This timeline is to be used with the Explorers -Age of Exploration WebQuest. I am currently conducting a similar project with my multimedia class.
Created by farhoua on Jul 11, 2008
Last updated: 03/12/10 at 06:02 AM
In 1772 George Vancouver was appointed to a position under James Cook. It would be the start of his nautical career. April 1791 Vancouver sailed from Falmouth, England. His crew, totalling approximately 150 men, were handpicked. Vancouver made a second major discovery he had established the insularity of Vancouver Island.
Born 1774, He entered the navy in 1789. In 1794 he saw action in H.M.S. Bellerophon at the naval battle of the 'Glorious First of June'. The next year he sailed for Port Jackson aboard H.M.S. Reliance in which George Bass (1771-1803) was surgeon.
Julien headed for Prairie du Chin following the Marquette Joliet path down St. Lawrence and Great Lakes to Green Bay. Next, he went down the Fox River and had to carry his canoe to the Wisconsin River. Finally, he traveled down the Wisconsin River to the Mississippi
Cook's third mission was to search for a northern route between the Pacific and the Atlantic oceans. No navigable route was found. They did however explore the west coast of what would become British Columbia, and made a return visit to Hawaii, then know as the 'Sandwich Islands'. Due to a series of unfortunate events and misunderstandings, Cook was killed by the Hawaiians in 1779.
Charles Marie de la Condamine was a French mathematician, physicist, explorer, and geographer. La Condamine was sent to Ecuador in 1735 to measure the Earth at the equator. He also scientifically explored and mapped the Amazon region as he rafted to the mouth of the Amazon
He sailed to Newfoundland and the East Indies while still a boy and took part in the Third Dutch War (1672-1674). Impressed with his work, the English Admiralty commissioned him with the rank of captain to command an expedition to explore the Australian coastline. He reached Shark Bay, Western Australia, in August 1699.
Vitus Jonassen Bering (1681-1741) was a Danish explorer and navigator who explored the seas off Alaska and northeastern Siberia. Bering was a sublieutenant in the fleet of Tsar Peter I the Great of Russia.
From 1725-1730, Bering led an expedition to determine whether or not Asia and North America were connected by a land bridge. Bering sailed through what is now known as the Bering Strait, finding a sea route around Siberia to China. He concluded that Asia and North America were not connected (although he did not actually see North America due to fog).
On a second expedition (the Great Nordic Expedition) in 1741, Bering mapped much of the Arctic coast of Siberia for the Russian Empress Anna. Bering reached North America in July 1741. After being blown off course and having both a crew and captain affected by scurvy (a lack of vitamin C), Bering's ship was wrecked on a small island near Kamchatka, Russia. Bering and his crew spent winter of 1741 on this bare bit of land, where Bering and half his crew died. This island is now called Bering Island. The remaining crew (which included the German naturalist Georg Wilhelm Steller) survived by eating Steller's seacows (which were given their name because they tasted like beef) and by building a boat from the wrecked ship. Only 27 years after being discovered, Steller's sea cows were hunted to extinction.
In 1669 reached La Pointe mission on Chequamegon Bay near the western end of Lake Superior. Marquette accompanied the Ottawa and Huron as they fled from Sioux attacks to the Straits of Mackinac between Lake Michigan and Lake Huron and founded a new mission on Point St. Ignace
He was one of the originators of the Hudson's Bay Company in the early 1650s he also traveled from New England and lake Michigan
He was the first European to travel through the Great Lakes area, visiting Lake Michigan and what are now Wisconsin and Illinois, possibly reaching the Mississippi River
Dirck Hartog was a Dutch explorer who was the first European to chart of the western coast of Australia. Hartog sailed from Amsterdam on the ship called Eendracht. He traveled around the Cape of Good Hope to Java, and then sailed on to western Australia. He landed in 1616 on a small island now named for him (Dirk Hartog Island). To mark his landfall, Hartog nailed an inscribed pewter plate (which noted details of his exploration and visit) to a post on the north end of the island; this area is now called Cape Inscription. Almost a century later (in 1696), the Dutch explorer Willem de Vlamingh landed on Dirk Hartogs Island. He found the commemorative plate, replaced it with a new inscribed plate, and brought Hartog's original plate to Amsterdam. Hartog's historic plate is now in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
Born in 1580, John Smith left home at age 16 after his father died. In 1600, he joined Austrian Forces to fight the Turks in the "Long War." In April 1614, he returned to the New World in a successful voyage to the Maine and Massachusetts Bay areas. With the approval of Prince Charles, he named this region New England. He was denied further opportunities to return to America due to his independent nature, and he spent the rest of his life writing books until his death in 1631 at age 51.
Henry Hudson wanted to find a passage across the continent of North America. He was unable to find the Northeast or the Northwest Passage he sought. He did however add to Europe's knowledge of the Arctic and North America. He discovered the Hudson Bay in 1610.
In 1603 he went on his first voyage to Canada, as geographer on a fur-trading expedition. In 1604 Champlain made his second trip to North America. He was looking for a place where French people could make a permanent settlement. On his third trip in 1608, Champlain founded a settlement and trading post along the St. Lawrence River that eventually became the city of Quebec. It was the first permanent white settlement in Canada, which makes Quebec the oldest city in Canada.
Captain Willem Janszoon in the Dutch East Indies Company (VOC) ship Duyfken landed on Australia's northern coast on the western side of Cape York Peninsula at Pennefather River and charted 300 kilometers of coastline. This was the first time Europeans had made contact with, and mapped part of, 'Australia'.
Willem Jantszoon was a Dutch explorer who was the first European to sail to Australia. In 1606, Jantszoon reached the northern coast of Australia in his ship, the Duyfken. Jantszoon was later made Admiral of the Dutch Fleet.
1598 Juan De Onate colonized territory as now known, New Mexico.
De Fuca sailed up the western coast of North America from Mexico to Vancouver Island in looking for a passage from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean. He was the first European to see this area.
Sir Richard Grenville and three ships arrive at Roanoke in August to find the place deserted except for three men mistakenly left behind by Drake. The arrival of Sir Richard Grenville re-establishes the colony
Richard Hawkins travelled to Brazil with his uncle Sir Francis Drake
Sir Humphrey Gilbert arrives at Newfoundland and claims it in the name of the Crown
Peter Minuit was born in Holland in 1580. In 1624 Dutch merchants established a settlement that became known as New Netherland. The Dutch government gave exclusive trading rights to the Dutch West India Company.
Minuit was one of those who decided to settle in America and in 1626 became director-general of New Netherland. Minuit purchased Manhattan Island from Native Americans for $24 worth of trinkets, beads and knives. Over the next few years other colonists arrived a large settlement was established on Manhattan Island. The chief port on Manhattan was named New Amsterdam (later changed to New York).
In 1638 the Swedish government employed Minuit to help them establish a colony in America. Soon afterwards two vessels owned by the Swedish West India Company arrived with 50 colonists and established a small settlement in Delaware Bay. They named the town Christina in honor of Sweden's young queen. Peter Minuit died at sea in 1638.
Martin Frobisher discovered Frobisher Bay in Canada. He explored Greenland and the Arctic region of Canada
He stopped near the present-day San Francisco to repair the Golden Hind. He claimed the land for for England which he called New Albion. First English to sail around the world-Defeated the Spanish Armada- Claimed California for England
To travel northeast, through the arctic, around Russia to China and Cathay to set-up a Dutch trade route to the east. He did this to avoid conflict with the Spanish to the south.
Achievement:He discovered Spitsbergen, Bear Island, and sailed to the east side of Novaya Zemlya (New Land).
In 1542, Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo led the first European expedition to explore what is now the west coast of the United States.
Hernando De Soto arrived on the west coast of Florida on May 30, 1539 with 10 ships carrying over 600 soldiers, priests, and explorers. They spent four years searching for gold and silver, exploring the area, and brutally contacting native societies, including the Cherokees, Seminoles, Creeks, Appalachians, and Choctaws.
1536 - 1539: Fray Marcos de Niza explores areas of Mexico where he frees some Native American slaves at Culiacan and discovers the Pueblo tribe called the Zuni indians
He left St. Malo on a bright afternoon on April 20, 1534 with a crew of one hundred and twenty men in each of his vessels and he reached the eastern coast of Newfoundland in twenty days. Then he sailed northward, entered the Straits of Belle Isle, and touching the coast of Labrador
The most famous journey ever made in search of treasures in the New World was led by the Spanish Conquistador Francisco Vázquez de Coronado. Seeking the fabled Seven Golden Cities of Cibola, his expedition of 1,400 men and 1,500 animals found only poor Indian villages, but established Spain's later claim to the entire Desert Southwest.
Hernando Cortes and Spainards imprisoned many captives and later founded a town called La Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz, now called Veracruz. Once in the city, the Spaniards took Montezuma hostage, and made him pay an enormous ransom of gold and jewels. After defeating a large number of Aztecs, he went to the Tlaxcalan tribe and reorganized his army.
In 1527 he made his first expedition on his own to find a rumored civilization called the Incas. Pizarro's first mate was a good friend, his name was Diego de Almagro. They sailed down the coast of western South America. There they went inland a little ways and found evidence of the Incas and gold. Then he returned to Panama with the news. The whole expedition took one year
When he set sail for France he arrived in Cape Fear in North Carolina and kept going northward, exploring the eastern seaboard of North America as far as Nova Scotia and he was the first to arrive from Europe to the New York Bay
October of 1520, Ferdinand Magellan found a strait,he named it after himself, calling it the Strait of Magellan. It took 38 days to sail through the dangerous strait. He finally arrived at the ocean that Balboa had discovered several years before. He named it the Pacific Ocean because of its calm waters.
De Pineda sailed for the Spanish Governor of Jamaica, Francisco de Garay, who sent him to explore and chart the Gulf Coast from Florida to Mexico in 1519.
Was the first European to see the eastern part of the Pacific Ocean, crossing the Isthmus of Panama.Balboa and his men (including Francisco Pizarro) then traveled to the ocean and claimed it and all the land that touched it for Spain. They spent about a month conquering Natives along the Pacific coast and stealing their gold and spices.
In 1508 he sailed with eighty Spanish adventurers and some auxiliary Indians, and in a few days he landed in Borinquen, where he was well received by the natives. The principal cacique, Aguainaba, accompanied him to all parts of the island, and Ponce collected many samples of gold, and was astonished at the fertility of the soil.
After his explorations in 1501-1502, he was one of the first explorers to come up with the that these places he had visited were not part of Asia (as Columbus thought) ." In 1507, a pamphlet was published called "The Four Voyages of Amerigo" and the author suggested that the new land that Amerigo had explored be named in his honor. At first, the name of America was only meant to apply to South America, but later on, both continents of America became known by his name.
-In 1503 he set out on his first expedition to the East, which was to be the scene of his future triumphs.
-He went to India in 1503, and in 1506 he set out for India again, to assume command from Francisco de Almeida in command
-April 23 1500 Pedro Alvares Cabral landed on the coast of Brazil
-April 25 1500 the entire fleet sailed into Porto Seguro harbour
- 1501 June 23:Pedro Alvares Cabral named the land the Island of the True Cross (or Island of Vera Cruz) and claimed the land for Portugal
January 16 1501 Pedro Alvares Cabral started on the journey home to Portugal
-Pedro Alvares Cabral arrived in Lisbon with just four ships of the thirteen that had started the adventure
-1501: Gaspar made his second voyage with three ships and found a land full of tall, green trees. He named the land "Terra Verde" meaning Greenland
-Diogo Dias landed in Madagascar in 1500, and named it the Isle of St. Lawrence
-Diogo Dias' ship became separated from the others at the Cape of Good Hope, and then came upon Madagasacar. He then returned to Portugal
-Vasco da Gama led an expedition at the end of the 15th century that opened the sea route to India by way of the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa
-Da Gama's success led to the dispatch of another Portuguese fleet, commanded by Pedro Alvares Cabral
-Vasco de Gama was an important explorer and made a very important trip around the tip of Africa. He had a hard voyage, but made it back successfully
Cabot sailed out of Bristol with his ship, the Matthew. He landed in the New World, believing that he had landed on the east coast of Asia, he claimed it in the name of King Henry VII.
Columbus first came to the Caribbean Islands in 1492. While he didn't meet his original goal of finding large sums of gold and spices, he did schedule a second voyage there in 1493
-1457: Bartolomeu Dias was born in Portugal
-He was a member of the royal Portuguese court and held the title of Sailing Master of the Portuguese man-of-war Sao Cristovao (San Christovao
-1487: August - Bartolomeu Dias embarked from the River Tagus below Lisbon on his voyage of exploration around Africa to the Indies with two armed caravels and one supply-ship, a square-rigger, which was commanded by his brother, Pero Dias
Turks overrun Constantinople, shutting off the overland trade route.
Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal establishes a Naval observatory for the teaching of navigation, astronomy, and cartography.
Invention of the printing press spurs wide distribution of navigation tables and ship plans. Ptolemy's geography is published and widely accepted.