Mod 4: Culminating Activity By Hoa Dao
Created by hoadao on 26/03/2011
Last updated: 29/03/11 at 05:25
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A Sand County Almanac is a non-fiction book written by Aldo Leopold. Divided into 12 chapters with distinguished months, the book paints a picture of the beauty that nature gives us. It makes us respect the environment around us and appreciate the little fragile things you see in nature. In the book, Leopold shares his conservation plan with us (called Land Ethic) while opening our eyes to see the destruction we can easily cause without noticing. Earth isn’t only your home and we share it as whole. Therefore it’s important we, as human beings, respect the Earth if we want to keep its sustainability.
3) This book calls out for the study of ecology and conservation ethics. It urges professional and conservation organizations to stand up, along with everyone else in the world to help protect Earth and preserve nature’s beauty.
4) Aldo Leopold does everything he can to call out and raise awareness, acknowledging people with what’s happening in our Environmentalism. And it’s disappointing to see how most of what destroyed nature is blamed on human’s actions, specifically in factories. It’s challenging to preserve nature’s beauty while constantly building new industries to provide the excessive of people’s needs. This brings us back to the Industrial Revolution where free lands were rapidly taken over to build factories and water and air pollution started to become a serious problem. It’s shocking to see the great amount of natural beauty the Industrial Revolution destroyed.
5) After pursuing a degree in forestry at Yale, Leopold joined the U.S Forest Service where he stayed in the Arizona Territories. Afterwards, he went to the U.S Forest Products Laboratory in Madison. The Leopold Stewardship Fund was soon created. And as a result, more than 70000 acres of private forest land was re-new in North and South Carolina and a significant amount of habitual land was restored in Wisconsin.
Although the ozone layer was first discovered by Charles Fabry and Henri Buisson in 1913, it wasn’t until Gordon M. B. Dobson’s time that the ozone layer became more well-known and more experiments were tested. After years of studying about the stratosphere and ozone layer and making spectrographs, Dobson upgraded his photoelectric microphotometer (which he built to measure the photographic plates) into a photoelectric spectrophotometer (known as the Dobson Spectrophotometer) in 1928. This machine uses photocells with sodium cathodes and the “principle of synchronous detection of a weak signal.” (University of Oxford) Its purpose is to allow scientists to study the “atmospheric circulation by measuring changes in atmospheric ozone” (Karin L. Gleason), making it easier to observe and control the ozone layer.
3) This invention led to concerns about the atmospheric pollution. And soon with the help of other contributors, Dobson developed methods to measure the amount of smoke (deposited matter and sulphur dioxide) that goes up into the air. Knowing how much pollution goes up into the atmosphere, awareness and preventions can be called out before it’s too late to do so.
4) This is an invention created during the Scientific Revolution. Considering that fact that scientists during the 17th century had no idea about the universe and atmosphere, studies about the ozone layer and in particular, Dobson’s experiments, has opened our knowledge to the environment above us. Plus the materials, chemicals and structure of Dobson’s inventions have improved human’s scientific creation skills. And thanks to the photoelectric spectrophotometer, concern about the atmospheric pollution was brought up. Raising awareness and thinking of preventions to stop all pollution are the most important steps in Environmentalism. Not only do we extend our knowledge about the atmosphere above us, it’s great that we can also think ahead and care about the cautions that lie in the future.
5) Dobson’s invention was the start of the era where we not only care about the environment around us but also above us. By 1956, at least 44 Dobson Spectrophotometer were created and distributed around the world. And from the knowledge we gained through this invention, other mechanism were developed.
It started in 1900 when Wilbur and Orville Wright decided it was time for them to build an engine machine that could lift a man up in the air. So in that year, with Wilbur’s passion and Orville’s mechanical skills, together they built a biplane glider and tested it out as a kite in Kitty Hawk, North Caroline. They continued their gliding experiments in Kill Devil Hills the following year. After countless measurements and calculations, the Wrights constructed another larger version of their glider. However, they struggle to find solutions to control the airplane. The only thing that was missing was a lightweight gasoline engine with the requirement oomph. The brothers couldn’t find one so they had to build their own with the help of Charles Taylor, a mechanic. On December 17, 1903, in Kitty Hawk, the Wrights brought the airplane out for another official test. While Orville was the pilot, Wilbur’s job was to run alongside to steady the right wing. And slowly, the airplane lifted off. Although the flight only lasted 12 seconds and went up to 120 feet, it was a historical moment – “the first powered, controlled, heavier-than-air airplane” (Dr. Gary Bradshaw) that lifted a man up in the air. The brothers continued their flight testing and by the end of the day, the airplane reached up to 852 feet.
3) With more knowledge and skills, the Wrights built another airplane that was able to fly for around 30 minutes. In 1908, as a demonstration for the U.S army, Orville flew one of the airplanes for over one hour at Fort Myer, Virginia, making it the first military airplane to be launched. And so began the aviation era which led to the airplane warfare during World War I. Military aircraft soon became a powerful weapon during the war.
4) This topic is no doubt related to the Industrial Revolution because the Wrights’ invention made a dramatic change in the industry at the period of time and it emerged a new era. However, this topic is also related to the Scientific Revolution because due to the Wrights’ aircraft designs and the open of the aviation era, other inventions such as spacecrafts and rockets were created. Modern scientists who believed they’ve discovered other planets during the Scientific Revolution were able to proof their theories with realistic fact by traveling to outer space in the spacecrafts and rockets.
5) The Wright’s invention opened doors for the aviation era. Other similar inventions were soon created. Later on, the military created their own aircrafts to use as weapons during war while scientists developed the idea to create spacecrafts to discover outer space.
Lymphatic filariasis (also known as Elephantiasis) is an incurable disease caused by the parasitic worms Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori. This disease is transmitted from human to human by mosquitoes’ bites. The mosquito picks up the microfilariae from the infected person’s blood and developed it into a larval stage which then accumulates in the mosquito’s mouth. As the mosquito bites a human’s skin, the larvae process to travel down inside the body and damage the lymphatic system. This causes lymphoedema, swelling in the arms and legs. Lymphatic filariasis symptoms were discovered in Goa. And in 1863, microfilariae were first observed by Jean – Nicolas Demarquay, a French surgeon. It wasn’t until 1877 that Patrick Mansion located the microfilariae in mosquitoes. There are a lot of contributions to the discovery of this disease. Even today, researchers are still developing treatments and prevention methods.
3) The larvae can live up to 7 years in the human’s lymph vessels. They damage tissues, affecting the normal flow of lymph fluid which causes swelling in the arms and legs. Infections, fevers, inflammation of the lymphatic system and tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (a lung syndrome) can also be resulted. This is a common disease for people who live in tropical areas.
4) This topic relates to the Scientific Revolution because discovery of lymphatic filariasis symptoms led to the diagnosis of microfilariae and elephantiasis and the identification of the adult worm Wuchereria bancrofti. When microfilariae were found in mosquitoes, this discovery was used to explain other tropical diseases, specifically malaria. And furthermore, this topic brings us to environmentalism. It is proven that the population of infected people would significantly decreases if we reduce the amount of deforestation, indiscriminate urbanization, unsanitary areas and water pollution. Because by doing so, we can avoid creating places that allow filarial vectors to breed.
5) Because of this, in 2008, the Expert Committee on Filariasis calculated a total of 120 million people in 83 countries infected with this disease. The most affected areas are in India, Africa, South Asia, the Western Pacific and Central and South America. Lymphatic filariasis is one of the world’s leading diseases, causing long-term and even permanent disability due to the swelling mainly in the arms and legs.
Louis Pasteur is a French chemist and biologist who discovered the germ theory of disease and invented pasteurization. Pasteurization is the process of which bacteria can be removed from liquid (such as souring wine, beer or milk) by first boiling then cooling the liquid. By separating the bacteria, Pasteur was able to easily observe and identify the causes of the diseases certain things contain. In his germ theory of disease, he stated that germs are to attack the body from outside. And based on his theory, he was able to explain the causes and preventions of diseases such as anthrax, cholera, TB and smallpox. One of his most accomplishment works is his discovery of vaccines for rabies. In 1888, under his control, the Pasteur Institute was created in Paris to help treat victims with rabies. With much success, the Pasteur Institute soon spread worldwide, curing victims with not only rabies and other diseases also.
3) His theory and experiments saved many business industries. For example, in 1864, he went to the vineyard in Arbois to find out the diseases the wine there was causing. After researching and investigating, he concluded that the diseases were caused by microorganisms. And thanks to pasteurization, it was possible to kill the microorganisms by heating the wine up to 55oC. He also saved the silk industry in southern France by stating that the parasitic infections were the cause and suggested the industry to carefully choose disease-free eggs afterwards.
4) Pasteur’s works made a significant contribution to the Scientific Revolution. Not only did he discover the causes of the diseases that were happening in his time, he also created the preventions and vaccinations for those diseases. His work with bacteria and other living organisms and his invention of pasteurization opened many doors for later on scientists. However, the reason for the start of his works leads us back to the Industrial Revolution. While industries were beginning their rapid growth, undiscovered diseases and new complications appeared. Everything happens for a reason and so to clear out the confusions, discovery of these bacteria and living organisms had to be made.
5) Because of his work, billions of people are cured from diseases such as cholera, TB, smallpox, swine erysipelas, childbirth fever, pneumonia and especially rabies. He also cured many sheep and cattle from anthrax – saving the agriculture industry. If it wasn’t for the vaccinations and preventions Pasteur created, many industries would be shut down and the quality of human lives would be in poor conditions.
Justus von Liegbig, a German organic chemist who’s also known as the “Father of the Fertilizer Industry” was the first to invent a nitrogen-based fertilizer. He discovered that nitrogen (in the form of ammonia) should be added to plant roots in order for them to grow healthier. And based on the principles of plant nutrition, he created the Law of the Minimum which states that “if one crop of the nutritive elements is deficient or lacking, plant growth will be poor even when all the other elements are abundant.” (Biomassters, Inc) He figured out that each species of plants requires different type of nutrients and that one nutrient cannot replace another. Therefore it’s important that farmers and chemists discover which elements are most essential to certain plant nutrition.
3) His discovery has suggested that in order for plants to grow healthy and provide its best products, they need mineral elements, such as nitrogen, to be added in its roots, since that’s where plants take up minerals from the soil. Plus it’s important that farmers do not add any additional chemicals into the plants, considering that it doesn’t matter how much chemical was added, it would still affect the plant’s growth.
4) Justus von Liebig has made a huge contribution to the Scientific Revolution, especially in the agriculture industry. Based on his ideas, chemical fertilizer was created later on. His discovery has also helped improve the Industrial Revolution where farmers were using organic fertilizers for their crop. And although organic fertilizer is a healthy choice, chemical fertilizer helped to produce more products, giving larger amount of outcomes – which was important and needed during the Industrial Revolution where the population was rapidly growing.
5) This invention has opened the agriculture industry’s eyes. It made them realized that natural fertilizer, such as animal dung, was not the only solution. Liebig’s “Law of the Minimum” has also helped many farmers understand the growth rate of their crop, suggesting that they should be careful when adding extra minerals (elements) into the plants. Plus with the increasing rate of the world’s population, chemical fertilizer is needed since natural ones aren’t always available.
Solutions for water purification have always been in questions since the ancient time. But it wasn’t until 1804 that Robert Thom, a Scottish scientist built the first municipal water treatment plant which was based on slow sand filtration. This invention was installed in Scotland, providing all the residents in Paisley with treated water that was safe to drink.
3) Because of this municipal water treatment plant, the number of people affected by waterborne diseases has highly decreased. And to make sure the water supply in London is always treated by the slow sand filtration, the government enforced a law called “The Metropolis Water Act of 1852” (Binnie, Kimber and Smethurst, 2002). This first act of water purification requirement inspired other countries to do the same in the following years. In addition, residents did not have to pay for the installment because everyone deserves to have access to clean drinking water.
4) The municipal water treatment plant was invented by Thom during the Scientific Revolution. Ideas for water treatment have been in history for hundreds of years. The desperation for water treatment became essential during the Middle Ages, when empires, for example the Roman Empire, lacked water supply. And even though they had aqueducts back then, it wasn’t enough. Therefore this invention has made a huge contribution to the Scientific Revolution, providing safe water supply for the accelerated growing population. However, the desperation for water treatment was caused by the pollution that factories and industries made during the Industrial Revolution. The revolution happened so rapidly that the industries did not have time to quickly realize the pollution they were causing. Factories were disposing their wastes and chemicals into the water body. As a result, rivers and lakes were pollution and clean water supply became limited. Although today we have advanced water treatments, water pollution is still a crisis in Environmentalism. There are many water purification treatments nowadays but it can never be enough so it’s important that we try our best to reduce the amount of water pollution as much as possible.
5) Because of this invention and the access to safe drinking water, the number of waterborne diseases has decreased. 95% of the water we drink is groundwater. Therefore it’s important that we remove the pesticides, nitrates, bacteria and other contaminants in the water. To stay healthy and avoid getting waterborne diseases, we must have clean and safe water supply. That’s why this invention of municipal water treatment plants was important because it saved our lives.
In 1709, Abraham Darby made contributions to the iron industry by inventing coke smelting which helped the production of brass and iron goods. He discovered that coke can be created by burning coal instead of charcoal, which was becoming rare and expensive at that time. Working with brass and iron his whole life, Darby had enough knowledge to create something different. He decided to combine the casting of iron and brass together. And surprisingly, improvements of the products’ intricacy, smoothness and thinness were made. The productions were also in greater detail. His new methods made the production of the iron and bass steam engines possible.
3) Before the iron industry was struggling to constantly produce steady hot flames so that it could make iron and steel. They were using charcoal for the smelting but the outcome cost was rising. So Darby’s creation definitely saved the iron industry at that time. Plus coke was even better because it produced sustained heat without flame.
4) Darby’s coke smelting is one of the most notable inventions during the Industrial Revolution. The industry was growing, population was rising and demand for iron was getting high. Yet this invention was adding up to a serious problem for the future: air pollution. The exhaust that the iron smelting produced was causing the air to clog up, affecting the ecosystem. This topic is a big problem for Environmentalism because it is the major cause for air pollution.
5) Despite the fact that coke smelting causes air pollution, this creation has made significant improvements for the iron and steel industries. And due to the continuation of iron, inventions such as aircraft, automobiles, shipbuilding and other constructions were made.