Jose de San Martin was born in Argentina. He helped fight against Napolean in Spain. When he heard that his country was fighing against the Spanish forces he returned home to help fight. Argentina eventually declared independence from Spain. He went on to help Chile declare independence too. In Gran Columbia he met Simon Bolivar and stepped down from power, leaving the power to Bolivar.
Simon Bolivar gave a speech saying he wanted to liberate South America. Venezuela declared indepence in 1811. Simon and his military campaigns traveled through South America for 10 years trying to take down Spanish forces. He accomplished the task in 1821, leaving most of northern South America free from Spain's rule.
Jose Maria Morelos was the next to take on the role of the leader of the revolution. During his time of leader, he wanted everybody living in Mexico to be called Americans, and to have freedom guarenteed in an independent Mexico. He was later found guilty of treason and executed by the Spanish Authorities. Agustin de Iturbide took control after Morelos. However, he was expected to work with the Spanish authorities and stop the revolution. He agreed but later that year he switched sides and ended up winning Mexico their independence in 1821.
Miguel Hidalgo was the first one to speak of Mexico's independence in 1810. Hidalgo planned a rebellion against the peninsulares after becoming the leader of creoles. He made a speech on September 16, 1810 and said that he was loyal to the king of Spain. However, it was discovered by the Spain authorities that Hidalgo was the revolution leader. The Spanish authorities captured and later executed him. "Father of Mexican Independence" is his new nickname.
In Saint Domingue, the french settlers didn't obey the new laws. There was a bloody revolt against the French led by Toussaint L'Ouverture, who was a former slave. An armistice was agreed upon. In 1803 Toussaint L'Ouverture was imprisoned and died. Haiti became its own country in 1804.
In 1803, the United States bought the Louisiana territory from Napoleon. It cost the United States about $15,000,000. They paid $11,250,000 upfront and then the rest was counted as debt. The President of the time, President Jefferson, sent two people to persuade Napoleon to let the United States purchase the land.
The creoles and peninsulares were two Latin American groups. There was tension between the two groups. The peninsulares gained prosperity because they got the higher leveled jobs and the creoles started to hate them. Spain and Portugal was invaded by Napolean in 1807. Spain's king went to prison and Portugal's king escaped to Brazil. The creole's decided to fight for independence.