Created by Period 3 Biotechnology
Created by cphbiotech on Aug 11, 2009
Last updated: 08/25/09 at 01:41 PM
The Event is about geneticlly engineered tomatoes.By adding a gene called "antisense gene", the tomatoes were able to resist rotting.
Chiron was the first to clone a genome. He developed a method of detecting and day preventing infection by HIV. Chiron was able to sell his hepatitis B vaccine through Merck. He also formed a company named the Biocine Company. It's a joint-venture with Ciba-Geigy, Ltd., it focuses on the development and marketing of other new vaccines.
in 1980, Ananda Mohan Chakrabarty requested a patent for a bacterium in the U.S. However, he was turned down by a patent examiner because it was against the law that lining things were not pantentable. On June 16 1980, the decision was made on the principle of patenting genetically engineered life forms. Th court ruled in favor of Chakraberty.
Mutations are changes of an organism. Mutations occurred by mistakes in genetic material in the process of cell division, by copying errors or it can be caused by the organism. Also mutations are not usually transmitted sexually. In addition, it also exists mutations were nothing occurs there is no effects, this type of mutations are called silent mutations. In many cases scientists use mutations to change DNA molecules by inserting specific mutations at specific sites in a DNA molecule like Hutchinson and Edgell.
Barbara McClintock discovered a certain genetic material (transportable elements) and that changed the location of the chromosomes, from generation to generation. She ignored it at first, but her investigation was later documented as a major influence to DNA. (kf)
Alexander fleming a bacteriologist made a discovery from another experiment. The mold in the contaminated retri dish turned out to have a powerful antibiotic, penicillin. This mold could kill any harmful bacteria. The discovery he had made then was created into medicines that could kill surten disease that caused bacteria inside the body. In 1929, Dr.Fleming published the results of his discover, noting that it could have a therapeutic value if it was created in many.
In the 1920s, Human Growth Hormone was first discovered by Evans and Long. HGH is now being used in the treatments of various conditions including as in anti-aging drug. Also, its used to increase lean muscle mass and therefore improve strength.
Wastewater treatment combines microorganism with nutrients that help the microbes grow faster and reproduce in bad environments. The microbes break down the dangerous waste, rendering them harmless in the process. A good side effect is that the treated water basically smells a whole lot better too. A similar bioremeditaion process can take care of really nasty stuff, like oil spills. Whether its an oil spill from a gas station, or simply a clogged grease trap in a restaurant's kitchen it approaches.
BIO was created in 1993. It developed from two smaller companies, Association of Biotechnology, and the Industrial Biotechnology Association. They merged to speak with one voice for industry such as FDA reform, policy of reimbursement, national healthcare policies, small business and economic development issues, and regulation of biotech crops.
In1911 John Rous discovered a virus that caused cancer in chickens
Heinrich Wilhelm Gottfried von Waldeyer Hartz,was a German anatomist. Famous for consoldating the neuron theory. And also for naming the chromosome. Waldeyer also studied basophilic stained filaments wich had been found to be the main constituents of chromatin. Waldeyer coined in 1888 the term chromosome to describe them. Among his myriad other anatomical and embryological studies. Waldeyer became known for his pioneering
In 1883 two French scientists name Louis Pasteur and Emile Roux developed the first rabies vaccine. It was first used on July 6, 1883 on a nine year old boy named Joseph Meister. They got the vaccine from a sample of the virus harvested from rabbits and allowed to dry for 5 to 10 days. now a days we use a recombinant vaccine or V-RG, which was developed in 1984 by researchers at Wistar Institute.
Walther Flemming was the first to discover the behavior of chromosomes in the cell nucleus during normal cell division. As a pioneer using newly discovered aniline dyes, Flemming found (1879) that a certain group of dyes had a threadlike material in the nucleus. He then applied the stains to cells and developed the changes happening in the nucleus during cell division. Flemming named the whole process mitosis. Chromatin are the rod like structures inside the cell nucleus that later became known as chromosomes. Chromatin played a key role in inherrritance, htey double up before the cel splits, and then divide into two sets, taking a fresh copy in each 'daughter' cell. In 1879, Flemming found the term "chromatin" for the stainable substance found in the cell nucleus.
Born on May 9,1845 in Blassenborg, Sweden Laval was going to be the first person to develop a centrifuge. In 1878 he developed the first centrifuge in history. This device used centrifugal force to separate two or more substances of different density.(Two liquids or a liquid and a solid). Carl G. P. de Laval will later die on February 2, 1913 in Stockholm, Sweden
Robert Koch was a German physician. Born in Clausthal, Germany on December 11, 1843 and died on May 27, 1910. He is famous for isolating Bacillus anthracis and also famous for developing the Koch's Postulates. In Berlin was where he declared his technique and where he found the bacteria "tuberculosis" which was the cause of 1 to 7 deaths in the 19th century. (mg)
From Mendel's study of peas it laid the foundation of genetics. He closely monitored 20,000 pea plants inside the walls of his monastery. He discovered the characteristics of pea plants as they were either tall or short and if the seeds were with either green or yellow and either round or wrinkled. He is know as the "Father of Genetics". (fm)
Theodor Escherich discovered the Escherichia coli bacterium in 1855. This bacterium is commonly callled E. coli and is one of the most common food poisoning bacteria in the world. E. coli is commonly found in the lower intestines of mammals. (mg)
Robert Brown discovered the cell nucleus in 1831 and later published in 1833. He was not aware of the existence of the cell nucleus in cells but rather in plant cells. While studying plants, he noticed an opaque spot on the cell. He realized that the spot was a key component of the cells and called them "nucleus."
Proteins were first described and named by Jons Jakob Berzelius. The term protein is derived from the greek word "prota" which means "in the lead" or "standing in front". A crucial protein discovery was made by James B. Summer in 1926 by showing that enzymes could be isolated and crystallized. (jm)
Biology was first used in a modern way by Lamarck. Biology is the science of studying living organisms in which it examines the structure, function, growth, and origin, of living things. (cf)
The scientific name for small pox is Variola. This disease was discovered in few centuries ago. Variola was one of the most dangerous diseases there was in that time. (af)
In 1675, a Dutch microscopist by the name of Anton van Leeuwenhoek discovered bacteria and protozoa by looking at bacteria from his mouth. He discovered this bacteria with the lenses he created. With this new discovery he became known as the "father of microbiology".
Leeuwehoek had a particular intrest in microscopes. He even created many different forms of the microscope. Leeuwhoek opened our world to scienece , chemisry etc. The discovery was made through looking at water through a microscope and finding small organims. After the discovery he tested them through an experiment and found his evidence accurate.
Cells are first described by Robert Hooke. The first cells he observed were of the cork tree. Supposedly, he called them "cells" because under the microscope, the cork samples resemble tiny boxes which reminded Hooke of the tiny rooms monks lived in, also called "cells".
Hooke, from England, is often called the "Father of Microscopy".
In 1st century A.D., Romans had been testing glass lenses that could looked through and would magnify the object that was being seen. Around 1590, Zacharias Janssen began experimenting with the lenses. They place a few lenses in a tube and found that the object at the end of the lens was being magnified much greater then if only looking through one lens. This tool was known as the compound microscope