Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was born in Frankfurt, Germany. Later in life he lived in both Weimar, Germany and Italy. Von Goethe was a philosopher, writer, and scientist. His most famous work is a two part drama named "Faust" which he spend most of his life writing. Von Goethe was was was interested in literature from all over the world, not just Germany. He believed that men should believe in themselves, not in God. As opposed to believing that people were rational, he thought that people were reckless. Von Goethe also influenced the theory of evolution.
Edward Gibbon was born and died in England. He was an historian, scholar, and a lord. The government thought of him as a nuisance. He is most famous for his book "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire". He was a deist, but he was more interested in the social aspect of religion. He criticized many aspect of Christianity and thought that it greatly contributed to the fall of the Roman Empire. http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/egibbon.htm
Despite being born in Ireland, Burke relocated to England, and became a member of the "House of Commons of the United Kingdom." While he was a statesman rather than a political philosopher, Burke is considered the founder of modern political conservatism. He disagreed with the concept of natural rights, and rather than completely disregarding an the idea of a social contract, he attached that idea to that of divine right. Through treatises such as, "A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful," Burke attracted the attention of the most prominent political philosophers of the time, such as Denis Diderot. In catching the attention of the main thinkers of the time, as well as coming up with significant ideas of his own, Burke was able to make a contribution to the Enlightenment even though he was a statesman rather than philosopher. Burke is also well known for is opposition to the French Revolution.