By: Jack Howell
Created by jhowell on Dec 3, 2010
Last updated: 12/03/10 at 09:48 AM
Expansion and Industrialization has no followers yet. Be the first one to follow.
The space race began when the Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik into outer space; the race ended when Lance Armstrong and Apollo 11 landed on the moon. However, it was not that simple; the space race created an enormous amount of competition and malevolence between the Soviet Union and America. Each country continuously strived for perfection in order to “out-perform” its rival. Driven by competition, the race impacted industrialization because technology increased at a substantial rate. America began to give money and awards to individuals excelling in the subjects of math and science. In order to stay equal with the Soviets, the American people did not have a choice; they were forced to industrialize. The technology created during this time period helped America learn about aspects of the universe that were not available previously. Americans understood that with technology and industrialization, there are an endless amount of possibilities. "Armstrong, Neil Alden (1930-)." Encyclopedia of World Biography. Detroit: Gale, 1998. Gale World History In Context. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. "Neil Armstrong." Image. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. "Space Race: What Prompted the United States to Venture into Space?" History in Dispute. Ed. Robert J. Allison. Vol. 2: American Social and Political Movements, 1945-2000: Pursuit of Liberty. Detroit: St. James Press, 2000. 241-248. Gale World History In Context. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. "Sputnik." The Cold War--1945-1991. Gale, 1992. Gale World History In Context. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. This is a portrait of Neil Armstrong.
By producing the Model T in 1908, Henry Ford forever changed the American society. For example, this car was the first form of individual transportation. An individual no longer relied on other passengers or a daily schedule to reach a destination quickly. Contributing to the theme of expansionism, the Model T allowed individuals to travel with great ease and at a faster rate. The Model T was one of the first pieces of American technology that exemplified convenience. In addition, from an industrialization viewpoint, Henry Ford created the assembly line, which allowed for ordinary Americans to construct these automobiles. Since low skilled Americans were working in the factories, Ford was able to pay them an iota of money, which allowed for the price of the Model T to be affordable for the middle class. Along with the railroad, the Model T is one of the few examples of technology exemplifying expansionism and industrialization. Overall, the Model T brought convenience to ordinary Americans, and it “created” the assembly line for future industries to utilize. "Ford, Henry (1863-1947)." Encyclopedia of World Biography. Detroit: Gale, 1998. Gale World History In Context. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. "Model T Fords on New York City's Fifth Avenue." Image. Library of Congress. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. This image portrays Model T automobiles.
The Panama Canal is another example of America expanding and industrializing in the 20th century. America’s involvement began when the government gave a substantial amount of money and weapons to the radical Panamanians. In return (if they won the civil war), the Panamanians promised to let America build/use a canal that connected the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. A connection mechanism is vital because before the canal, boats did not have an easy route from ocean to ocean. Specifically, this hurt American traders and explorers, and it was very inconvenient for any individual traveling by sea. Due to the concept of expansionism, America was able to flex its muscles to the rest of the western hemisphere and demonstrate that they are able to make change at will. From an industrial standpoint, America exemplified their ability to harness this initiative and construct a modern canal, which was unique to the western hemisphere at the time. In the end, America and Panama both prosper because America has easy access to both oceans, and the canal is Panama’s largest source of income. Conniff, Michael L. "Panama Canal." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. Ed. Jay Kinsbruner and Erick D. Langer. 2nd ed. Vol. 5. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008. 29-32. Gale World History In Context. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. Major, John. "Construction of the Panama Canal." Image. Library of Congress. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 3 Dec. 2010. "Panama Canal." History of World Trade Since 1450. Ed. John J. McCusker. Vol. 2. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2006. 554-556. Gale World History In Context. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. This is an image of the Panama Canal under construction.
American involvement in Hawaii is an example of manifest destiny, industrialization, and expansionism. America initially found interest in Hawaii when businessmen discovered riches in the pineapple business. The pineapple is a rare resource that is especially prevalent in Hawaii. Businessmen immediately saw the industrial advantage of staying in Hawaii and gaining profit. Along with other natural resources, the pineapple increased American industrialization. In addition, as an aspect of expansion, the US found Hawaii to be useful because it demonstrated that America truly possesses a strong influence over the entire western hemisphere. According to the Manifest Destiny, American’s right to expand is a God given right that should always be pursued. Hawaii is also simply more land, which is powerful for any society. However, more importantly, Hawaii is close to potential threats in Asia, and the US desired to build a military base in the Pacific Ocean for protection and safety purposes. Ultimately, Hawaii becomes a state in 1959, and becomes a true, equal member of America. "A Growing Nation, 1850-1900." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. "Hawaii." Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery. Ed. Paul Finkelman and Joseph Calder Miller. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 1998. Gale World History In Context. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. "Pu'uhonua o Honaunau Historical Park." Image. National Park Service. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. This is an image of a hut in a historical part in Hawaii.
***NOTE: Edison was born in 1847 and died in 1931)*** Thomas Edison was one of the great inventors of his time. Before Edison, most inventions would occur by coincidence or luck. However, Edison purposefully tried to invent certain objects on a consistent basis. He, along with some other great minds of the time, created a laboratory, where specific, intended inventions occurred. Edison and his laboratory are essential because they changed how industrialization and technology were seen at the time; inventions became a constant aspect of reality. Additionally, more products became available to the American public, which is an important part of any democracy because it encourages free trade. Overall, America rose to be a world power because it was the best with technology, innovation, and industrialization. "Thomas Alva Edison." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History. Detroit: Gale, 1999. Gale World History In Context. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. "Thomas Edison." Image. Library of Congress. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 3 Dec. 2010. This is a portrait of Thomas Edison.
Established in 1862, the Pacific Railroad Act gave a significant amount of power to the railroad companies because the government granted them free land to construct their railroads. The transcontinental railway connected the east to the west. The Pacific Railroad Act had a large impact on expansionism and industrialization because not only did it encourage movement across the country, but it also was an enhancement of technology. People began to realize that they could get places more quickly with the railroads. The iron horse gave Americans more access to more land. Specifically, farmers significantly benefitted because they possessed the ability to ship their goods from place to place at a greater speed; they could also distribute their goods to a greater variety of locations. The railroads also allowed for military personnel and supplies to travel quickly across the country; the thought of traveling from coast to coast was not that obscure any longer. With the amount of traveling increasing, unique cultures were constantly being exchanged. In addition, besides shipping goods for lower prices, the economic significance was enormous because the railroad companies were one of the first extremely wealthy companies. Overall, with technology increasing due to industrialization, railroads made expanding much easier for the people of America. "Pacific Railroad Act." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. Ed. Shirelle Phelps and Jeffrey Lehman. 2nd ed. Vol. 7. Detroit: Gale, 2005. 343. Gale World History In Context. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. "Railroad (post-1860)." Image. National Archives. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 3 Dec. 2010. This is an image of an iron horse in 1862.
Established by the American government, the Homestead Act encouraged citizens to move westward by giving them free land. The act required Americans to live and take care of their land for five years. The Homestead Act contributed to expansionism because it gave people incentive to find new opportunities in the west. The free land created many new economic opportunities for the working class because they were able to live off their land and farm in the fertile areas in order to support their families. By creating this impetus for the working class, the government strongly demonstrated their support for expansion. Overall, due to the mass amounts of free land and opportunity to start a new life, the Homestead Act encouraged expansion in America. Huston, James L. "Homestead Act (1862)." Major Acts of Congress. Ed. Brian K. Landsberg. Vol. 2. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2004. 170-175. Gale World History In Context. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. "Settler's house in the forest." Image. Forest History Society. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 3 Dec. 2010. This image portrays an American settling on his new property.
In 1849, the California gold rush began. Primarily focused in San Francisco, the gold rush gave Americans a simple reason to expand westward, wealth. San Francisco contained many mines and rivers that possessed a plentiful amount of gold, which gave the common person incentive for a new lifestyle with new opportunities. California’s large population, which still exists today, began with the gold rush. The movement to California contributed to expansionism because a significant amount of citizens settled westward and under democratic principles, attempted to produce fortunate lifestyles. The rush in the west gave the average man of eastern America a chance to experience new job opportunities with an enormous amount of upside (little did they know that machines would eventually take their jobs). "California gold miners." Image. North Wind Picture Archives. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 3 Dec. 2010. "Gold Rush of 1849." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History. Detroit: Gale, 1999. Gale World History In Context. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. This is an image of individuals trying to strike gold in California.
Fueled by the Texas revolution, the Mexican War was essential to expansionism in America because it greatly increased the nation’s size. The southwest portion of America was developed after defeating the Mexicans, who had recently won their own independence from Spain. Once again, America is gaining new land, which is the fundamental idea behind expansion. The Mexican War was also significant because it was the first American war fought outside of the US, and it caused a significant amount of controversy. For example, under President Polk, Americans were very opinionated regarding the war. Specifically, the issue of slavery caused many individuals to oppose the fighting because they believed that the newly added states would throw the balance of slave states versus non-slave states off in the society. Overall, America believed that it had an obligation to fight for expansion privileges and engage in war with any country that might be considered a threat to American democracy and freedom. "Battle of Buena Vista." Image. Library of Congress. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. Hospodor, Gregory S. "Manifest Destiny and Mexico: The United States Did Not Have a Legitimate Claim." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. "James K. Polk: annual message (1846)." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. This is an image of the Battle of Buena Vista during the Mexican-American War.
The Oregon Trail largely contributed to expansionism because mass amounts of people traveled west. Despite the harsh conditions and high death rate, families across the east coast still desired to make the journey westward in hope of a bright future filled with new opportunities. Survival skills had to be utilized in the wilderness, along with adapting to new cultures. In addition, while traveling along the trail, democratic values were constantly used. For example, along the trail, people were forced to vote on decisions, and leadership was a necessity. Similar to the affect of the gold rush in California, Oregon’s population increased significantly. Americans were able to prosper on fertile lands and support their family. The Oregon Trail was one of the first true movements westward in American history. "Bear River Crossing, Utah." Image. National Archives. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 3 Dec. 2010. "Oregon Trail." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History. Detroit: Gale, 1999. Gale World History In Context. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. This image portrays terrain in Utah that a majority of Oregon Trail passengers traveled.
Written by President James Monroe, the Monroe Doctrine was a document that focused more on protecting North America from foreign expansion, rather than self expansion. The Monroe Doctrine portrayed the US as the guardian of the western hemisphere. Additionally, the doctrine “considers any attempt on their part to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety” (James Monroe). In short, anyone who comes into the western hemisphere is an enemy; America is not going to interfere with Europe, so Europe better not interfere with America. The theory behind the Monroe Doctrine began when America did not sign the Congress of Verona under England in order to protect future expansion. America was protecting their expansion privileges in the western hemisphere by considering any European influence a threat. America understood that if Europe became involved with their territory, their right to expand on territories would decrease significantly. Overall, the Monroe Doctrine exemplifies to European powers that the US is a world power, and America will never be conquered. Baumann, Mark D. "The Monroe Doctrine and the Roosevelt Corollary (1823–1919)." Dictionary of American History. Ed. Stanley I. Kutler. 3rd ed. Vol. 9. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2003. 204-209. Gale World History In Context. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. "James Monroe." Image. Library of Congress. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. "Monroe Doctrine." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Ed. William A. Darity, Jr. 2nd ed. Vol. 5. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2008. 272. Gale World History In Context. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. This is an image of James Monroe.
Lewis and Clark were the frontiers who began to explore the Louisiana Purchase in 1804. Lewis and Clark are essential to the aspects of expansionism because through maps and specific descriptions, they portrayed the west as a land of promise. Lewis and Clark demonstrated that the west does entail a fortunate future. The two frontiers were the first people to draw original maps of the newly purchased terrain. Despite being several years apart, these maps later proved to be necessary starting points for large movements west, such as the California gold rush and the Oregon Trail. While some people might argue that if Lewis and Clark would not have explored the west, someone else would have surely come along; it was not that simple because this new land was unknown, and nobody truly knew what to expect or what dangers to face. In addition, the timing of their expedition was important because subsequent to their return to St. Louis, Americans immediately began thinking about moving west and expanding. "Lewis and Clark Expedition." Image. Bettmann/Corbis. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 3 Dec. 2010. "Lewis and Clark Expedition." U*X*L Encyclopedia of U.S. History. Sonia Benson, Daniel E. Brannen, Jr., and Rebecca Valentine. Ed. Lawrence W. Baker and Sarah Hermsen. Vol. 5. Detroit: UXL, 2009. 901-904. Gale World History In Context. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. This image is supposed to portray Lewis and Clark encountering Native Americans.
Fueled by France’s inability to suppress a slave rebellion in Haiti, the United States, under President Thomas Jefferson, was able to purchase the vast acres of land west of the Mississippi River for 15 million dollars. The Louisiana Purchase was known as a land of promise and a paradise of plenty to the common people of America. This purchase contributed to the theme of expansionism because Americans now possessed the ability to explore new terrains and settle on fertile lands. The Louisiana Purchase nearly doubled the country’s size, which ultimately led to an endless amount of opportunities and possibilities. For example, when traders and fur trappers traveled west, they were able to share America’s ideals of democracy and mix with foreign cultures. Americans found new hope and new possibilities while expanding west that may not have been possible in the east. Overall, expansion simply involves a society expanding and developing new lands, and that is exactly what America was able to accomplish with the Louisiana Purchase. Copp, Darlene. "Louisiana to commemorate Purchase Bicentennial. (History Today)." American History 37.6 (2003): 10. Gale World History In Context. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. PERTERSON, MERRILL D. "Louisiana Purchase Treaty (1803)." Encyclopedia of the American Constitution. Ed. Leonard W. Levy and Kenneth L. Karst. 2nd ed. Vol. 4. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2000. 1644. Gale World History In Context. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. "Signing of the Louisiana Purchase." Image. Architect of the Capitol. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 3 Dec. 2010. This image is a modern day portrait of the signing of the Louisiana Purchase.
The Northwest Ordinance, written by Thomas Jefferson, allowed for the admission of Ohio, Indiana, Wisconsin, Michigan, and Illinois to the union. The Northwest Ordinance contributed to the ideals of expansionism because the country was able to expand its borders and explore new territories. In addition, the ordinance permitted the new states to have the same rights as the original 13 states. Under a democracy, possessing the same rights is important because it demonstrates to the American people that expansion is supported throughout the society. This was also America’s first large expansion beyond the original colonies. Overall, the Northwest Ordinance exemplified to the people that America was a strong, stable country that possesses the capability to expand when desired. "A map of the Northwest Territory after the Northwest Ordinance of 1787." Shaping of America, 1783-1815 Reference Library. Ed. Lawrence W. Baker, et al. Vol. 4: Primary Sources. Detroit: UXL, 2006. Gale World History In Context. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. "Northwest Ordinance; July 13, 1787." Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450. Ed. Thomas Benjamin. Vol. 3. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 1186-1189. Gale World History In Context. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. Wewers, Daniel C. "Northwest Ordinance (1787)." Major Acts of Congress. Ed. Brian K. Landsberg. Vol. 3. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2004. 83-86. Gale World History In Context. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. The image is an early draft of the Northwest Ordinance document.
The establishment of Jamestown was the initial point of expansionism. Settlers traveled overseas in search of new territories and new opportunities. The new Americans were able to adapt to the environment because they possessed advanced immune systems and living techniques. For example, many Native Americans died due to disease that the new settlers were not affected by. The settlers also displayed farming techniques, which allowed for towns to shape because people did not have to depend on being nomadic. It was essential for the settlers to form villages because without unification, the Native Americans would have taken back the land that was rightfully theirs. The new Americans greatly benefitted from the ideal of expansionism, and without their initial fortitude and anger with the British government for restricting their expansion privileges, the democracy America possesses today would not have been possible. Overall, expansionism entails traveling and exploring new lands, and this is a prime example. "James Fort." Image. MPI/Getty Images. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. "Jamestown (Overview)." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. This is an image of a modern day version of Jamestown.,