Recent Event Highlights: Iran-Contra Affair, Iran Hostage Affair Ends, Iran-Iraq War, and 35 more...
Created by kanthony15 on Mar 3, 2010
Last updated: 03/03/10 at 11:53 AM
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In 1987 Reagan proclaimed to the USSR to “tear down this wall!” referring to the Berlin Wall in the eastern block of the city. On Nov. 9 1989 it come down and a year later the USSR was officially disbanded, leaving the US as the lone world superpower.
In the 1980s, the microwave oven and VCR became extremely popular in households across America. This brought technology to the masses and helped solidify technology as an integral part of life for the American family.
In the late 1980s because Human Molecular genetics seemed to be something that geneticists could learn more about, many geneticists urged the federal government to help create a project in which they could learn details of the "DNA" in the "human genome," which refers to all the genes contained in human cells. Federal policy makers saw in the project much promise and a way for a better understanding of and treating diseases, and also giving strength to the United States in the post-Cold War international economy. The project was started in 1989 and was soon producing a stream of genetic information. In 1985, plants were added to the list of what could be patented by the Patent and Trademark Office, and in 1987 the office announced that patents were not allowed on human beings, but they could be done on animals. The world's first patent was issued a year later on an animal, a lab mouse. The mouse was very susceptible to cancer, and had been genetically engineered that way.
The Savings and Loan Industry (S&L) was originally founded as a network of financial institutions, whose primary goal was to provide home mortgage loans. In 1989, the Savings and Loans (S&L) industry was bailed out by a vote from Congress.
National Debt formation from increased spending during decreasing revenue periods. Funding for social welfare was cut by administration by $2.5 billion in 1981 * (Medicare and Social Security of all income levels included) Also cut into services such as food stamps, and reduced public service jobs, student loans, and support for urban mass transit. $41 billion total cut out in these services By late 1980’s the budget dropped by 6% to these programs but the budget towards military, defense spending, increased by $1.2 trillion. In conclusion, national debt went from $994 to $2.9 trillion.
In the late 1980s, Air Force planners convinced Congress to agree to funding a project to develop what would soon be known as the B-2 bomber, which is is a state-of-the-art fighter plane designed for the Cold War that cost $2 billion dollars to produce. In the early 1980s, due to the doubling in defense spending during the Reagan administration . The 117 was the first aircraft to use "stealth" technology. Every part of the body of the air craft "absorbed" radar waves, meaning that it didn't send a radar signature wave back to the opposing force. If you notice in the video the aircraft has no flat surfaces they are all angled and/or slanted.
The outcome on the ruling of the case of Grove City vs. Bell allowed the Department of Justice to abandon dozens of civil rights cases against educational establishments. In 1988, the Civil Rights Restoration Act was enacted by Congress. This reversed the ruling of the Grove City vs. Bell case, and barred any organization practicing discrimination on the basis of sex, age, race, color, national origin, or disabilities from obtaining government funding.
1982: Large demonstrations against nuclear weapons. In December 1987 The U.S and Soviet Union signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty that got rid of all U.S. and Soviet intermediate-ranged missiles in Europe. This was the first time that nuclear stockpiles were actually decreased.
1987: US stock market crashes. Index dropped a record 508 points on Black Monday, October 19.
1980’s: Gay and Lesbian Rights movement. In 1987 half a million people turned out for gay rights march in the streets of New York.
Congress passed this act in 1986. The bill's purpose was to reduce taxes even more. Maximum rates on individual incomes were adjusted to 28 percent. Business income rates were adjusted to 35 percent.
President Reagan was influenced by a small, yet powerful group of political theorists called the "neoconservatives." Neoconservatism= Political activists and thinkers, consisting mostly of former liberal thinkers, who turned to a defense of traditional social and moral values and a strongly anticommunist foreign policy throughout the 1970s and 1980s.
In 1985, it was concluded that obesity -which is an excess of weight compared to a person's height- had become a "killing disease," by a panel from the National Institutes of Health. The miracles of medical technology could not do enough to save the lives of people who were suffering from high blood pressure, and also suffering from serious illnesses or premature death. There was little medical technology could do to stop people from having bad eating habits.
1984: “Year of the Yuppie” Young upwardly mobile urban professionals on the leading edge of economic vitality. Mostly college grads.
The Democratic party nominated Carter's Vice President, Walter F. Mondale, as their Presidential candidate, with Geraldine Ferraro as Vice President. The Republican party nominated Ronald Reagan and Vice President George H.W. Bush for re-election. President Ronald Reagan and Vice President George H.W. Bush were re-elected for a second term in 1984, gaining 59 percent of the popular vote.
The Reagan administration administered the term and policies of Reaganomics. This told the belief of tax cuts for the wealthy and removing the "free-market" system would be the solution to the economy's problems. "Government is not the solution to our problems," Reagan said in his inaugural address, "Government is the problem". Administration called for $750 billion tax cut in 3 years. He advocated annual cuts of 10% in personal income taxes for 3 consecutive years. Reagan favored this cut to be 30%. 1983=end of recession due to lowered interest rates and oil prices. 73% of college freshman were said to be financially "well-off" in 1986.
Economic boom was selective West Coast and Sunbelt very well off, while the Northeastern was not doing well. Farm belt experiencing foreclosures at levels near the values during the Great Depression. The widening gap between the rich and the poor continued with the Nation's wealth being held in the top 10% of American families increased by 6% between 1980-1988. Lowering Unemployment Federal Reserve Bank raised interest on bank loans to 21.5% resulting in a much slower economy. In 1984 the Gross National Product, GNP, rose to 7% and employment fell to less than 7%.
The aim of this act was to provide greater benefits to surviving spouses of workers. The act also addressed gender equity issues, enabling women to qualify more easily for retirement pensions.
In the 1980s the Reagan Doctrine was put into effect, which states that the United States will openly support any anticommunist movements- "Freedom Fighters"- where they were battling the Soviets or the Soviet backed governments. In 1984 Congress bans U.S. military aid to Nicaraguan Contras, but the Reagan administration secretly sells arms to Iran and uses the profits to support the Contras. A major incident on US foreign relations was the “Iran-Contra” affair. Six US hostages in Lebanon forced the US to be creative. Military officials found that they could trade weapons to Iran to release the hostages. However, these officials still looked to discretely support the Contras in Nicaragua. The military continued to sell arms to an ailing Iran military to fund the Contras. The affair tainted Reagan’s foreign reputation.
US foreign relations also extended to Central America where middle-class regimes were often backed by the CIA. However the US often ended up placing right-wing dictators in power. When left-wing Sandinistas ousted the US-backed Somozans in Nicaragua, aid that started in the Carter era was cut off. Nicaragua became dependent on communist Russia and Cuba. Congress funded anti-Sandanistas, and exiles to rebel but shortly after a law was passed to stop all US aid in Central America.
In 1983, another version of the Apple II was introduced. This version was operated by a mouse and had pull-down menus. The Defense Department and NASA had been under contract on developing it, and also by this time several companies were selling personal computers. In 1981, the the user-friendly IBM personal computer hit the market and was met with great reception. The suddenly massive computer industry incited a large boom in the stock market and boosted the economy. In 1981 Bill Gates sold IBM a license to use the Windows operating system but maintained the ownership of Microsoft. This proved to be a wise decision on Gates' part because he later sold the operating system directly to other PC makers resulting in substantial profits, which reached the billions. Between mid 1980s and Early 1990s scientists in Europe developed a program to retrieve information from any computer connected to the internet. By taking the standard address "URL" ( universal resource locator). Scientists also developed a language "html" ( hypertext markup language) for text and pictures to be viewed.
After further tension and massacre between the Judeo-Christian and Islamic groups in the area, Reagan sent 2,000 troops to Lebanon to keep peace. Reagan’s action was thought of as favoritism of Christianity and Israel. In October of 1983 a Muslim terrorist killed 239 US troops with a rigged truck. The need of the deployment was never made clear to the American public which damaged even more the integrity of Reagan administration’s actions in the Middle-East.
In October 1983 Ronald Reagan ordered U.S. troops to invade the tiny island of Grenada. The troops mission was to remove a government which seized control and was asking for Soviet and Cuban military aid.
US foreign policy during the 1980s was consistent with Cold War standards. To counter Russian armament, the gov’t placed missile bases aimed for Moscow and created an anti-missile system famously nicknamed, “Star Wars.” In March 1983, President Reagan announced that there would be plans to do research on what was called Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Right away, the critics dubbed it "Star Wars" because they doubted its feasibility. The plan was that the SDI project would deploy lasers in space that would be able to destroy enemy missiles before they had the chance to reach their targets. Billions of dollars were spent on research for the SDI without ever producing a working system.
In 1982, America went under it's worst recessions ever: the unemployment was nearing 10.7 million.(4) P884 - unemployment rate had been closing to 10.8% in 1981
1982: ERA- time limit for the ratification for ratification of ERA ran out. Phyllis Schlafly celebrated, while republican party took an antifeminist point of view.
The early 1980's introduced america to more drug addicction and trafficing. Even poor people could afford the new drug, "crack"
Over 11,000 workers of Profession Air Traffic Controllers Organization fired after a strike in August of 1981.
In 1981, doctors began noticing a previously unknown medical anomaly which was found predominately in homosexual men. Through recent technological advances, researchers were able to identify the cause as a new disease called Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and found that the primary means of transmission was through transfer of bodily fluids such as semen and blood. Although the recent developments in technology made it possible to diagnose the disease, there was still no known cure. In 1988 a scientific test reported that half of all gay men in San Francisco would develope AIDS and another 25% would have AIDS related complications after about 9 years of the infection. Many of the political and religious leaders of the time blamed the victim " A man reaps what he sows" said, Jerry Fallwell.
Another US excursion into Middle-East affairs was the Lebanese-Israel conflict. In 1981 Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) extremists shot and wounded the Israel ambassador to England. Israel invade Lebanon and was victorious against the PLO.
On 30 March, 1981, an assassination attempt was made on President Reagan by John Hinkley, Jr. The gunman fired a .22-caliber bullet that entered under Reagan's left arm, collapsing his lung. In only twelve days after the assault, the President was back at work.
Continuing growth of immigration since the 1940's reached a high in the 1980's of 6 million. This meant more people, more companies created, more available jobs, more money for our economy. President Reagan wanted to reduce federal regulations, taxes, and social programs. In order to achieve this he developed supply-side economics; the idea of reducing taxes on the wealthy to increase tax revenues in the long run. More money available to the wealthy would create an increase in investment funds. People would continue to do activities that include tax, if not engage in more of these activities. This simulation towards the economy would make up for tax revenues lost. Once profits hits the top, they will begin to be available for all levels of society. 1981's Economic Recovery Tax Act began Reagan's mission of lowering taxes. By an average of 25%, the income taxes and business taxes lowered across the country.
On Jan. 20, 1981 Ran released 53 US hostages that were captured under Carter’s administration. The result made Reagan’s first foreign issue a success.
In 1980 Saddam Hussein invaded Iran leading to an eight-year war between Iran and Iraq. Reagan wanted to curb Islamic extremism demonstrated in Iran, particularly under the anti-American Ayatollah Khomenei, therefore the Reagan administration supported Hussein in the war
By 1980, most married woman with children were working jobs outside of their homes. 1981: Sandra Day O’Connor appointed to supreme court. First woman justice of the United States. 1984: Ronald Reagan easily defeats Walter Mondale for presidency. Walter Mondale ran with the first women running mate.
In the 1980s, president Jimmy Carter established the Department of Energy to combat the nation's excessive consumption of energy.
1980: Carter imposed draft to any male 19 years of age or older, must sign up to be drafted.
Jimmy Carter ushered in the decade of the 1980s as President of the United States. The outcome of the Presidential election of 1980 put the Republican party in control of the Senate for the first time since the 1950s. Ronald Wilson Reagan took office as the 40th President of the United States on 20 January, 1981. To date, Ronald Reagan, at 69 years of age, is the oldest President to be elected into office. 1980: Ronald Reagan defeats Jimmy Carter for the presidency. In 1980 when Ronald Reagan was elected president he began his presidency with harsh view of the Soviet Union and began a huge military buildup. Reagan helped the improve relationship with the Soviet Union to the highest level of cooperation since the Cold War began. In the 1980's the Reagan administration rejected the policy of Detente that was popular under the Nixon and Carter organizations. Military, "defense", spending increase $2.5 billion dollars cut from social program spending.