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Last updated: 04/12/11 at 05:18 PM
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Deverell, William Francis., and Deborah G. White. United States History. Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2007. Print Mcdougal, Holt. Call to Freedom. Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2005. Print.
•The Presidential Election of 1860 was between Abraham Lincoln, John C. Breckinridge, John Bell, and Stephan Douglas •Lincoln won and became the President of the United States and stated •A. He would not change slavery where it already existed •B. He would not allow any further spread of slavery to the West •This upset the southerners because out of the four candidates Lincoln was the only one with an Antislavery belief •The South believed that the economy would fail without slavery •Between the stop of slavery and the election of Lincoln the South was so upset that it began leaving or seceding the Union •They began to form the Confederate States of America
•John Brown was an abolitionist or was against slavery •He planned to attack a federal arsenal and arm local slaves •After attacking Harpers Ferry he sent fellow abolitionist to round up slaves to help him fight •Unfortunately, all the slaves were so scared of punishments that they didn’t want to come to Harpers Ferry •Because of the shortage of numbers John Brown;s Raid was quickly ended •Brown was arrested, tried, and convicted of treason, murder, and conspiracy and was faced with a death sentence •This sparked many more disagreements between the North and South •Northerners agreed to Brown’s ideas regarding slavery •This led to southerners’ fear of the incident occurring again believing that the safest way for that conflict to be avoided was to split from the Union
•Republican nominee Abraham Lincoln was running for U.S. Senate and his opponent was Stephan Douglas •Lincoln challenged Douglas which came to be known as the Lincoln-Douglas Debates • The main issue the debates were over was the spread of slavery to the West •Lincoln believed that •A. African-Americans have same rights as whites stated by the Declaration of Independence •B. Slavery should not be allowed to spread west but should be kept where already present •Douglas believed •A. Lincoln wanted every state and territory to be free •B. This Republican desire would lead to warfare between the North and the South •C. Believed in the Freeport Doctrine •In the end, Douglas won the election but Lincoln was widely known as an important Republican figure
•Dred Scott was a slave that worked for Dr. John Emerson •While working for the doctor Scott was taken on tours of duty in Illinois and Wisconsin territory •When returning to Missouri Dr. Emerson died and Dred Scott was then a slave of Dr. Emerson’s wife •Then Dred sued for his freedom stating he had become a free man while living in free territory •The Dred Scott Decision was mainly based on Chief Justice Roger B. Taney’s opinion stating that •A. African Americans were not citizens so Dred did not have the right to file suit •B. His freedom was to be based upon the laws of Missouri •He also claimed that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional •Because of the ruling many northerners were stunned while the southerners were delighted •Some northerners were even left in fear that with the Supreme Court’s ruling that the spread of slavery would not stop the federate territories
•Previous to act there is a want for a railroad to the west •Stephan Douglas wants a northern route but Southerners want southern route •The Kansas Nebraska Act is passed and it states that •A. The remainder of the Louisiana Purchase is to be separated into two territories, Kansas and Nebraska •B. People of each territory will decide on whether or not slavery is allowed •This led to many antislavery and pro-slavery supporters rushing to Kansas to try and claim it as slave or free land •It also led to “Bleeding Kansas” a small fight between antislavery and pro-slavery men of Kansas •People involved: Stephan Douglas, William Seward(who spoke against slavery while in Kansas), Pro-slavery Groups, Antislavery Groups, and John Brown
•Previous to the Compromise of 1850 the California gold rush caused a wide growth in population so it was decided that California should become a state •The main problem was that with the adding of California would give an unfair advantage to the free states with 13 free states and only 12 slave states •In the end, it was decided with the Compromise of 1850 that •A. California would join the Union as a free state •B. People of the Mexican Cession could decide for or against slavery but added to the South •C. Texas was to give up land east of Rio Grande River •D. Slave trade would be stopped in the District of Columbia •E. There would be a more effective Fugitive slave law put into place •This added another state to the North as well as the rest of the Mexican Session to the South possibly affecting the decisions of the senate as well as adding jobs and farm land for the people •Supporters of the Compromise were Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and William Seyward •The only person who spoke publically against the compromise was John C. Calhoun
• Certain events leading up to the Missouri Compromise were sectionalism and Missouri wanting to become a slave state •The issues involving sectionalism was that the slave and free states were not particularly getting along causing many disagreements •With Missouri becoming a slave state, there would be an unfair advantage in the senate with 11 free states and 12 slave states •Eventually, the Missouri Compromise was introduced and passed stating that •A. Missouri would join the Union as a slave state •B. Maine would join the union as a free state •C. No slave trade north of the latitude line 36 30’ •Because of this deal, it settled some disagreements while also keeping the senate even with 12 slave states and 12 free states •It overall added two more states to the U.S. while also enlarging the size of both the North and South •This could have affected people by possible government job offerings and more farm land •People involved in the Missouri Compromise were Henry Clay, the North, and the South