Recent Event Highlights: The Civil War, Pre-Civil War, and 13 more...
Created by copalmer on Aug 23, 2010
Last updated: 09/29/10 at 11:50 AM
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PRESIDENTS Richard M. Nixon Gerald R. Ford James Carter INCIDENTS (1970) Kent State & Jackson State shootings (1971) Pentagon Papers printed (1971) 26th Amendment added to the Constitution (1972-1974) Watergate (June 1972) Burglars caught at DNC offices at Watergate hotel (May 1973) Senate committee opens hearing on Watergate Affair (Oct. 1973) Spiro Agnew (VP) resigns; “Saturday Night Massacre” (Aug. 1974) Richard Nixon resigns from office (1973) US ends direct intervention in Vietnam (1979) Three Mile Island nuclear accident (1979-1981) Iranian Hostage Crisis (1983) SDI (“Star Wars”) missile defense system proposed (1985) Iran-Contra Affair (1989) Berliners tear down Berlin Wall PARAGRAPH America at the end of the 20th century represented a time of democracy and republicanism. America saw democracy with the adding of the 26th Amendment, which allowed for a more citizens to vote and be a part of governmental matters, as well as ending intervention in Vietnam, a proposal widely supported by the majority of Americans. Republicanism was present in the US during this time when Nixon chose to exercise his power as President to gain information, even though it was illegal, during the Watergate scandal. Nixon and his aids in the US government used their power to cheat the system and gain information on their opponent during the campaign process. Nixon using his supreme power of free will as an elected representative represented a clear example of republicanism during this era. The US at the end of the 20th century included times where democracy and republicanism were present that affected the way events occurred, in good ways and in bad ways. IMAGE The collapse of the Berlin Wall. This symbolized the end of the Cold War and the constant conflict between the Communist Soviet Union and the Democratic United States. "The Berlin Wall Falls." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History. Detroit: Gale, 2010. Gale Student Resources In Context. Web. 27 Sept. 2010.
PRESIDENTS John F. Kennedy Lyndon B. Johnson Richard M. Nixon INCIDENTS Vietnam War (1955-1973) Assassination of JFK (1963) Assassination of MLK (1968) Kerner Commision (1968) Civil Rights Movement Rise of Malcolm X along with Martin Luther King, Jr Youth Movement included groups and movements such as the Free Speech Movement, Students for a Democratic Society, Young Americans for Freedom, and the counter culturists (hippies) PARAGRAPH Democracy and Republicanism were both prevalent during the 1960's. The 1960's were a time of great change and turmoil because of all the events going on. Democracy was present during the 1960's because many citizen led movements emerged that allowed for the opportunity to protest and enable a better opportunity to gain more rights for certain groups. President John F. Kennedy preached democracy and citizens having a larger role in governmental matters. Groups like African-Americans represented a democratic ideal of protesting to gain more rights. Many citizens of the United States were being treated unfairly and unjustly, and thus used the idea of democracy in which everybody has equal rights to protest. Republicanism was present during the 1960's because the government exercised much power with and without the citizen's consent. Concerning the Vietnam War, the government made many, many decisions that were unapproved by Congress and lied to the American people. However, the US government did exercise it's power during the Kerner Commision by formally stating and taking responsibility by saying that the cause of all the rioting at the time was a problem and the government needed to fix it. Also, Lyndon B. Johnson represented using Republicanism by instituting his series of reforms titled "The Great Society", a branch off of Kennedy's plans. The 1960's was an eventful time of great change that saw Democracy and Republicanism present at different times of the era. IMAGE A picture of the Birmingham Protests in which protesters were doused by fire hoses and physically assaulted. This was just one of many protests that African-Americans performed throughout the 1960's during the Civil Rights Movement. "The Birmingham protests were among the largest ever launched during the civil rights movement." U*X*L Encyclopedia of U.S. History. Sonia Benson, Daniel E. Brannen, Jr., and Rebecca Valentine. Ed. Lawrence W. Baker and Sarah Hermsen. Vol. 1. Detroit: UXL, 2009. Gale Student Resources In Context. Web. 26 Sept. 2010.
PRESIDENTS Harry S. Truman Dwight D. Eisenhower INCIDENTS 1945: A Bombs, Nuremburg Trials Atomic bombs, US ended the war, two dozens Nazi officials were convicted of war crime 1946: Iron Curtain speech, Baby boom begins Made by Winston Churchill about problems between Communism and Capitalism, the division between the Soviet Union and the non communists, people happy over the war, promotion of families 1947: Truman Doctrine, Levittown NY President Truman stated that any countries worldwide in threat of being taken over by Communism would be aided by the US, Big mass suburb for veterans, grew substantially 1948: Marshall Plan, Berlin Airlift The US would provide all aid to European nations that needed it, US airlifted in supplies to West Germany 1949: Soviet Union and A-Bomb, US joins NATO Soviet and US arms race, Soviet first successfully tested nuclear bomb, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, made to counter Soviet threat by creating alliances 1950: McCarthy hearings, Korean War Joe McCarthy senator from Wisconsin, the second Red Scare, fear of Communism, June 1950 NK invaded SK, Seoul was taken over, US military helped 1951: 22nd Amendment, UNIVAC Limited the Presidential term to 2 terms, first real computer 1952: Checkers speech, US detonates Hydrogen bomb Speech by Richard Nixon denying the allegations that he used public funds to help his campaign, US government tested world's first H bomb, made after Soviets tested A bomb, new bomb 1953: Korean War ends, Julius & Ethel Rosenberg Ended in 1953, US suffered many deaths and push past 38th parallel and ran into the Chinese army and then peace negotiations happened, charges with crimes of being Soviet spies, sentenced to death under Espionage act 1954: Army-McCarthy hearings, Brown vs. Board of Education Between Joe McCarthy and army signal corps, army was accused of having communist plots against the government, McCarthy's career went downhill, Topeka, KS, group of students parents filed a lawsuit against segregation, Supreme Court made segregation illegal 1955: AFL & CIO merge, Montgomery Bus Boycott Merger of two big labor unions, kind of like unions, large amount of people boycotted riding buses in Montgomery, get rid of segregated seating 1956: Interstate Highway System, Pledge of Allegiance adjusted Interstate highway system is created, created 41,000 miles of interstate highway, help for in case of nuclear attacks so that people could evacuate, under god was added to the pledge of allegiance 1957: Little Rock desegregation crisis, Sputnik Was in September 1957, nine black teenagers broke the color barrier and attended a public school, a lot of controversy because governor of Arkansas was against integration, built my soviet union, first successful man made satellite 1958: National Defense Education Act, Explorer space program Made by Eisenhower, made available college scholarships for math and science, Explorer followed Sputnik, first US man made satellite 1959: Alaska and Hawaii admitted to US and Kitchen Debate Alaska was the 49th and largest state admitted, use to be Russia's, Hawaii the last state to join the Union, debate between Nixon vs. Khruschev when Nixon went over to Moscow. They saw a kitchen model and started debating over communism and capitalism. They argued but both sides stood their ground, in the Cold War everything was about who was better PARAGRAPH Democracy was prevalent during Postwar America because people became very patriotic and unified. The goal of the United States at this time was to contain Communism and to stop the spread of Communism to other parts of the world. Citizens came together during this time to strenghten America and build off of the momentum of winning World War II. Also, within 5 years of the war ending, the Cold War began. America aided non-Communist countries during the Cold War so that the Soviet Union would not expand and grow into a major Communist world power. The United States aided regions like Greece and West Germany with the Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, and the Berlin Airlift. It was democratic of the Unites States to support citizens of the world who were less fortunate and to unite in fighting the spread of Communism. IMAGE The Berlin Wall. The Berlin Wall was a symbol of the Cold War, representing the iron curtain between the ideaologies of the United States and the Soviet Union. "Berlin Wall Goes Up." The Cold War. Ed. Walter Hixson. Woodbridge, CT: Primary Source Media, 2010. American Journey. Gale Student Resources In Context. Web. 24 Sept. 2010.
PRESIDENTS Warren G. Harding Calvin Coolidge Herbert Hoover Franklin D. Roosevelt INCIDENTS "Roaring Twenties" (1920's) The Great Depression (1929-1941) World War II (1939-1945) Battle at Stalingrad (1942) D-Day (1944) Battle of the Bulge (1944) V-E Day (1945) V-J Day (1945) PARAGRAPH Democracy and Republicanism were both present during the Interwar Years and during WWII. During the Interwar Period, specifically the 1920's, democracy had a heavy influence of the social life of young people. The youth of the 1920's used their rights to be active members of society and to form groups. This included starting new fashion trends and taking advantage of capitalism. Citizens had the right to free will and used this right to introduce changes to society that had never been seen before. The Great Depression was an example of republicanism because the government took over the decision making. After the stock market crash, the government used its powers to make loans and create jobs that would stabilize the economy and put America on the upswing financially. WWII was an example of democracy because America came together to fight the Nazi powers. Citizens rationed food and supplies like they had during WWI. Also, many jobs were created because of WWII that helped more citizens to become financially independent from the government and get America out of the Depression. The reason the United States was involved in WWII was democratic because America fought for the Allied Powers who believed in equal rights for all people and fair treatment of other societies. IMAGE This is a chart of the gross output of the US during WWII. The War greatly helped the US get out of the depression by providing jobs and stimulating the economy because of manufacturing materials. "Graph of Gross Output of WWII, 1939-1943." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History. Detroit: Gale, 2010. Gale Student Resources In Context. Web. 22 Sept. 2010.
PRESIDENTS Theodore Roosevelt William Howard Taft Woodrow Wilson INCIDENTS Series of reforms thought of by citizens -economical, government, morals, social -Espionage Act (1917) -forbade actions that went against the recruitment of soldiers to fight in the war -Sedition Act (1918) -made it a crime to speak out or speak against the war or the government (sparked controversy over 1st Amendment right to free speech and how far that goes, led to Schenck vs. U.S. case) -sinking of the Lusitania -Zimmerman note -"Red Scare" -WWI (1917-1919) PARAGRAPH The Progressive & WWI Era represented democracy and republicanism. This Era represented democracy because starting with the early Progressive Era, there were a series of reforms that people put into place that improved the lifestyle of all the citizens. These reforms were thought of by citizens and were meant to help citizens. The mass population grew stronger because of these changes. Democracy was present during wartime because of America becoming a "home front". The "home front" included actions such as rationing food, rationing metal and other materials, and making propoganda that unified the country and its support of the war. Republicanism was present during the war because the government gained power. The government initiated acts like the Espionage Act and Sedition Act that limited the free speech of citizens and lowered the protection of rights for all citizens in order to defend against possible threats. IMAGE Propaganda poster as seen during WWI. These posters were meant to encourage support of the war overseas by helping on the home front. "World War I War Bond Poster." American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, et al. Detroit: Gale, 2010. Gale Student Resources In Context. Web. 20 Sept. 2010.
PRESIDENTS Rutherford B. Hayes James Garfield Chester Arthur Grover Cleveland William McKinley INCIDENTS -Western expansion -Purity Crusade -reform to get back to morals/values -Rise in wealth/economy -first millionaires in America -Rise in industry/business -Technological revolution -Rise of urban environments -Political corruption was present with local level bossism -Highest voter participation in American history PARAGRAPH During the Gilded Age, democracy and republicanism were both present. Democracy was present because the Gilded Age saw the highest voter participation of any era up to date. Also, citizens received more rights, causing capitalism to grow with these rights. The Gilded Age also represented Republicanism because the ultimate power during this era was in the hands of the elected representatives. The Gilded Age saw a lot of corruption and greed in governments on the local and national level. IMAGE A picture showing the boom in journalism during the Gilded Age. Not only did journalism and newspaper publications increase, but so did other industries and businesses. "The boom in journalism." Image. Library of Congress. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 18 Sept. 2010.
PRESIDENTS Abraham Lincoln Andrew Johnson Ulysses S. Grant INCIDENTS Emancipation Proclamation (1863) -said that slaves were free in the United States -Didn’t effect the non seceeding states -makes the civil war a war about slavery -an example of Republicanism, Lincoln was trying to assert his power as President Lincoln's 10% Plan (1863) -makes it easier for Confederates to come back -10% of the population takes an oath to abolish slavery and be loyal to the Union Presidential Reconstruction (1865) Andrew Johnson -willing to pardon people -states could reenter if they agreed to abolish slavery Congressional Reconstruction (1866) -Congressional Republicans, appalled by mass killing of ex-slaves and adoption of restrictive black codes, seized control of Reconstruction from President Johnson. -Congress passed laws to lessen the rights of the President -wanted to make sure they punished the South Reconstruction Amendments 13th: 1865, abolished slavery 14th: 1866 guaranteed citizenship for african-americans and prevented slaveowners from getting compensation 15th: 1870 prohibited any government in the US from denying someone to vote based on race or skin color, universal male suffrage Election of 1876 & Compromise of 1877 -disputed election between Hayes (Republican) and Tilden (Democratic) over the disputed states (Louisiana, Florida, and South Carolina) -the Republicans asked the southerners in the disputed states that if they gave their support to the republicans they would take all federal troops out of their states PARAGRAPH The Reconstruction Era contained elements of Democratic ideals. These ideals include giving more rights to former slaves, Congress exercising power to overthrow a decision made by the President, and granting universal male suffrage. At this time, more democratic ideals were being instituted to limit corruption in the government and ensure a better life for the American citizen. IMAGE An image of the debate over universal male suffrage, ultimately granted in 1870 by the 15th Amendment "Broadside: The Constitutional Amendment. Woodcut, c. 1866. A political broadside on black suffrage..." Dictionary of American History. Ed. Stanley I. Kutler. 3rd ed. Vol. 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2003. Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 15 Sept. 2010.
PRESIDENTS Abraham Lincoln INCIDENTS Numerous battles throughout the eastern side of the United States during the war Battle of Gettysburg (1863) -the North turned the war around, led to the surrender of the South Appomattox (1865) -surrender of the South PARAGRAPH The Civil War wasn't an example of a democracy in which there is unity and a decision from the public. The Civil War, however, contains the democratic ideals of letting the power be in the hands of the people and the quest for self-rule. Both sides of the war wanted to ensure their laws and their beliefs. Also, citizens on both sides wanted to exercise their power as citizens of the United States to create a government that best served them, the people. Ultimately, the North won and had, by default, the majority decision to abolish slavery from the United States. IMAGE Abraham Lincoln with Northern Union troops during the Civil War "Abraham Lincoln with troops during the Civil War." Presidential Administration Profiles for Students. Ed. Kelle S. Sisung and Gerda-Ann Raffaelle. Detroit: Gale Group, 2010. Gale Student Resources In Context. Web. 14 Sept. 2010.
PRESIDENTS Martin Van Buren William Henry Harrison John Tyler James K. Polk Zachary Taylor Millard Filmore Franklin Pierce James Buchanan INCIDENTS Kansas-Nebraska Act Compromise of 1850 PARAGRAPH The Pre-Civil War Era was interesting because America got away from some of the democratic values it had preached since the signing of the Constitution in 1776. With the Kansas-Nebraska Act, slaves gained less rights. With the Compromise of 1850, America became divided and ununified as a nation. Also, when Abraham Lincoln was elected President, he didn't even receive 40% of the popular vote. This means that 6 out of every 10 Americans did not want Abraham Lincoln as their President. The idea of a democratic society in which the representatives truly represent the citizen's needs and wants was absent. Also, there were basically two governments, those who opposed slavery and those who were for slavery. The presence of a divided nation didn't help the cause for democracy either. IMAGE Fighting settlers over the rights to popular sovereignty in Kansas, this was known as "Bleeding Kansas" "Kansas settlers fight over popular sovereignty in 1854." Image. North Wind Picture Archives. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 13 Sept. 2010.
PRESIDENTS Andrew Jackson INCIDENTS Andrew Jackson elected President over John Quincy Adams -sign of a revolution Voter turnouts skyrocketed The prestige of being the President and the power of being the President was improved by Jackson Idea that roles in public office should be rotated first suggested by Jackson Jackson also opened the White House to the public for the first time Seneca Falls Convention -first women's rights convention, initiated women's rights movement PARAGRAPH Democracy was immensely prevalent during the Jacksonian Era. The Jacksonian Era was the era of the common man led by the "President of the Common Man." Jackson believed in giving all the rights to citizens that they deserved. Jackson applauded citizen involvement in governmental matters. Jackson preached democratic republicanism in which every citizen mattered. Furthermore, Jackson disapproved of classes and people of high social status because he believed these people were given unfair opportunities for wealth and prosper. Ultimately, Andrew Jackson was the epitome of a leader in a democratic society because he welcomed decisions being made by the public. He worked to ensure that the masses received their natural rights and were equal in the eyes of the law to those of higher social status. IMAGE President Andrew Jackson "Jackson, Andrew." Presidential Administration Profiles for Students. Ed. Kelle S. Sisung and Gerda-Ann Raffaelle. Detroit: Gale Group, 2010. Gale Student Resources In Context. Web. 8 Sept. 2010.
PRESIDENTS Thomas Jefferson James Madison James Monroe John Quincy Adams INCIDENTS Louisiana Purchase (1803) Election of 1804-Jefferson becomes President 12th Amendment (1804) Lewis & Clark (1804-1806) Congress bans slave trade (1807) War of 1812 (1812-1814) Missouri Compromise (1820) Monroe Doctrine (1823) PARAGRAPH Democracy was prevalent in the Jeffersonian Era mainly because of the 12th Amendment. The 12th Amendment allowed for citizens to have a larger say in governmental matters and affairs. The 12th Amendment, the change to better elect a pure President and a Vice-President, enhanced the voting process for all voting American citizens. Citizens were thus introduced to a simpler way of electing governmental officials and a fairer way to elect their leaders. Also, the Congress mandated ban of slaves further showed how America was becoming a more democratic nation. The belief in becoming a fair nation and a nation less void of aristocracy and more full of a common man was first started. American citizens at this time demanded their basic freedoms and were assured of receiving those freedoms. IMAGE Discussion of the Monroe Doctrine, which abolished all european idealogies being introduced into the western hemisphere "Leaders discuss the Monroe Doctrine, which declared the Western Hemisphere to be free of further European expansion or ideology." Hispanic American Almanac: A Reference Work on Hispanics in the United States. Ed. Sonia Benson. 3rd ed. Detroit: Gale, 2010. Gale Student Resources In Context. Web. 7 Sept. 2010.
PRESIDENTS George Washington John Adams INCIDENTS Constitution ratified, including the Bill of Rights (1788) Washington D.C. built and made capital city Two divergent groups made: the Hamiltonians and the Jeffersonians France tried to include America in its war with England George Washington told France and Genet that America did not want to be included Rebellion in Western Pennsylvania 15000 militiamen settled the rebels Indians in Ohio fought against American expansion Treaties were signed for fair land dealings and cash to the Indians Tensions rose further with Britain and war seemed inevitable John Jay was sent to make treaties with Britain and gained more rights for the US, but was met with opposition at home by those who failed to receive compensation for decreased trading and fleeing slaves (1793 & 1794) PARAGRAPH At this time, America had laid the foundation for democracy and was forced to use those democratic ideals in dealing with different events. Specifically, the Bill of Rights guaranteed basic freedoms for all citizens of the United States. The Constitution also guaranteed fair representation in governmental matters for the citizens of the United States with a bicameral legislature. Also, America decided to not get involved with the French-British War because Washington wanted to maintain neutrality by not risking the lives of the small American army. This time period was the first decade in which American was truly a democracy because citizens had more rights and more say in governmental matters. IMAGE Blueprint of Washington D.C. in 1790 "Proposed plan for Washington, D.C." Image. North Wind Picture Archives. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 6 Sept. 2010.
PRESIDENTS George Washington INCIDENTS The Consitution laid down the first set of basic rights by which American citizens are entitled. This included the Bill of Rights that solidified the rights of American citizens and made sure that those rights were protected, the most important being the right of citizens to "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." DEMOCRACY PARAGRAPH The Constitution represented democracy because it gave power and rights to the people of America. It allowed for the absence of a titled aristocracy, monarchies, freedom (religious and otherwise), and self-government. The Constitution was the first document in writing that stated the independence of America and the rights of the citizens to self-rule and freedom from Britain. IMAGE The Bill of Rights as seen in the United States Constitution "The first ten amendments to the Constitution, known as the Bill of Rights, contain rights and..." U*X*L Encyclopedia of U.S. History. Sonia Benson, Daniel E. Brannen, Jr., and Rebecca Valentine. Ed. Lawrence W. Baker and Sarah Hermsen. Vol. 1. Detroit: UXL, 2009. Gale Student Resources In Context. Web. 2 Sept. 2010.
PRESIDENTS None INCIDENTS -Stamp Act (1765) -Parliament further imposes their rule with the Declatory Act -Britain takes a stand and says, in writing, that they control America -Boston Massacre -Britain kills people who are opposing them, causes propaganda and major uproar throughout the colonies, gives those who opposed the revolution reason to join it -Battles at Lexington and Concord, more British dead and wounded then American -Americans prove they can win battles against the "superior" British army -Sugar Act (1764) -Currency Act (1764) -Declaratory Act (1765) -Tea Act (1773) -Coercive Acts (1774) PARAGRAPH Democracy during this time period was the goal of the colonists trying to break away from the monarchial rule of the British. The colonists wanted to gain self-rule and give more power to the citizens of the United States. The colonists yearned for democratic ideals where the power lied in the hands of the citizens. The colonists fought and quarreled with the British because they were tired of being ruled by a monarchy. IMAGE Paul Revere on horseback as he warned the colonists about the imminent British attack "Paul Revere's Ride." The American Revolution. Woodbridge, CT: Primary Source Media, 2010. American Journey. Gale Student Resources In Context. Web. 31 Aug. 2010.