turning points and turmoil in russia
Created by eberri1 on Feb 16, 2011
Last updated: 02/22/11 at 11:31 AM
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The Russian Orthodox Church has a thousand-year history of strong political as well as spiritual influence over the inhabitants of the Russian state. After enduring the Soviet era as a state-controlled religious facade, the church quickly regained both membership and political influence in the early 1990s
The dissolution of the Soviet Union was a process of systematic disintegration, which occurs in economy, social structure and political structure. It resulted in abolition of Soviet Federal Government ("the Union centre") and independence of USSR's republic on 26 December 1991. The process was caused by weakening of the Soviet government, which led to disentegration and took place from about 19 January 1990 to 31 December 1991. The process was characterized by many of the republics of the Soviet Union declaring their independence and being recognized as sovereign nation-states.
Following the Second World War, the United States emerged as a global superpower vis-a-vis the Soviet Union in the Cold War. In this period of some forty years, the United States provided foreign military aid and direct involvement in proxy wars against the Soviet Union. It was the principal foreign actor in the Korean War and Vietnam War during this era. Nuclear weapons were held in ready by the United States under a concept of mutually assured destruction with the Soviet Union.
Stalin wanted the USSR to modernise at such a fast rate that it could make up the 50-year gap in 10 years. The industry had to be devoloped to such an extent that the country, which had all along depended mostly on agriculture or farming, had to be changed such that it now depended on industry more. Although Russia was recovering from war, its production from heavy industries was still low compared to other countries. Stalin felt that this needed to be improved if they were to survive any possible attack that might come from the capitalist West attempting to destroy Communist Russia. The USSR needed to invest in materials like coal, iron, steel and power to defend itself properly. Rapid industrialisation was also needed for defence as the USSR was surrounded, as Stalin said, by governments that hated Communism: Romania, Iran, Finland and Poland.
The Soviet Union had a single-party political system dominated by the Communist Party until 1990.
The Russian Revolution is the collective term for a series of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which destroyed the Tsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Soviet Union. The Tsar was deposed and replaced by a provisional government in the first revolution of February 1917 (March in the Gregorian calendar; the older Julian calendar was in use in Russia at the time). In the second revolution, during October, the Provisional Government was removed and replaced with a Bolshevik (Communist) government.
The Bolsheviks started off, in 1903, as the main minority of the Social Democratic Labour Party. As all anti-tsarist groups the party was illegal. The party was based upon the beliefs of Karl Marx, a german writer and revolutionary, who believed a revolution could only be started within the workforce of the major cities. Lenin believed strongly in these morlas and used them as a guide to his goal of revolution.
is a title used to designate certain Eastern-European monarchs or supreme rulers. As a system of government, it is known as Tsarism. Czar (Bulgarian цар, Russian: царь (help·info), Ukrainian: цар, Serbian: цар/car) is a Slavic term derived from the Latin word Caesar, meant emperor in the European medieval sense of the term, that is, a ruler who claims the same rank as a Roman emperor, with the approval of another emperor or a supreme ecclesiastical official (the Pope or the Ecumenical Patriarch).
It began as the city of Byzantium, which had grown from an ancient Greek colony founded on the European side of the Bosporus. The city was taken in 330 ce by Constantine I, who refounded it as Constantinople. The area at this time was generally termed the Eastern Roman Empire. The fall of Rome in 476 ended the western half of the Roman Empire, and the eastern half continued as the Byzantine Empire