a timeline of techniques and illustrators
Created by dijstelberge on Jul 17, 2008
Last updated: 10/31/10 at 02:47 PM
John Buckland-Wright (1897-1954) illustrated Dolores for an edition of Swinburnes poem, published by Stols.
White line engraving
Etching by Picasso (1881-1973) for an edition of Ovid's Metamorphoses, the first book published by Skira.
William Blake (1757-1827) invented a new technique that inversed the normal way of etching and is called relief etching.
A process invented by William Blake (1757-1827) in which the inkt was applied to the parts that were not bitten away. The coloring was done by hand.
Gautier d'Agoty, Jacques Fabian. Anatomie generale des viscères . ([Paris: s.n., 1752]). Jacques Gautier d'Agoty was born in Marseilles in about 1717 and was trained as a printmaker under the noted Jacob Christoph Le Blon (1670-1741) whose technique for color printing is used with mezzotint plates in the primary colors with the addition of black.
Albinus, Bernhard Siegfried. Tabulae sceleti et musculorum corporis humani. (Londini : Typis H. Woodfall, impensis Johannis et Pauli Knapton, 1749).
Bernhard Siegfried Albinus (i.e. Weiss) was born in Frankfurt an der Oder on February 24, 1697, the son of the physician Bernhard Albinus (1653-1721). He studied in Leyden with such notable medical men as Herman Boerhaave, Johann Jacob Rau, and Govard Bidloo and received further training in Paris. He returned to Leyden in 1721 to teach surgery and anatomy and soon became one of the most well-known anatomists of the eighteenth century. He was especially famous for his studies of bones and muscles and his attempts at improving the accuracy of anatomical illustration. Among his publications were Historia muscolorum hominis (Leyden, 1734), Icones ossium foetus humani (Leyden, 1737), and new editions of the works of Bartholomeo Eustachio and Andreas Vesalius. Bernhard Siegfried Albinus died in Leyden on September 9, 1770.
This rather naive emblems remind one of early 20th century picasso
Shou, Hua. Jushikei hakki (Shi si jing fa hui. Japanese & Chinese). ([Tokyo] : Suharaya Heisuke kanko, Kyoho gan ).
Hua Shou was a noted Chinese physician of the mid-14th century. He is perhaps best known for being the first to write a systematic commentary on the section of Nan-ching relating to the pulse, which was first published in about 1341. The Nan-ching was a brief commentary in two volumes on the Nei-ching, whose title is translated as "The Canon of Chinese Medicine," some of whose chapters date as far back as the fifth century B.C.E. The Nan-ching contained new information about the pulse, however, and Hua Shou was an important proponent of using the pulse and a related characteristic, the mo, to judge a patient's qi, or vital energy, in diagnosis.
Bidloo, Govard. Ontleding des menschelyken lichaams. (Amsterdam: By de weduwe van Joannes van Someren, de erfgenaamen van Joannes van Dyk, Hendrik en de weduwe van Dirk Boom, 1690).
Govard Bidloo was born in Amsterdam in 1649 and became professor of anatomy at The Hague from 1688 to 1694, when he took the same position at Leyden. He was later appointed the physician of William III of England, who was originally Dutch, until the King's death in 1702. In that year, Bidloo returned to Leyden to take his old position until his death there in 1713.
The Dutch master Romeyn de Hooghe published more than 4500 etchings. He used a special technique with hard varnisch to etch his plates deeper so that more prints could be made
Dirck Jansz van Santen was a 17th century master in the coloring of engravings and maps who produced some of the most beautiful books ever published. He 'painted' the color on the engraving instead of just coloring it with water-based paint.
In 1649 Blaeu published the first latin edition of his atlas of Dutch towns. It was part of his project to create the greatest atlas that the world had ever known. The picture shows Amersfoort, a small town in Utrecht.
Estienne, Charles. De dissectione partium corporis humani libri tres. (Parisiis: Apud Simonem Colinaeum, 1545).
Charles Estienne, or Carolus Stephanus, was born about 1504, the third son of Henri Estienne, the founder of the famous printing dynasty. Having received an excellent education in his family's home, he showed an early talent in medicine and trained as a physician. When his brother, the noted printer Robert, was forced to move to Geneva in 1550 because of his controversial theological publications, Charles took over the Paris business. Through the press he wrote and published a number of notable works in medicine, agriculture, and including L'Agriculture et Maison Rustique (1554) and Thesaurus Ciceronianus (1557). The business side of the press failed, however, and by the end of the decade he was imprisoned for debts in the Châtelet, where he died about 1564.
Gersdorff, Hans von. Feldtbůch der Wundartzney : newlich getruckt und gebessert. (Strassburg: Hans Schotten zům Thyergarten, ).
Hans von Gersdorff was one of the most noted German surgeons of the late fifteenth and early sixteen centuries. He was born about 1455. In 1517, he published Feldbůch der Wundartzney, or Fieldbook of Surgery (i.e., "Wound Doctoring") , in Strasburg. The book was based largely on the writings of medieval surgeon Guy de Chauliac.
Dürer, Albrecht. Vier Bücher von menschlicher Proportion. (Nuremberg: Hieronymus Formschneyder, 1528).
Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528) was a painter, graphic artist, and humanist. Dürer is best known for his woodcuts and engravings, especially in works with religious themes, such as those appearing in his noted edition of The Apocalypse which appeared in 1498.
Dürer's Vier Bücher von menschlicher Proportion was written, designed and edited by the artist himself and is the first published attempt to apply the science of human anatomical proportions to aesthetics. It is divided into four parts: the first two parts discuss the proper proportions of the human form, the third part adjusts the proportions using mathematical rules, with examples of extremely fat and thin bodies, and the fourth shows the human figure in motion. Most notable are the numerous anthropometrical woodcuts and the first use of cross-hatching to show movement through shades and shadows in wood engraving. Albrecht Dürer died in Nuremberg in April, 1528, six months before Menschlicher Proportion was printed by Hieronymus Formscheyder. At the end of the text is a short elegy written to Dürer by fellow humanist, Willibald Pirckheimer.
Berengario da Carpi, Jacopo. Isagogae breues, perlucidae ac uberrimae, in anatomiam humani corporis a communi medicorum academia usitatam. (Bologna: Beneditcus Hector, 1523).
Jacopo Berengario da Carpi was born about 1460, the son of a surgeon. While young, he was a student of the noted printer and editor, Aldus Manutius. He attended medical school in Bologna and later taught surgery at Pavia, and from 1502 to 1527 he was on the faculty at Bologna.
Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528) The Revelation of St John: The Four Riders of the Apocalypse, 1497-98. One of the greatest masters of the woodcut made this haunting illustration a few years before the bloody 16th century.