Created by kg4w on Apr 5, 2011
Last updated: 04/05/11 at 04:05 PM
West African kingdoms adopted the religion of Islam. The most famous case was Mansa Musa, the Mali king who turned his capital city Timbuktu into a shrine to Islam. King Mansa Musa, took a famous pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324, the Holiest city of Islam, that introduced the Mediterannean world to the riches of sub-saharan Africa, as he carried much gold with him. Many people would later travel to Mali in search of gold.
1187 - Muslims capture Jerusalem
In 1054 AD the western empire (rome) wanted to allow icons (statures/mosaics) in the church but the eastern empire (constantinople) did not. The result was the splitting of the church. Rome adopted the Roman Catholic Church and Constantinople became the Eastern Orthodox Church
The life of Cyril, born 826 AD died 869 AD. Cyril and his brother Methodius were Christian missionaries. They tried to teach the Bible to the Slavs. The Slavs had no written language, so Cyril and Methodius created an alphabet for them. It was called the Cyrillic alphabet. Many Slavic peoples still use the Cyrillic or an alphabet derived from it.
On Christmas Day of the year 800, Charlemagne was in Rome to worship at Saint Peter’s Basilica.As he knelt in prayer, Pope Leo III placed a crown on his head and declared him Emperor of the Romans.
Mulsims from Spain were called Moors. The Moors crossed over the Pyrenees to raid central France. In A.D. 732 the Franks defeated the Moors at the Battle of Tours. This defeat ended the expansion of Islam in Western Europe
633-42 Muslim armies take the Fertile Crescent (Egypt, Syria, Palestine, and Mesopotamia), North African coast, parts of Persian and Byzantine Empires The conquest began with an invasion by an army that consisted largely of Berber Northwest Africans and was commanded by Tariq ibn Ziyad. They disembarked in early 711 at Gibraltar and campaigned their way northward. After a decisive battle, the Visigothic kingdom collapsed and over the following decade most of the Iberian Peninsula was brought under Muslim occupation, save for mountainous areas in the northwest (Galicia and Asturias) and largely Basque regions in the Pyrenees. The conquered territory, under the Arabic name al-Andalus, became part of the expanding Umayyad empire.
After Muhammad’s death in 632, Muslims disagreed over who should replace him. Some believed that the Caliph or successor, to Muhammed should be descendants of Muhammed. Others believed a different line should become caliph. A Schism developed in Islam and caused a split that exists today ie- Sunni and Shiite Sunni Muslims believe any devout Muslim could be the Caliph, Shi’ite muslims believe the Caliph should be a descendent of Muhammed
In Mecca in about A.D. 570, a man named Muhammad was born. When he was about 40 years old in 610 A.D. he said Allah told him that he was called to be a prophet of God (Allah in Arabic) and revealed verses that Muhammad was to recite. This was the beginning of Islam.
The Byzantines created great religious architecture. One of the world’s great buildings is the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. Justinian ordered the building of the Hagia Sophia in A.D. 532, it was finished in 537.
In 532 A.D. a rebellion called the Nika Revolt threatened to overthrow Justinian. Justinian wisely made Belisarius general of the army. Justinian’s troops defeated the rebels. Belisarius led the troops that crushed the revolt. He won back former Roman lands. Thus during Justinian’s reign the Byzantine Empire reached its greatest size.