginia and use the weapons to arm surrounding slaves. They would then move south of the Appalachians, creating panic and recruiting more slaves as they passed. They wanted this all to happen in order to free slaves, and completely stop slavery for good. •The main events that led up to The Raid on Harpers Ferry were the issue of slavery, and the new political party change. John Brown felt compelled to Raid Harpers Ferry in order to try and stop slavery/ rebel. The Political party change also helped lead to The Raid on Harpers Ferry because different party’s ideas/beliefs were surfacing, and there was much debate on who was right. •John Brown got a group of 22 men to raid a federal arsenal in Virginia. On October 16, 1859, the raid began when they entered Harper’s Ferry, Virginia. He and his followers tried to gather slaves they saw to help the cause. Yet, none did. Armed white southerners attacked them, killing eight of his men and three local men. Brown and his followers then hid out in a firehouse until the Federal troops arrived and killed two more of his men, and captured the rest. Most then received the death penalty/ sentences. On November 2, john brown made a speech saying that he will not have died in vein and that he would dye to end slavery if that was what needed to be done. As expected, Brown was hung on December 2, 1859. •The result of the raid on Harper’s Ferry was not good for John Brown and his followers. All of his men were captured, and John was put to death. This caused much morning from people in the North, and caused southerners to fell threatened that their way of life/production might be in jeopardy the next time a revolt like this happened. Overall, the Raid on Harpers Ferry was an awaking that times were changing and the south needed to prepare for many more abolitionist outburst like this one. More disunion was on the way. •The impact the raid on Harper’s Ferry had on the north, south (country) was a mix of fear, mourning, and an awaking. Since the people of the North thought of John Brown as a Saint, they mourned the death of such a man that would sacrifice his life for justice and equal human rights. However, even though Lincoln opposed slavery, he still believed that Brown and his followers were wrong for their actions of violence, bloodshed, and treason. The South felt that they needed to hurry to try to get out of the Union or else their safety is at risk. They felt that the way of life they were used to would be in danger if another John Brown comes around with better forces.
•At the time in the United States, slavery was the main issue. The debate on which states should be free or slave states played a main part in the Lincoln-Douglas Debates. Before these debates, the issue of free and slave states was up to the government/Supreme Court to decide. •Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas were the main individuals involved in the Lincoln-Douglas Debates. Lincoln believed that slavery was unethical because all African Americans were allowed to the natural rights (life, liberty, pursuit of happiness) that are summarized in the Declaration of Independence. Yet, he thought that African Americans still were not necessarily political or social equals of the whites. •Douglas however, believed that slavery should not be stopped, and that they are not white people’s equals/brothers. He used many different tactics to shocked people out of voting of Lincoln. He also believed that the nation could not remain “half slave and half free” as Lincoln had said. He convinced people that it was a Republican plan to make every state free, and that it would only cause damage to the union, and war between the North and South. •The specific events leading up to the Lincoln- Douglas debates were the nomination of Lincoln for a U.S Senate seat in 1858, and the Dred Scott decision. Lincoln tried to use his opponent’s (Douglas) popularity to the best of his advantage by challenging Douglas to numerous debates throughout the state. This was because Lincoln was not well known at the time other than in Illinois, so when he moved to the Midwest in 1816, he needed exposure. The Dred Scott decision also led up to these debates. In the debates, Lincoln stated that slaves do have natural rights which completely went against what Chief Justice Roger B. Taney said during the Dred Scott decision. Taney said that African Americans had no rights in which a white man had to respect, and that they were not citizens under the U.S. Constitution. •Basically nothing was decided during the Lincoln-Douglas debates, because they were mainly just arguments between two different opinions on one topic (slavery). Lincoln and his party fought for the side opposing slavery and the spread of slavery, while Douglas and his side fought to keep slavery because the blacks were inferior to whites, and the stop of slavery would only cause national problems. •At the second debate, Lincoln asked Douglas how he proposed to let Congress allow citizens to ban slavery if they wished to. Douglas came up with a response called The Freeport Doctrine. This allowed the people to choose whether they wanted to be a free or slave state, and that it was not the Supreme Courts decision. This put the control over slavery back in to the peoples hands. The doctrine also helped lead to Douglas winning the Senate Seat, and Lincoln later becoming the leader of the new Republican Party. •The Lincoln-Douglas debates impacted people in the North and South because whoever won the seat would have their opinion enacted. Yet, luckily Lincoln and Douglas came up with The Freeport Doctrine allowing the people to choose if they wanted slavery or not. This gave the people more power as to how they wanted to live (more individual state power and less government power).
•Dred Scott, a slave in the 1800s, moved with his slaveholder to Illinois and Wisconsin, which were both free states. He then moved back to the South. He sue for freedom with the reason that the state he had lived is was a free state, therefore he was no longer a slave. •Dred Scott sued for his freedom in 1847. Controversy arose between the people who supported Dred Scott and people who did not. •Many Northerners believed that Scott should be freed, while several southerners disagreed. •Scott was tried in a lower court (compared to Supreme Court) which ruled in his favor. However the Supreme Court overturned the ruling. •Roger Taney, Chief in Justice, decision was based upon his belief. He believed that Dred Scott was not a citizen, because he was African American, and therefore could not file suit. Additionally, he believed that because he returned to Missouri he could only file suit under the laws of Missouri (slave state). Also he thought that Congress could not prohibit someone from taking slaves into federal territory and had no right to ban slavery in federal territory because slaves were considered property. The Fifth Amendment states that no one can be deprived of their property without due process. •Dred Scott stayed enslaved and white southerners cheered the decision, while northerner’s stood stunned. •Northerners feared that the spread of slavery would not stop with federal territories. •Republicans became upset that their platform in 1856 (congress had the right to ban slavery in federal territories) which was concluded true at the time was concluded untrue with Dred Scott’s ruling. •Southerners were pleased with the ruling.
•Stephen Douglas suggested building a railroad from Chicago straight to the Pacific Ocean. However, at this time southerners wanted a railroad that ran from New Orleans across Texas and New Mexico Territory to Southern California. This argument revived the disagreement of slavery. •Stephen thought of a compromise so a railroad could be built from Chicago straight to the Pacific Ocean. His compromise was called the Kansas-Nebraska Act. It stated that there would be a plan that would divide the remaining territory from the Louisiana Purchase into Kansas and Nebraska. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide on the question of slavery. This would eliminate the restriction of slavery north of the 36 degree 30’ latitude line or Missouri’s southern border. •President Pierce agreed with the Kansas-Nebraska plan. •Antislavery Northerners sent petitions and protest meetings in disagreement of the plan. •Some Southerners supported the Kansas-Nebraska plan. •The plan passed through both houses and was signed on May 30, 1854. •The plan was followed through. Kansas and Nebraska became states where popular sovereignty decided whether or not the states were slavery states or free states. This then terminated the Missouri Compromise, which stated that slavery could not occur north of Missouri’s southern border. •Construction of the railroad was postponed to 1862. •Controversy arose when antislavery and proslavery groups raced to Kansas because each group wanted the state to be either free or slave. •This led to a creation of two different legislatures in 1856. One pro-slavery and one anti-slavery. -Violence between the two sides occurred. For example, the Sack of Lawrence and Pottawatomie Massacre were violent protests. •The Kansas-Nebraska act brought the argument of slavery into the attention of the nation.
•The quick increase in population and the gold rush caused California to become a popular territory. After growing profusely, California applied to join the union. •California applied to the Union to become a state instead of a territory. It was questioned how California should be entered into the union. Free state? Slave state? •Senator Henry Clay thought California should enter as a free state and the Mexican Cession should become federal land where popular sovereignty would decide if it was free or slave state. In addition, he believed that Texas should give up a certain amount of land in return for the Government’s payment of Texas’s debt. He thought slave trade (not slavery) should end in the National’s capital and a more fugitive slave law would be passed. •Senator William Senard believed that California should join the Union without any conditions, compromises, and qualifications. •Senator Jefferson Davis (Mississippi) disagreed to the admission of California as a free state. •Senator John C. Calhoun (South Carolina) believed the balance between the free and slave states would be destroyed if a free state was admitted to the Union. •Daniel Webster agreed with Clay’s compromise. •President Taylor disagrees with Clay’s compromise. •President Taylor, John Calhoun, and Henry Clay died. The Millard Fillmore (Vice President) succeeded the President and favored the idea of a compromise unlike President Taylor. •A new proposal was created. It stated that California would enter the Union as a free state and the Mexican Cession would divide into Utah and New Mexico, where popular sovereignty would decide their slavery aspects. Additionally It declared that Texas would yield it’s land claims in New Mexico in for the governments financial aid in return. Also, it stated that slave trade would be abolished in the nation’s capitol and a more fugitive slave law would be created. •The proposal or Compromise passed through Congress and was signed by President Fillmore in 1850. •With the acceptance of the compromise, California entered the Union as a free state and Utah and New Mexico were created. Texas’s debts were paid after they surrendered their land claims in New Mexico. Slave trade was abolished in the Nation’s capitol and a more fugitive slave law was created. •The compromise kept the slavery issue on American’s minds.
•In 1819 Congress began to consider Missouri’s application as a slave state. At the time there was an equal number of free and slave states. Sectionalism between the North (free states) and the South (slave states) arose because they did not want an unequal number of slave or free states. •The United States argued over the number of free states and slave states there should be. The House of Representatives formed an amendment that stated that in the U.S. that Missouri would become a slave state (state with slavery). It also declared that importing enslaved Africans into America would be illegal and any enslaved children would be freed at the age of twenty-five. •Southern Politicians disliked the House’s amendment. •The Senate also disliked the House’s amendment and rejected it. •Senator Rufus King (New York) opposed the expansion of slavery •Senator Nathaniel Macon (North Carolina) wanted to continue adding slave states to the Union •Henry Clay developed the Missouri Compromise which declared that Missouri would join the union as a slave state (slavery) while Maine would enter the Union as a free state (no slavery). It also stated that slaves would not be allowed north of the 36 degree 30’ latitude, otherwise known as Missouri’s southern border. •Representative Benjamin Harding agreed with the Missouri Compromise and encouraged people to support the Missouri Compromise. •The Missouri Compromise was accepted in 1820 by Congress. •The compromise was followed through. Missouri became a slave state and Maine became a free state. Slavery was prohibited north of Missouri’s southern border (38 degree 30’ latitude). •Even with the success of the compromise the North still disagreed with the expansion of slavery.