A timeline of important events that led to the federation of Australia, from 1770 to 1901
Created by dguerinhanlon on 27/03/2011
Last updated: 28/03/11 at 19:19
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The Federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British self-governing colonies of Australia became one nation. They kept the systems of government that they had developed as separate colonies but also would have a federal government that was responsible for issues involving the whole country. When the Constitution of Australia came into force, on 1 January 1901, the colonies became states of the Commonwealth of Australia.
A meeting of representatives of each of the Australian colonies and New Zealand, called the National Australasian Convention, was held in Sydney from 2 March to 9 April 1891. The delegates worked to find a draft constitution to which they could agree and which they could take back to their parliaments for discussion and endorsement.
In the 1880s, an Egyptian regime in Sudan, backed by the British, came under threat from rebellion. In 1883, the Egyptians sent an army to deal with the rebels, but they were defeated. The British told the Egyptians to leave the Sudan conflict. The New South Wales government offered to send forces to help the British. The New South Wales Contingent consisted of an infantry battalion of 522 men and 24 officers, and an artillery battery of 212 men and sailed from Sydney on 3 March 1885. Approximately 770 Australians served in Sudan. Nine died of disease during the return journey while three had been wounded during the campaign.
Ned with friends, Joe Byrne and Steve Hart, came across police camped at Stringy Bark Creek. Ned believed the police intended to kill him and Dan so he called on them to surrender. But three of the officers resisted, and in the fight which followed Kelly shot all of them. The reward for Kelly and his gang rose to 2000 pounds and would later rise to an amazing 8000 pounds. Ned had many supporters and for almost two years they helped the gang dodge police. During this time the Kelly gang robbed two banks.
Tensions boiled as miners were sick of police brutality, unfair taxes and rights. In Ballarat, Victoria 150 mostly Irish diggers constructed a wooden fort against the British police and soliders. Commissioner Rede ordered a combined force of over 400 soldiers and police to attack. It did not last long 30 diggers died and 5 soldiers.
In 1854 Chinese migrants started flocking in to the gold rushes, to make their fortune and return home. They were hard untiring workers who worked the earth were Europeans had once been and finding gold. Tensions broke between the europeans and the Chinese as riots and attacks on them happened frequently. They were known for their addiction to gambling and opium, wierd pig tails and being pagans for working on Sundays.
A local geologist, James McBrien was surveying the road along the Fish River, between Rydal and Bathurst, when he found small parctiles of gold in the river. However all gold found at the time belonged to the crown. The government didn't want a gold rush at the time either because they would lose all the workers for the farms and police Later on in the 1850's the laws were changed and the gold rush started.
The first eleven ships that came to Australia in 1788 ships are called the First Fleet. They carried convicts and marines. The ships together contained 759 convicts. the arrived at Portsmouth on 16 March 1787 and waited for orders from Captian Authur Phillip.
Captian James Cook lands in Botany Bay on the ship Endeavour. The young botanist on the ship discovers 30,000 new types of specimens of plant life, 1,600 have never been seen before. Cook names it Botany Bay. He also surveys the eastern coast of Australia.