Recent Event Highlights: The Civil War and Reconstruction, Pre Civil-War, and 12 more...
Created by hthiemann on Aug 28, 2009
Last updated: 10/05/09 at 11:41 AM
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Presidents: Richard Nixon (1969-1974) Gerald Ford (1974-1977) Jimmy Carter (1977-1981) Ronald Reagan (1981-1989) George H.W. Bush (1989-1993) Major Events: 1970: Kent State and Jackson State Shootings 1971: Pentagon Papers Printed 1972-1974: Watergate ○ June 1972: Burglars caught at DNC at Watergate Hotel ○ May 1973: Senate committee opens hearing on Watergate Affair ○ October 1973: Vice President Agnew resigns; "Saturday Night Massacre" ○ August 1974: Richard Nixon resigns from office 1973: US Ends Direct intervention in Vietnam 1979: Three Mile Island Nuclear Accident 1979-1981: Iranian Hostage Crisis 1983: SDI ("Star Wars") Missile Defense System proposed 1985: Iran-contra Affair 1989: Berliners tear down Berlin Wall Throughout the 1970's, 80's, and 90's, it seemed that Democracy and Republicanism would never get back on track. Pentagon papers were printed revealing governmental secrets, a historic scandal, Watergate, hit headlines everywhere, and a President resigns from office, shortly before being impeached. At the end of the 20th Century, the government was doing many things without notifying the American people, thus breaking the trust needed to have a strong and successful democracy. http://blogs.seattleweekly.com/reverb/nixon.jpg. September 27th, 2009.
Presidents: Dwight David Eisenhower (1953-1961) John F. Kennedy (1961-1963) Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969) Richard Nixon (1969-1974) Major Events: 1960: Idea of "Counterculture" takes effect 1960: Young Americans for Freedom is established 1963: JFK assassinated Mid 1960's: Students for a Democratic Society established 1964: Malcolm X delivers "The Ballot or the Bullet" speech 1965: Malcolm X assassinated 1964-1965: Free Speech Movement 1966: Black Panthers established 1968: Kerner Commission 1968: MLK Jr. assassinated 1968: Robert F. Kennedy assassinated 1969: Apollo 11 lands on the moon 1969: Woodstock Festival In the 1960's, Democracy and Republicanism took a different turn than they ever had before. People followed the "counterculture" and expressed their ideas and morals, but instead of it being to better the government, was in spite of it. Shooting occurred on college campuses and riots were violently broken up. Democracy was breaking down because of a failure to communicate and stimulate change with the concerns of the citizens in mind. http://www.solarnavigator.net/music/music_images/Woodstock_music_festival_poster.jpg. September 30th, 2009.
Presidents: Harry S. Truman (1945-1953) Dwight David Eisenhower (1953-1961) Major Events 1945: U.S. drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima 1945: VI/VJ days 1945: Nuremberg Trials start 1946: Baby Boom 1946: Iron Curtain 1947: Truman Doctrine 1947: Marshall Plan, Containment Policy 1948: Berlin Airlift 1949:NATO 1949: Soviets develop an atomic bomb 1950:Korean war begins 1950: McCarthyism 1951: 22nd Amendment 1953:Korean War Ends 1954:Segregation in education ruled illegal (Brown vs. Board of Education) 1955: Warsaw Pact Signed 1955: Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat on a Montgomery bus During the years post-WWII, America developed the principles of Democracy and Republicanism. The 22nd Amendment ensured that all presidents can only be re-elected once, giving others a fair and equal chance at the position. Also, in 1954, Segregation in education was ruled illegal after the Supreme Court Case Brown vs. Board of Education. These significant events support the ideas of Democracy and Republicanism because it is providing opportunity for the American people. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/8/80/Rosaparks_bus.jpg. October 2nd, 2009.
Presidents: Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933-1945) Harry S. Truman (1945-1949) Major Events 1941: Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The U.S. officially enters World War II. 1942: Rationing of sugar, gasoline, and coffee begins. Sales of new cars is banned. 1944: Servicemen's Readjustment Act (GI Bill of Rights) is passed 1945: Fuel conservation begins 1945: President Roosevelt dies, Vice President Harry Truman becomes President 1945: Germany surrenders to the Allies. 1945: US drops first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan 1945: Japan surrenders http://proteus.brown.edu/13things/admin/image.html?imageid=5783750. October 2nd, 2009.
Presidents: Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921) Warren G. Harding (1921-1923) Calvin Coolidge (1923-1929) Herbert Hoover (1929-1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933-1945) Major Events: 1917: WWI Ended 1917: Espionage Act 1918: Treaty of Versailles 1918: Sedition Act 1919: Prohibition 1920: Red Scare 1920-1929: Industrialism/ Stock Market Rises 1929: Stock Market Crashes/ Great Depression begins 1939: WWII Begins From about 1917 to 1940, the U.S. was involved in many events that affected and developed the principles of Democracy and Republicanism. In 1917, the Espionage Act was passed and the next year, 1918, the Sedition Act was passed. These acts limited many natural rights of Americans, most importantly the freedom of speech. This negatively affected Democracy and Republicanism. However, during the Red Scare, the U.S. became very unified against one force, the Soviets, thus strengthening the two American principles. http://www.papoose-yacht.com/images/wallstreet-crash.jpg. October 1st, 2009.
Presidents: Chester Alan Arthur (1881-1885) Grover Cleveland (1885-1889), (1893-1897) Benjamin Harrison (1889-1893) William McKinley (1897-1901) Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909) William Howard Taft (1909-1913) Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921) From the early 1880's up until 1920, Imperialism and Progressivism were greatly intertwined with the values of Democracy and Republicanism, affecting them in positive and negative ways. Many Americans were opposed to the idea of Imperialism because it contradicted the idea of Democracy. By taking away rights of people, the U.S. was force-feeding new rights to them - quite a contradictory cycle. Progressivism took many things away, such as alcohol, but at the same time many important advances were made. One of the most important among these is the 19th Amendment, giving woman the right to vote. Major Events: 1883: Civil Service Act 1887:Interstate Commerce Act 1913: 16th Amendment 1913: 17th Amendment 1914: Sherman Anti Trust Act 1919: 18th Amendment 1920: 19th Amendment http://www.blogadilla.com/img/wine_prohibition.jpg. September20th, 2009.
Presidents: Rutherford B. Hayes (1877-1881) James A. Garfield (1881-1881) Chester A. Arthur (1881-1885) Grover Cleveland (1885-1889) Benjamin Harrison (1889-1893) Major Events: 1877: Hayes begins withdrawing Union Troops from South 1881: President Garfield is shot 1882: Congress passes Chinese Exclusion Act 1883: Supreme Court Rules that Civil Rights Act (only protected people from discrimination by the state, not by people or corporations) 1886: Grover Cleveland unveils the Statue Of Liberty 1889: Oklahoma opened to white settlement The word "gilded" describes something corrupt or invaluable coated in a thin layer of something valuable or precious. From 1877 to 1890, America went through a "Gilded Age," where, to the outside the world, the country seemed to be making great advances and accomplishments. However, underneath the gold lining, Democracy and Republicanism was being corrupted. Political elections were greatly corrupted and patronage took priority over principles and issues. http://memory.loc.gov/pnp/cph/3a10000/3a10000/3a10200/3a10265r.jpg. October 2nd, 2009.
Presidents: James Buchanan (1857-1861) Abraham Lincoln (1862-1865) Andrew Johnson (1865-1869) Ulysses S. Grant (1869-1877) 1863: Emancipation Proclamation 1863: (July 1-3) Gettysburg 1863: Lincoln's 10% Plan 1865: 13th Amendment 1865: South surrenders 1865: Lincoln Assassinated 1865: Andrew Johnson takes office as President 1866: 14th Amendment 1866: Congressional Reconstruction 1868: Ulysses S. Grant becomes President 1869: 15th Amendment During the time period in which the Civil War took place, American Democracy and Republicanism was severely weakened by the actions of some Southern States. America, being a union, is supposed to be a unified country under one law. If people do not agree with the law, it is their duty to fight for what they want. In the time of the Civil War, Southern States simply seceded and made the United States a "Divided States." However, Lincoln and Johnson's efforts to reconstruct the nation began to repair the damage done to the values of Democracy and Republicanism. http://cadres.pepperdine.edu/ccar/ar/c7/Connaghan/CivilWarFlags.GIF. September 20th, 2009.
Presidents: Martin Van Buren (1837-1841) William Henry Harrison (1841) John Tyler (1841- 1845) James K. Polk (1845 - 1849) Zachary Taylor ( 1849-1850) Millard Filmore (1850 - 1853) Major Events: 1845: Texas admitted to Union as slave state 1846-1848: Mexican-American War 1848: Seneca Falls Convention 1850: Compromise of 1850 1852: Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1854: Kansas-Nebraska Act 1855-1856: Bleeding Kansas 1857: Dred Scott v. Sanford 1859: John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry 1860:Abraham Lincoln elected 16th President During the Pre-Civil War Period, Democracy and Republicanism was being negatively impacted. Instead of doing what was right and best for the country, people cheated to get what they wanted. For example, when the Kansas-Nebraska Act came into effect, people began moving and providing illegitimate votes to decide whether or not the states would be slave states. This shows that people cared more about getting their way by cheating instead of thinking about their fellow citizens and country as a whole. http://www.travelks.com/images/Event/1929-Forcing%20Slavery.jpg. October 1st, 2009.
Presidents: John Quincy Adams (1825-1829) Andrew Jackson (1829-1837) Martin Van Buren (1837-1841) Major Events: 1824: Corrupt Bargain 1828: Election of 1828 (Jackson vs. Adams) 1830: Property qualifications on voters go down 1840: Voting percentage rises from 27% to 80% (highest percentage ever) 1840: Election of 1840, Van Buren vs. Harrison During the Jacksonian Era, Democracy and Republicanism takes a harsh fall and then slowly recovers. The Corrupt Bargain showed the corruption that could occur within the government and caused many people to question authority and lose respect for it. However, later when property qualifications go down on voters, Democracy and Republicanism begins to rebuild it's values by showing that every individual should have a say in the government, not just those who own land. http://sites.google.com/site/andrewjacksonpresidency/_/rsrc/1232390502296/Home/Andrew%20Jackson.jpg. September 30th, 2009.
Presidents: Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809) James Madison (1809-1817) James Munroe (1817-1824) John Quincy Adams (1824-1828) Major Events: 1800: Washington D.C. becomes Capital 1800: Election of 1800 1803: Louisiana Purchase 1803: Marbury vs. Madison 1804: Lewis and Clark depart on Expedition 1804: 12th Amendment: Electoral College 1808: Ban of slave importation from Africa 1812-1815: War of 1812 with Britain 1820: Missouri Compromise 1823: Munroe Doctrine 1825: Erie Canal 1826: Jefferson and Adams die on the same day (Independence Day) The Election of 1800 was one of the most important events in American history because of the way it affected Democracy and Republicanism. James Bayard made a moral decision to make a difference and go against his own party and consequently, Jefferson became President. With Jefferson as President, Democracy and Republicanism definitely took a turn for the better. Jefferson was a strong believer in the fact that everybody should be involved and represented. http://bioguide.congress.gov/bioguide/photo/B/B000249.jpg. September 30th, 2009.
Presidents: George Washington (1789-1796) John Quincy Adams (1796-1801) Major Events 1791: Bill of Rights ratified 1793: Jefferson resigns from position of Secretary of State 1796: Election between John Quincy Adams and Jefferson, Adams becomes President 1797: XYZ Affair 1798: Quasi War 1798: Sedition Act, Alien Act, and Neutralization Act are all passed 1799: Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions During this period, Democracy and Republicanism are affected in both good and bad ways. The ideals are developed in the sense that Jefferson, during his campaign for the presidency, wanted to express the rights of the individual and steer away from a hierarchy form of government where only a select few rule. On the other hand, the values were negatively impacted when President John Adams passed a series of acts, especially the Sedition Act. The Sedition Act denied people the right to free speech and expression, thus contradicting the principles of Democracy and Republicanism. http://newman.baruch.cuny.edu/digital/redscare/IMAGES_LG/Gag_Rulers.gif. September 30th, 2009.
Presidents: George Washington (1789-1797) Major Events: 1781: Articles of Confederation Ratified 1783: Peace Treaty with Britain 1787 Constitution is written 1788 Constitution ratified by 9 states and becomes a law 1789 George Washington elected first President of the US 1789: First Congress met in New York, NY At this point in American history, the ideals of Democracy and Republicanism were still only emerging. Although they were present they were very weak and had not been truly Americanized yet because America was just beginning to govern itself. However, the fact that the Constitution was written is very important because the rights and laws of the people were outlined in this document. Therefore, the Founding Fathers had some idea of how to best represent the individuals of their country. http://dually.files.wordpress.com/2008/12/constitution-signing1.jpg. September 19th, 2009.
1754:French Indian War
1765-1766: Stamp Act
1770: Boston Massacre
1772: Samuel Adams and Committee of Correspondence
1773: Boston Tea Party
1774: Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts)
1774: First Continental Congress
1775: Lexington and Concord
1776: Declaration of Independence
1775-1781: Secong Continental Congress
1781: Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown
1783: Final Peace Treaty signed
During the Revolutionary War, democracy was just beginning to emerge in society. The Americans showed their cohesiveness and ability to work together when they united against the British and gained their independence. Democracy came into play at first when the Committee of Correspondence was created to represent the rights and wants of the American people and later when the First and Second Continental Congresses were formed. Finally, democracy came into full effect when, in 1776, the Declaration of Independence allowed America to govern themselves by the principles of democracy.
http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC/. September 21st, 2009.
Source Citation: Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC/