History of the 1870s
Created by kanthony15 on Feb 28, 2010
Last updated: 02/28/10 at 06:10 PM
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1879- The Supreme Court ruled against polygamy in the case of the United States v. Reynolds, which granted freedom of belief of polygamy but people couldn't act on it.
1879: Utes surrendered after resisting territorial concessions in western Colorado. 1879- After already giving up a majority of their ancestral territory in western Colorado, the Ute Indians were forced to issue a surrender to an attacking four thousand U.S. soldiers.
James Bonsack invents a machine for rolling cigarettes. Later utliized by Duke Family of America Tobacco Company for the mass production of their product.
1879 - A well known meat packer in Chicago named Gustavus F. Swift came up with an idea to try and sell his meat throughout Illinois and then nationwide. He put together disassembly factories to get his meat butchered and out to cities everywhere. He was known for giving Americans the ability to by beef much cheaper. Henry Ford became famous years later for following Swift’s same assembly line idea.
Thomas Edison invented the phonograph in 1878. This mechanism allowed for recorded sound to be played back on a record. Thomas Alva Edison invented the lightbulb in 1879. Eidson worked 20 hours a day in his lab in Menlo Park, New Jersey. The light bulb proved to be a safer and more efficient source of light.
1878- The Bland-Allsion Act was enforced which required the U.S. Treasury to put a certain amount of silver back into circulation and make it into silver dollars. Hayes vetoed this act but was overrode by Congress to enact it.
1877- The Compromise of 1877, was the final decision in the close race between Samuel Tilden and Rutherford B. Hayes, which declared Hayes the winner by one electoral vote.
1877 - From the beginning of the 1870’s farmers were angry due to unfair shipping practices on railroads. The farmer’s organized a strike against railroads in 1877. This led to laws beginning to be passed to regulate the railroad prices in the ‘70s and ‘80s.
Freedmen's Bureau founded over 4000 schools. There was an enrollment of over 600,000 African American children in elementary schools.
1877- The Nez Perce' War of 1877 is perhaps the most harrowing example of the army's policy. In the early 1860s the government dictated a treaty drastically reducing Nez Perce' land. Most of the chiefs refused to sign the treaty and did not move to the reservation. In 1877 the army issued an ultimatum-come into the reservation or be hunted down.Some 800 Nez Perce' people, many of them women and children fled across the mountains of Idaho, Wyoming, and Montana, heading for the safety of Canada. 1877- troops aided by Crow and Cheyenne scouts, chased and killed eight hundred Nez Perce' Indians throughout the Northwest killing many which forced one of their leaders, Young Joseph, to surrender.
The 1870's gave birth to a significant invention that is widely used today: the telephone. Alexander Graham Bell is credited with inventing the first telephone; he shocked the world when he presented it in 1876 at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition.
National League of Professional Baseball founded
1876- "The Battle of Little Bighorn takes place. U.S. troops led to defeat by Colonel George Armstrong Custer. The Colonel and his army closed in on Crazy Horse, Sitting Bull, and the tribes of the cheyenne, sioux, and arapaho. This was one of the most devastating defeats of the U.S. army." 1877- In February of this year the Sioux Indians lost their leadership in the Indian Wars.
1876- United States v. Reese, and United States v. Cruikshank; these cases protected Black Americans by not letting the government defend the Klu Klux Klan Act.
1875- Civil Rights Act, granted equality for African Americans and allowed them to to serve on a jury. The act also outlawed racial discrimination in theatres, hotels, railroads, and other public place. 50% of American American aged school kids were enrolled and one third of 3000 teachers at the time were also African
1875- The reciprocity treaty of 1875 was created to allow Hawaiian sugar to enter the U.S. free of duty. This bound the islands to the U.S. and prevented them from making territorial or economic concessions to other powers. This eventually led toward the American annexation of Hawaii. The U.S. saw Hawaii as an alluring way station to Asian markets. The use of Pearl Harbor was an exclusive right given to the U.S. Navy by this treaty as well.
1874- "In South Dakota, Gold was found on the Native territory of the Sioux. Government demanded the natives leave and they refused. This initiated the Government to launch an army against this tribe."
1874- The United States reversed its historically unfavorable balance of trade(importing more than it exported) and began to enjoy a long-term favorable balance(exporting more than it imported)-though the balance of payments remained in the red. Most of America's products went to Britain, continental Europe, and Canada, but increasing amounts flowed to new markets in Latin America and Asia."
1874: Women's Christian Temperance Union founded.
Joseph Glidden patented the barbed wire machine in 1874. Glidden used a coffee mill to cut & coil wire. The wire was not overly strong, but was shown to effectively contain livestock.
Granger Laws were enforced which regulated the railroads shipping rates.
1874- The Democrats gained control of the House of Representatives for the first time since 1856. 1874- Southern white terrorist scared thousands of blacks from voting and restorred the Democratic Party power. 1875- The Mississippi Plan, a plan to overthrow current reconstruction efforts by using violence and public terrorization, was put into action. 1877: Georgia passed poll tax and begins legislative disfranchise of African Americans in the south. 1877- Businessmen took over politics in the South and they slashed taxes on programs on reconstrction and also wanted to return to white supremecy which then became known as the Redeemer Rule.
June 1874- " The Red River War takes place spread through Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas with the Kiowa, Comanche, Southern Cheyenne. and Southern Arapaho Indians.The U.S. army was led my General Philip Sheridan, they crushed the native rebellion. " 1874- " Red River War took place because the U.S. government did not provide adequate supplies and keep whites off of the Reservation."
The Federal Comstock Law was a law against buying, selling, mailing or importing any contraband that could be used for an contraception or abortion.
1873 - Following the panic of 1873 the Greenback Labor Party, critics of gold currency, formed. The party really pushed for issuing paper currency not related to the gold supply. They believed that paper currency was equally money and should be just as valued as gold. 1873 - In 1873 the buying and minting of silver was voted to be put to a stop by the Republican Congress members. Silver advocates would later call this the “crime of ‘73”. 1878 - The Greenback party elected fourteen members to congress, which would help them with their issues with currency. 1878 - As the Greenback Party accumulated members in congress, congress started to loosen the strict money policy and make silver advocates happier by passing laws requiring the government to buy and use silver certificates for another form of currency.
In 1873, the Comstock Lode was discovered. Recently developed steam engines were used to hammer away rock to get to the gold and silver. Placer mining was replaced with hydraulic mining this decade. French Canadian sailmaker, Antoine Chabot, first used water to wash away the earth to find gold buried deep in the earth. This practice was destructive to vegetation of California, but legislation in 1775 upheld "hydraulicking." Was finally banned in the mid-1880s.
In 1873, Andrew Smith Hallide built San Francisco's first cable car system, allowing citizens to traverse the hills of the city with ease.
1873- The Panic of 1873 started with a boom in railway production in 1865. Poor quality business practices and low regulations set off a depression that resulted in unemployment rates skyrocketing, 355 banks closing (1 in 9 banks at the time), and lasted until 1879.
The Coinage Act tightended the money supply by elminating silver from circulation and is also known as the Crime of '73 because so many farmers depended on credit.
Bloodiest episode of the reconstruction era occurred on Easter Sunday in Colfax, Louisiana. Nearly 100 African Americans were murdered after they failed to hold a beiseged courthouse during a contested election.
Horace Greeley ran against incumbant president Ullysse S. Grant. Grant defeated Greeley by a landslide due to the death of Horace Greeley during the election process.
Grant signed the Amnesty Act, granting pardon for former confederate leaders making them eligble to vote and hold office.
1871- "Britain and America signed the Washington Treaty, whereby the British apologized and agreed to the creaston of a tribunal which later awarded the United States $15.5 million." May 1871- "Treaty with England settles the Alabama Claims: US claimed millions from Britain for Civil War damages."
Following Chicago's Great Fire of 1871, Chicago introduced the world to the modern sky scraper. The city contracted architects and engineers to rebuild Chicago after the fire destroyed 3 square miles of the city.
Klu Klux Klan act in Apirl enforced that violent infringment of civil and political rights a federal crime punishable by the national government. It is also commonly known as the Civil Rights Act of 1871 or the Enforcement Act of 1871.
During the decade of the 1870s, railroads quickly became more and more of a relevant transportation system. From 1870 to 1880, track mileage in America doubled, which set up for an even longer expansion in the following decade. Great Railroad Strike of 1877 clogged the nation's railways. Militiamen fired on and killed 20 strikers, but the mob responded by destroying 2 miles of railroad track, costing B&O Railroad over $2 million. Refrigeration for railroad cars invented in the 1870s. Allowed for fresh meat to be transported by rail across the country.
1870’s - Large corporations, factories and sweatshop jobs began to emerge in the 1870’s leading to a great increase in population which caused a growth in the economy. 1870 - John D. Rockefeller started the Standard Oil Company. This opened up many more jobs to society which boosted the economy. 1870 - The railroads cause major problems in the 1870s due to the overbuilding and excess. This cause the competition between railroads to become dramatic and caused the managers to secretly make deals and reduce prices lower than the advertised rates. 1870 - Starting in the 1870s steel output had become the accepted scale of industrial progress throughout the world. Every nation wanted to have the greatest output to obtain leadership and pride. Andrew Carnegie built the largest and most technologically advanced steel plant in the world in 1872. His factory was capable of producing 10,000 tons of steel per week. 1876: One half of the nations railroads had defaulted on their bonds
1870: One fourth of American's live in cities
1870- "President Grant tried unsuccessfully to annex the Dominican Republic."
1870 - According to the census report of 1870, 1.5 million women were working for wages in nonagricultural occupations. This was a dramatic change from earlier years. 1873: 3 million people lost their jobs, and clash between labor and capital became the major issue. 1873: America's industrial production had grown 75% over the 1865 level 1873: Unemployed workers go "on the tramp" in search of jobs. Individuals would wander town to town desperately seeking employment. 1870 - In 1870 there was an increase in child labor due to there being more factory and sweatshop jobs.
The 15th Amendment was ratified. The 15th Amendment states that States could not discriminate based on race.