U.S. History 8th grade
Created by hesburghc on Sep 28, 2010
Last updated: 02/16/11 at 11:04 PM
Ford invented the moving assembly line which is a method of production, workers stay in one place as products edge along on a moving belt
A fire broke out in the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, a sweatshop in New York City.
Orville Wright makes the first airplane flight
garment workers organized the International Ladies' Garment Workers Union
In Plessy v. Ferguson, the Supreme Court rules that it is legal for a state to create separate facilities for blacks and whites.
Congress approved the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1890 which banned the formation of trusts and monopolies.
An immigrant cigar maker named Samuel Gompers organized a new union in Columbus, Ohio. The American Federation of Labor was open to skilled workers only.
An explosion during a workers' protest in Chicago's Haymarket Square leads to a wave of antilabor feeling
Rockefeller formed the Standard Oil Trust in 1882
In New York City, with the flip of a switch, Thomas Edison set the district ablaze with light.
Alexander Graham Bell, a Scottish-born teacher of the deaf invented the telephone. By 1885, he sold more than 300,000 phones, mostly to businesses
Rutherford B Hays runs against Samuel Tilden in a disputed election. In time, Hays becomes President and ends Reconstruction
• Proposed in 1869 and ratified in 1870 • Republicans had both MORAL and POLITICAL motives for proposing the Amendment • Voting rights for African Americans in both the North and the South would help Republicans
The Fifteenth Amendment is ratified. It forbids states to deny citizens the right to vote because of race.
• Johnson got accused of not passing the Reconstruction Act • What is the President’s duty with respect to LAWS? TO ENFORCE or EXECUTE the laws • Congress felt President Johnson was not doing so (ex. He had (1) fired several military (Reconstruction Act) commanders, and (2) directly challenged the TENURE OF OFFICE ACT, a law which attempted to limit Johnson’s authority by requiring him to get congressional consent to dismiss anyone who had been appointed with congressional approval Johnson fired Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, the last holdover Cabinet member from the Lincoln administration) • Lengthy trial was conducted through mid-May, 1868 (Congress voted to impeach in February) • Senate voted 35 to 19 in favor of conviction (removal), but not the 2/3 vote required (36 to 18) • Consequently, Johnson survived and finished out his term.
Radical Reconstruction begins. Republican leaders in Congress like Thaddeus Stevens call for harsh measures against the South.
o Divided the former Confederacy (except Tenn.) in 5 military districts o Forced each state to design state constitutions acceptable to Congress (giving all adult males the right to vote- regardless of RACE) o Forced each state to ratify the 14th Amendment
• President Johnson actively campaigned against republicans • Mob Violence in New Orleans • Results: Radicals gained strength in Congress- Huge majorities in both Houses (“Veto Proof” majorities) o Reconstruction was unquestionably in the control of the Radical Republican in Congress- could easily override any VETO o Relationship between the President and Congress has totally deteriorated.
Lincoln is assassinated five days after the war ends. As the nation mourns, the issue of readmitting southern states remains unsolved.
laws that severely restricted the rights of freedman
“With malice (hatred) toward none and with charity (kindness) for all, let us bind up the nation’s wounds (healing).”
The Congress and the President did agree on one proposal. One month after Lee surrendered, Congress passed a bill creating the Freedmen's Bureau, a government agency to help former slaves. Lincoln signed the bill.
In 1864, the republicans in Congress passed the Wade-Davis Bill, a rival plan of reconstruction. It required a majority of white men in each southern state to swear loyalty to the Union. Lincoln refused to sign the Wade-Davis Bill because he felt that it was too harsh.
a. When 10% of a states ‘s voters (1860) presidential election) had taken an OATH OF LOYALTY to the U.S., the state would be allowed to form a government. b. Each state would be required to ABOLISH SLAVERY (ratify the 13th Amendment) c. AMENESTY (or pardon) TO CONFEDERATES who swore loyalty to the union, but not to former leaders of the Confederacy.
Bull Run II, Virginia
(Bull Run I) (Virginia)
The War against the North and the South
• Confederate Commander Beauregard (outside, student) • Anderson (inside, teacher) • Virginia farmer – preached secession • “Bloodless opening to bloodiest war in history” • Put up white flag to surrender – April 14 • April 13 – Civil War in Inaugurated • Fort Sumter surrendered to Confederate forces • Boston – people sign up to fight for Union • Baltimore – protests against Lincoln in streets • Richmond – tears down U.S. flag puts up Stars and Bars flag
o Candidates: 1. Abraham Lincoln (Republican) • Prevent the spread of slavery Receives 40% of the vote 2. John C. Breckinridge (Southern Democrat) 3. John Bell (Constitutional Union) • Prevent the U.S. from splitting 4. Stephen a. Douglas (Northern Democrat)
Abraham Lincoln ran for U.S. Senator from Illinois against Stephen Douglas; lost the election but gained national recognition (attention)
a. 2 new territories are created – Kansas, Nebraska – which won’t be settled b. The territories will use popular sovereignty to decide if they’re a free or slave state c. Therefore, the Missouri Compromise LINE is successfully forgottenStephen Douglas
Fremont was the first president to run for the Republican Party. This party was formed by Abolitionists to stop the spread of slavery westward.
-a final acquisition from Mexico, purchased by the US of $to million (today, southern Arizona, New Mexico) -Excellent land for a planned southern pacific RR route -The US diplomat who negotiated the purchase
Candidates: 1.Abraham Lincoln (Republican) Prevent the spread of slavery Receives 40% of the vote 2.John C. Breckinridge (Southern Democrat) 3. John Bell (Constitutional Union) Prevent the U.S. from splitting 4.Stephen a. Douglas (Northern Democrat)
1. California admitted as a free state (North happy, South not happy CA is a big state) 2. Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 passed (South happy, North is unhappy not a moral law) 3. Remainder of the Mexican Cession is territory divided into Utah and New Mexico territories a. Popular sovereignty to be used to determine slavery status (free or slave)- the people, not the Congress 4. Slaves can’t be auctioned or sold in Washington D.C.– slave trade is banned in Washington 5. Border between Texas/New Mexico is settled
Fugitive Slave Law-passed in 1850 as part of the Compromise of 1850
In the 1850s, William Kelly on the United States and Henry Bessemer in England each discovered a new way to make steel. The Bessemer Process enabled steel makers to produce strong steel at a lower cost.
Thousands of people moved to California after gold was found by James Marshall at Sutter's Mill on January 24, 1848. Although it took a year for the news to reach the east coast, by 1849 thousands of 'forty-niners' were mining for gold. Most miners used a shallow pan to find flakes of gold in streams.
Tension over Texas because the U.S. made it a state (annexed it) Resulted from the Mexican –American War (1846 – 1848) War will result in the Mexican Cession Included in Mexican Cession, California, New Mexico, Utah, Part of Colorado
• Proposed law to prevent the spread of slavery westward • Wilmot was a representative from PA • Passed in the House • Defeated in the senate • Slavery is growing as an issue and compromise is getting difficult • Congress is dividing over slavery
Mountain men hunted beaver fur that was very popular and sold for a high price. Increasingly, the Oregon trail was used every Spring in the 1840s to bring settlers, trappers, explorers, and others West