Recent Event Highlights: The Catholic/Orthodox Church Schism, Russiaâ€™s adoption of the Orthodox Church, Islamic capital moved to Baghdad, North Africa converts to Islam/Tariqâ€™s invasions into Spain, Justinian and Belisariusâ€™ Gothic War â€“ A war to reconquer the former Roman territories, and 14 more...
Created by jordanwaitegahs on Apr 8, 2011
Last updated: 04/10/11 at 08:01 PM
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Timbuktu was invaded by Muslims and turned into an Islamic city in 1324. It was turned into the Islamic center of learning because of all the Muslim scholars that fled there. It is famous for Sankore University and 180 other Islamic schools. Also, it was high in trade because of the Tran Saharan Trade routes, which were used to trade gold and salt.
Mongols began conquering all throughout Eastern Europe. Most of the land in this area was under Mongol power. When they started heading to Baghdad, the Islamic capital was under a major threat. Then, war started between them and the Muslims. A majority of the buildings in the city were destroyed, so the city fell and was taken by the Mongols.
When Christianity became a popular religion, two different beliefs about it were created, Catholic and Orthodox Church. They decided to split because of church power, language and culture, ideas of icons, base of power, and translation if the bible.
The fourth crusade was basically the end of the Byzantine Empire. Western Europe once again went on a march to the Arabian Peninsula, but stopped in the Byzantine Empire, not actually making it all the way. In 1204, the Venetian took over the city of Constantinople and kept that control for 60 years. This weakened them, but the final collapse of the Empire was in 1453, when the Turks took over.
Saladin re-conquered Jerusalem in 1187, starting the third crusade. Three European rulers decided to join together as allies in order to regain the city. The three rulers were Fredrick Barbarossa, King Richard of England, and King Phillip II of France. King Phillip II returns to France after the siege of the Acre to settle problems about who will be the successor of the king. Barbarossa drowns on his way to the Holy Land, so his troops went back home. This left only King Richard to fight against Saladin. In the end, they end up making an agreement. It was that Saladin can keep control over Jerusalem, but he will allow Christians to enter the city again. He also said he will fight anyone who tries to keep them out.
The people of Western Europe created an army and called themselves the crusaders. They march all the way over to the Arabian Peninsula, to regain Christian land. They end up capturing Jerusalem, which was intended. This begins 100 years of European control in Jerusalem.
The Roman Pope, Pope Urban II, gave a speech to the knights of Europe to start an army. His goal is to fight Saladin and his troops to get their Christian land back that was taken away from them by him. With this speech that he gives, starts the first crusade.
During the peak of Western Europe, a lot of Germanic tribes began to invade this territory. One of these tribes was the Magyars. They came from the east in Western Europe. They are from what is now Hungary and are known to be an ethnic group.
Saint Cyril was born as a Slav. He was a missionary to the Christian faith, but when the spilt of the church happened, the Slavs didnâ€™t know which way to go. The Orthodox Church agreed to translate the bible into another language while the Catholic Church didnâ€™t. Then, Cyril created the Cyrillic alphabet in order for the Slavs to be able to read the bible.
Russia adopted the Orthodox Church in 800- 1240. The choice this side of the split because the location of the Orthodox capital/ location was closer to them. Since it was closer to them, when they church spread to other countries, Russia was the closest.
Charlemagne was appointed the Holy Roman Emperor in 800 AD. He was crowned by Pope Leo III on Christmas day. It happened at St. Peterâ€™s church in Rome. It was said the Pope Leo III placed a golden crown on Charlemagneâ€™s head while in a prayer.
Charlemagne was given sole rule of the Frankish kingdom in 771 AD. He continued to conquer neighboring kingdoms, just like his father had done. His army was well trained, that other kingdoms often gave up without a fight. With the church split, Charlemagne decided to side with the Roman Catholic Church and he turned to it for an orderly government. Lastly, he made education more important to the Franks. He established libraries and scripted texts for the people.
In 762, Muslims decided to move the Islamic capital to Baghdad. This city is located 25 miles east from the Euphrates River, basically where the Tigris River meets it. The capital was moved here, so Muslims could easily control trade and agriculture. The most important building to Muslims is located in this city, the caliphâ€™s palace, a huge green dome.
The Battle of Tours was located at the border of France and Spain between the Muslims and the Franks. The Franks were trying to prevent the Muslims from Spain from spreading Islam into France. Victory was given to the Franks. Also, it is said that the victory of this battle saved Christian Europe from Muslim conquest.
Some countries in North Africa were invaded by Muslims and their religion changed to Islam. This includes Mali, Ghana, and Songhai. The Muslims got here from the Tran Saharan trade routes. Also during this time, Tariq, a great Muslim general, led his army into Spain and conquered the land. He converted the religion to Islam as well.
When Islam became a popular religion, Muslims decided to conquer certain cities, Jerusalem being one of them. A Muslim army, led by Umar I, conquered Jerusalem in 638 AD. Damascus was also one of those cities. In 635, a Muslim army surrounded the city. Later surrender took place and the Muslims received the city with it not being destroyed.
After the death of Ali, Islam was forced to split into two branches, the Sunni and Shia. It happened because they had different views on who would be the next prophet of Muhammad. The Shia believed that it should be a direct descendant of Ali. While, the Sunni believed that if the people agree with who is chosen, then they can be the prophet.
Muhammad was traveling throughout the Arabian Peninsula. Then, one day, he was visited by an angel that gave him the word of Allah, the word of god. After, he went around and taught people about the word he received. This created the new religion of Islam. In order to spread his religion, Muhammad and his followers went on a journey across the Arabian Peninsula, this was called the hijah.
The Hagia Sophia was built around 537 by the emperor Justinian. It was built as an Orthodox church for the people to worship at. It was an important aspect to the Byzantine Empire because it contains arcs, domes, and colonnades all made out of gold, marble, and bronze. The building was very expensive and it took over 1,000 years to complete.
Justinian was one of the most important emperors of the Byzantine Empire. He wrote the law code for the land, Justinianâ€™s Code. His goal was to go out and recover all of the famous Roman territories or cities. In 533, Justinian sent his talented general, Belisarius, to lead an army into North Africa. There he meet with the Vandals and defeated them in battle. Belisarius then was order to enter Italy. When he reached Sicily, roughly around 538, he was quick to conquer, making the Byzantine Empire have imperial rule. The Gothic wars then went on for 25 more years.