Sequential order of educational theories.
Created by jerwin on Jul 8, 2008
Last updated: 03/05/10 at 04:27 AM
The EI model introduced by Daniel Goleman focuses on EI as a wide array of competencies and skills that drive leadership performance. Goleman's model outlines four main EI constructs: Self-awareness - the ability to read one's emotions and recognize their impact while using gut feelings to guide decisions. Self-management - involves controlling one's emotions and impulses and adapting to changing circumstances. Social awareness - the ability to sense, understand, and react to other's emotions while comprehending social networks. Relationship management - the ability to inspire, influence, and develop others while managing conflict. Goleman includes a set of emotional competencies within each construct of EI. Emotional competencies are not innate talents, but rather learned capabilities that must be worked on and developed to achieve outstanding performance.
"Character education" is an umbrella term used to describe many aspects of teaching and learning for personal development. Some areas under this umbrella are "moral reasoning/cognitive development"; "social and emotional learning"; "moral education/virtue"; "life skills education"; "caring community"; "health education"; "violence prevention"; "conflict resolution/peer mediation" and "ethic/moral philosophy" (
Process improvement is important; but ultimately, the long-term effectiveness of any organization lies in its people improvement. If people are committed to personal quality, innovation and continuous improvement, they are more likely to contribute their maximum potential to organizational quality objectives.
Edmund Emmer and Carolyn Evertson (1981) state that effective management consists of teacher behaviors that produce high levels of student involvement in activities, minimal amounts of student behavior that interfere with the teacher’s or other students’ work, and efficient use of instructional time. Teachers that are effective managers have: Planned rules and procedures carefully Systematically taught these to students Organized instruction to maximize student task engagement and success Communicated directions and expectations to students.
Rosenshine - Lesson has 6 functions •Review. The first teaching function involves starting each lesson with a review of previously learned skills, homework, and/or the prerequisite skills students will need for the target lesson. The review serves as an informal assessment for teachers to gauge whether students have the necessary prerequisite skills or if reteaching of the content is necessary prior to lesson delivery. • Presentation. The second teaching function addresses the general techniques that positively correlate with presenting new material in a clear and organized manner. It is suggested that instructional delivery include the following components: (a) an overview of the lesson (e.g., verbally stating or listing the lesson goals) (b) teach the new skills at a fast rate to maintain student attention and in small increments to reduce student confusion (c) model the procedures via thinking aloud, using clear and consistent language (d) check for initial student understanding by asking questions, and provide repeated explanations or demonstrations as needed (e) Incorporate a variety of examples and teach to a level of mastery prior to advancing in the lesson (Rosenshine and Stevens, 1986; Rosenshine, 1996) • Guided practice. Teacher-directed practice follows the initial demonstration and includes teacher supervision and guidance as students start to perform the new tasks. During this initial learning stage, it is expected that students will become “firm” with the material and reach a level of 80 % correct or greater. To obtain this level of success, instructional guidance should include: (a) A high number of factual questions (i.e., requiring specific responses) and process-based questions (i.e., requiring explanation of steps). Procedures should include individual and group responses to assess student understanding (b) Teacher prompts (e.g., verbal or written cues, anticipating and addressing frequent student errors) are provided to help students perform the task. The prompts are then gradually phased out as students assume more responsibility for completing the tasks independently (c) Teacher evaluation of student understanding based on frequent student responses. Teachers should also use specific corrective feedback as needed • Corrections and feedback. As noted in the previous stages, including the review, presentation, and guided practice, corrective feedback is provided immediately to reduce student errors. Four types of student answers and suggested teacher responses are outlined below: The student provides a(n): The teacher: • Quick, correct, and firm answer • Moves on to a new question to maintain the pace of the lesson • Accurate but hesitant answer • Provides brief feedback (“correct”) and an explanation of why the answer is correct • Careless mistake • Corrects student error and move on in the lesson to maintain the pace • Inaccurate answer due to facts or process: • Restates the question into simpler form, provides clues/prompts, and reteaches if necessary • Independent practice. During independent practice, students perform the task while the teacher monitors performance and provides additional explanations or reteaching as needed. Initially, students will perform the task slowly as they think through the process with few errors (unitization stage) prior to performing the task with a higher level of accuracy and speed (automaticity stage). For student practice to be successful, it is important to maximize the time scheduled for independent student seatwork and to program for overlearning of the target skill (to a level of 95 % correct or greater). Rosenshine (1983) recommends the following guidelines for increasing student involvement during independent practice: (a) Programming for more demonstration and guided practice time than independent seatwork time to adequately prepare students to work independently (b) Providing structured support at the beginning of the independent practice (having the perform the first two or three problems and checking the work prior to moving on) (c) Circulating among the and monitoring student work by asking questions, checking answers, and giving brief instructions if needed. For more difficult material, Rosenshine (1983) suggests dividing instruction tasks involving many steps (e.g., 2 digit multiplication) into segments with multiple instructional and independent segments per period. For example, the teacher can demonstrate the first step in the algorithm, provide student practice and independent practice, and move on to the second step • Weekly and monthly reviews.
Madeline Hunter's Lesson Design Model with a few modifications made by me. 1. Anticipatory Set (focus) - A short activity or prompt that focuses the students' attention before the actual lesson begins. Used when students enter the room or in a transition. A hand-out given to students at the door, review question written on the board, a short video clip, etc. 2. Purpose (objective) - The purpose of today's lesson, why the students need to learn it, what they will be able to "do", and how they will show learning as a result are made clear by the teacher. Write your behavioral objectives here. 3. Input - The vocabulary, skills, and concepts the teacher will impart to the students - the "stuff" the kids need to know in order to be successful. The meat and potatoes of the lesson 4. Modeling (show) - The teacher shows in graphic form or demonstrates what the finished product looks like - a picture worth a thousand words. 5. Guided Practice (follow me) - The teacher leads the students through the steps necessary to perform the skill using the trimodal approach - hear/see/do. 6. Checking For Understanding (CFU) - The teacher uses a variety of questioning strategies to determine "Got it yet?" and to pace the lesson - move forward?/back up? 7. Independent Practice - The teacher releases students to practice on their own based on #3-#6. Use an activity, group work, etc. 8. Closure - A review or wrap-up of the lesson - "Tell me/show me what you have learned today".
The theory of multiple intelligences was developed in 1983 by Dr. Howard Gardner, professor of education at Harvard University. It suggests that the traditional notion of intelligence, based on I.Q. testing, is far too limited. Instead, Dr. Gardner proposes eight different intelligences to account for a broader range of human potential in children and adults. These intelligences are: Linguistic intelligence ("word smart"): Logical-mathematical intelligence ("number/reasoning smart") Spatial intelligence ("picture smart") Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence ("body smart") Musical intelligence ("music smart") Interpersonal intelligence ("people smart") Intrapersonal intelligence ("self smart") Naturalist intelligence ("nature smart")
15 behaviors concerned with response opportunity, positive feedback and personal regard. Research shows it’s used with students who are perceived as high achievers more than low achievers. If you increase these behaviors with low achievers they will achieve at a higher level.
Assertive discipline is a structured, systematic approach designed to assist educators in running an organized, teacher-in-charge environment. Lee and Marlene Canter, when consulting for school systems, found that many teachers were unable to control undesirable behavior that occurred in their The Cantors, rightfully so, attributed this to a lack of training in the area of behavior management. Based on their research and the foundations of assertiveness training and applied behavior analysis, they developed a common sense, easy-to-learn approach to help teachers become the captains of their and positively influence their students' behavior. Today, it is the most widely used "canned" (prepared/packaged) behavior management program. Assertive discipline has evolved since the mid 70's from an authoritarian approach to one that is more democratic and cooperative.
Mastery learning is an instructional philosophy based on the belief that all students can learn if given the appropriate amount of time and the appropriate instructional opportunities. Students can achieve mastery when the curricular standards are clearly articulated and defined, when assessments accurately measure the students’ progress toward performance of the objective(s), and when instructional lessons are tightly aligned to the curriculum. Mastery Learning is based on several premises that include: · All individuals can learn · People learn in different ways and at different rates. · Under favorable learning conditions, the effects of individual differences approach a vanishing point. · Uncorrected learning errors are responsible for most learning difficulties. Block states that students with minimal prior knowledge of material have higher achievement through mastery learning than with traditional methods of instruction.
Gagne's book, The Conditions of Learning, first published in 1965, the mental conditions for learning. These were based on the information processing model of the mental events that occur when adults are presented with various stimuli. Gagne created a nine-step process called the events of instruction, which correlate to and address the conditions of learning.