Movement against nuclear power and nuclear testing.
Created by kkohler on Oct 1, 2008
Last updated: 11/17/09 at 02:19 PM
The first beam of particles circulated through collider. This machine was built to analyze particle collisons. Results of such tests the machine is able to perform could explain why matter has mass as wells as prove possible theories of extra dimensions. Fears arose after the construction of the Collider which resulted in legal actions in both the United States and Europe to stop the operation. The theory that the Collider could create small black holes and lead to the apocalypse terrified many people. However scientists refuted that theory in stating that any black hole created by teh manchine would be too small to do anything. As of now, further experimentatin has been halted until Spring 2009 due to various needed repairs.
Article seemed very objective, with perhaps a slight bias in favor of the Collider.
Landau, Elizabeth. "Multibillion-dollar collider to probe nature's mysteries." CNN.com/Technology 08 Sep 2008 2 Oct 2008 .
The Chernobyl plant was located in Pripyat, a town populated by 50,000 people. This accient was the worst in history. It released 400 times more fallout than the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The accident was caused by a fire in the graphite moderator in one of the reactors. The fire allowed for radiactive fallout to be released into the air. This produced a huge radioactive cloud to float over many modern states including Russia, Belarus, Ukrain, Moldova and even extending all the way to the U.K. A few days after the accient happened, 32 people died and many other suffered from radiation burns. However, the accident wasn't reported immediately and people weren't evacuated until days after the accident. Approximately 336,000 people had to be evacuated and resettled. Finally on April 28, the Soviet news acknowledge the accident. The town of Pripyat is today abandoned.
Very reliable source. Came mostly from accredited sources including encyclopedias and online databases. No prominent biases.
"Life After People: Chernobyl." History.com. 1996. The History Channel. 2 Oct 2008 .
"Nuclear Energy: Hazards of Nuclear Power."Encyclopedia Americana. Volume 20. 2006.
This march was organized by David Mixner, a businessman who later went on to form another antinuclear organization called PRO-Peace. The purpose of this march was to raise public awarenes on the issue of nuclear proliferation and its dangers. The advocate for the complete removal of nuclear weapons from the face of the earth. For this purpose, they marched at total of 3,700 miles from Los Angeles, California (left on March 1, 1986) to Washington D.C. where they arrived on November 15, 1986. They created an incredible visual impact. Participants would walk 15 miles a day and in the cities they stayed in, they would hold workshops.
Objective article, while not very reliable, was very informative.
"The Great Peace March for Global Disarmament." Wikipedia. 3 Oct 2008 .
"The Great Peace March for Global Disarmament." The Silver Web. 08 Oct 1999. 3 Oct 2008 .
This non-profit, non-partisan organization was established by Emeritus Professor Gary Milhollin in 1986. The purpose of hte organization was to stem the spread of nuclear weapons of mass destruction. The group believes that the best way to stop proliferation is to cut off the supply of essential materials. They directly work with countries to improve export control systems. The provide three principal products:
1-The Risk Report Database
Their achievements include:
"In 2007, the Project supplied information on Iranian organizations linked to nuclear and missile work that contributed to decisions by the United Nations, the United States and the European Union to freeze the assets of several of these organizations. "
Reliable source, organization site, very biased.
"Stopping Arms Proliferation at the Source." Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control. Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control. 3 Oct 2008 .
The Three Mile Island Accident was the worst civilian nuclear accident in U.S. History. The plant experienced a partial core meltdown and the whole city was evacuated. Although the accident wasn't as bad as the press made it out to be, it did affect the nation psychologically. Before the accident, 70% of the public approved of nuclear energy. In the aftermath, that number decreased to 50% of public approval. Although the leak was contained, Jimmy Carter as well as the city ordered an investigation of the accident. A better evacuation system engineer training program were the outcomes. The plant to this day remains permantently closed. It cost the nation $975 Million dollars and 5 years to dispose of 100 tons of radioactive fuel. Reliable source and not so reliable source. The encyclopedia article was unbiased and the wikipedia page was more detailed. "Nuclear Energy: Hazards of Nuclear Power."Encyclopedia Americana. Volume 20. 2006. "Three Mile Island Accident." Wikipedia. 2008. 2 Oct 2008 .
"Today only a handful of people know what it means... Soon you will know."
Film starring Jane Fonda, Jack Lemmon, and Michael Douglas, directed by James Bridges. The plot explores the notion of possible extreme results involving nuclear meltdowns in nuclear power plants. The that if such an extreme accident occured, molten material would melt through the core of the earth and reach China. The film was ironically released 12 days before the Three Mile Island incident in Pennsylvania. This caused a stirr in the nation, while allowing the movie to win many awards.
Reliable source, dealt specifically on film.
"The China Syndrome." Internation Movie Database. 2 Oct 2008 .
This organization was founded by Jackson Browne, Graham Nash, Bonnie Raitt, and John Hall (who was elected to the U.S. House in 2006) shortly after the Three Mile Island incident. They advocated against the use of Nuclear Energy and tried to reaise public awarenes, increased safetymeasures, and money. Any money the recieved they donated to other antinuclear groups. In September 1979, the held a series of concerts in Madison Square Gardens in NY. Such artists as Crosby, Stills, and Nash, Bruce Springsteen, E Street Band, Carly Simon, etc. performed. This group is significant for the fact that it was the firs time any concert was held not in support for a cause, but rather against one.
In the year 2007, they created a music video.
Pretty reliable source. I found a very informative blog!
"Activism." BonnieRaitt.com. 3 Oct 2008 .
Candiru. "Rock & Ecology ." Eco-communities as a social vision Dec 18, 2007 3 Oct 2008 .
NCR was an independent regulatory agency which was responsible for overseeing handling, disposal of nuclear waste, proper use of nuclear materials by civilians, monitoring safety procedures and upholding safety standards. It was established by President Gerald Ford and was one of two organizations that precede the Atomic Energy Comission (AEC). Unbaised source. "Nuclear Regulatory Commission."The New Encyclopedia Britannica. 15th Ed. 2007.
Although previous attempts at such a treaty had failed in the past, this treaty was passed because of public concern for radioactive fallout. The treaty banned testing of all nuclear weapons in the earth's atmosphere, underwater and land. However it did not ban the testing of weapons underground, nor did it limit production, reduce nuclear stockpiles, or restrict their use in wartime. The treaty was signed in Moscow by the United States, the U.S.S.R. and the United Kingdom among many other countries. No bias was present in this source. The article was very neutral. "Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty."The New Encyclopedia Britannica. 15th Ed. 2007.
This is Kennedy's speech which was given to the nation via radio & television broadcast.
He issued this speech to calm the fears of the United States and address the main points of the Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty.
"A war today or tomorrow, if it led to nuclear war, would not be like any war in history."
Primary Source- Direct speech.
Kennedy, John. "Address on the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty." U.S. History for AP Students. 1 Oct 2008 .
Written by Kurt Vonnegut during active debates on nuclear arms, Vonnegut incorporates issues of science, technology, religion and also satirizes the nuclear arms race. The book is about a man, John, who wants to write a book about what renowned Americans were doing the day the Atomic Bomb was dropped on Japan. He ends up becoming involved with the children of Dr. Felix Hoenikker, the fictional "Father of the Atomic Bomb." This physicist did not care how his research was used. Dr. Hoenikker also ended up creating a new element, "ice-nine," the solid form of water. This element ends up destorying all life on earth, mimicking nuclear winter in a way. It was a great read, although very biased. Vonnegut, Kurt. Cat's Cradle. New York: Delacorte Press, 1963.
WSP was an organization started by mothers who were alarmed at the potential danger their children could encounter from fallout radiation. They organized a nationwide protest against nuclear testing and radiation. This resulted in creating pressure for the passing of the Test-Ban.
Slightly biased article. However it was written by a anti-pollution activist.
Blum, Elizabeth, D.. "Antinuclear Movement." www.PollutionIssues.com. JRank. 1 Oct 2008 .
President Truman bombed Hiroshima with "Little Boy." The bomb destroyed 96% of the city and killed over 80,000 people. A while after, he proceeded to bomb Nagasaki with "Fatman." This bomb also caused devastating damage, forcing Japan to surrender on August 15th 1945. Unbiased article. Segal, Howard, P.. "Technology and Social Change."Encyclopedia of American Social History. Volume III. 1993.
The first test was held in Alamogordo, New Mexico. It's successful run encouraged President Harry Truman to issue an ultimatum of unconditional surrender to Japan. After Japan's silence, Harry Truman proceeded to bomb Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Unbiased Article Segal, Howard, P.. "Technology and Social Change."Encyclopedia of American Social History. Volume III. 1993.
Enrico Fermi, an immigrant from Fascist Italy, at the University of Chicago produced a perpetuation fission reaction in the university's football stadium. His demonstration and the strong recomendation of the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) convinced Franklin D. Roosevelt to authorize the Manhattan Project. He urged them to keep the bomb research secret and to produce one in three years. Scientists still use Fermi's basic technique in modern day nuclear weapons. Unbiased source. "Nuclear Fission."The New Encyclopedia Britannica. 15th Ed. 2007.