Recent Event Highlights: Post-War America, World War II, World War I, The Civil War, Pre-Civil War, and 12 more...
Created by kmarra on Aug 29, 2010
Last updated: 10/12/10 at 01:53 PM
"About the Great Depression." Welcome to English « Department of English, College of LAS, University of Illinois. Web. 28 Sept. 2010. . "The American Revolution." The American Revolutionary War. Web. 20 Sept. 2010. . Feal, By John. "911Truth.org." The 9/11 Truth Movement - 911truth.org. Web. 29 Sept. 2010. . "First World War.com - Timeline." First World War.com - A Multimedia History of World War One. Web. 28 Sept. 2010. . "Jacksonian Democracy." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 26 Sept. 2010. . "The Gilder Lehrman Institute. Modules on American History." The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History . Home. Web. 20 Sept. 2010. . All modules: The Revolutionary War, The Constitution, The New Nation, The Jeffersonian Era, The Jacksonian Era, Pre-Civil War, The Civil War, Reconstruction, The Gilded Age, Progressivism, World War I, The Great Depression, World War II, Postwar America, The 1960s, The Vietnam War, America at the End of the 20th Century (up to 1989), September 11th "The Jeffersonian Era." Digital History. Web. 26 Sept. 2010. . "Overview." Civil War. Web. 27 Sept. 2010. . "World War Two Timeline." World War 2 Timeline 1939-1945 - Worldwar-2.net. Web. 29 Sept. 2010. .
President: George W. Bush First airline struck the World Trade Center in New York (8:45a.m.), a second plane crashed into a second World Trade Center tower and the plane exploded (9:03 a.m.), a third plane crashed into the Pentagon (9:43 a.m.), the south tower of the World Trade Center collapsed (10:05 a.m.), Part of the Pentagon collapsed (10:10 a.m.), World Trade Center's north tower collapsed (10:28 a.m.), confirmation of a forth plane crashing into western Pennsylvania (10:48 a.m.) It is obvious that democracy does not play a role in the cause of September 11th because it was a terrorist attack that killed a total of over 6,000 people. However, democracy plays a role in the prevention of anything so tragic happening again. It is thought of that democracy is the most effective and efficient way to run a government because it will make it run smoothly and keep the people happy. Looking at this horrible tragedy, it is important to keep the citizens of America happy in order to prevent any type of rebellion against the government that could ultimately harm many other people. The role of democracy is the protect the country. Picture: "World Trade Center hit in terrorist attack." Image. UPI. American Government. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 28 Sept. 2010.
1970-about 2000 Presidents: Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan 26th amendment (1971), War powers Act (1973),Nixon resigns (1973), Gerald Ford elected (1974), Jimmy Carter elected (1977), Republicans take control of the senate (1980s), Ronald Reagan becomes president (1981) ,Cold War Ends (1991) At the end of the 20th century, with the help of President Reagan, the senate had been taken over by the Republicans and the democratic party was no longer dominant within the senate. The three major challenges that shaped the last part of the 20th century was the crisis in political leadership, economic transformations, and the uncertainty of America's power throughout the world. America had so much power throughout the 20th century; democracy and America's government played a large role as there were many reforms to keep all individuals equal and there were many advancements in technology and positives in the way America was run. As the 20th century came to a close, America won the Cold War and knew that the beginning of the 21st century would bring the country even farther above everyone else because they were more advanced and they had accomplished stopping the spread of Communism and they were promoting democracy throughout the world. Picture: "Ronald Reagan." Image. Ronald Reagan Library. American Government. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 29 Sept. 2010.
1960-1969 Presidents: John F. Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, Richard Nixon John F. Kennedy vs. Richard Nixon election; JFK elected (1961), Cuban Middle Crisis (1962), JFK assassinated (1963), Civil Rights Act (1964), Voting Rights Act (1965), Lyndon Johnson elected (1965), Richard Nixon elected (1969) The 1960s was an era of growth and protesting against the actions of the government. It was a decade of civil rights and women's rights. The youth were also powerful as they were the most populous age and could relate better to the growth than adults. They expressed their opinions through the democratic process with all individuals having the right and power to speak and express their emotions. The Civil Rights Act was significant to this time period as it gave African Americans a voice in America. Democracy play a role in both writing and signing this act as it prohibited discrimination based on religion, national origin, race, and color and it ultimately gave the government new power to enforce the law. Although the last part of the act relates closer to republicanism, democracy was a strong force in giving individuals power in American society throughout the 1960s. Picture: "Freedom Riders protest segregation." Image. Library of Congress. American Government. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 29 Sept. 2010.
Presidents: Harry Truman (1945-1953), Dwight D Eisenhower (1953-1961)
Cold War Begins (1946), Truman Doctrine (1947), Marshall Plan (1948),NATO formed (1949), Korean War Starts (1950), McCarthy hearings (1950), 22nd Amendment (1951), Dwight D Eisenhower elected (1953), Korean War ends (1953), Brown vs. Board of Education (1954), Boycott of buses in Montgomery (1955), Supreme Court desegregation for schools (1955), Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
Post World War II, America wanted to stop the spread of Communism throughout the world and start promoting and spreading democracy. This time period was a world of change for America as it believed that democracy was the most efficient and the best way to run a government. The Cold War began between America and Russia because of America's strong will to refuse communism and support democracy across Europe. The Soviet Union made the "iron curtain" which had the one side communist and the other non-communist; the U.S. went into the Cold War because they had made a promise to protect Europe from the communism that the Soviet Union was promoting at the time. A year later, the Truman Doctrine was formed committing the U.S. to provide aid to the countries trying to resist communism; the U.S. agreed to promote democracy against the communism because of their scare that the entire world would eventually become a communist world. Ultimately, the fight for democracy against communism started the effects on post-war America as it moved into civil rights and battling in the Civil war.
1939-1945 Presidents: Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman World War 2 begins; Hitler invaded Poland leading to Britain and France declaring war on Germany (1939), Battle of Britain (1940), Operation Barbarossa (1941), Pearl Harbor (1941), U.S. enters the war (1941), Battle of Midway (1942), D-Day (1944), Atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1945), End of World War 2 (1945) World War II began as Germany wanted to restore their power after they were beaten down by the Treaty of Versailles after World War I. Germany found a new leader known as Adolf Hitler and the Nazi soldiers who led Germany in their fight back. Eventually Germany had power over the majority of Europe and could not be stopped. The issue during the time period was whether the Nazi's were going to be the future of the world as they believe they were creating a completely new brave war and the dictatorship of Hitler had a lot of advantages. Democracy came into the picture as the U.S. entered the war and tried to stop dictatorship and promote democracy. The U.S. did not look as strong as the Nazi party, but they prove that they can unite and deal with their enemies effectively to win the war and still remain democratic. They wanted to protect the rights of the people and keep them safe. Picture citation: "Japanese attack Pearl Harbor." Image. National Archives. American Government. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27 Sept. 2010.
1929-1941 Presidents: Herbert Hoover (1929-1933), Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933-1945) The Great Depression begins, stock market crash, Black Tuesday (1929), Unemployment had risen to 25-30% of the work force which is 12-15 million workers (1932), Congress established the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (1932), Stocks reached their lowest point (late 1932), Franklin D. Roosevelt elected president in a landslide (1933), Major corporations and administrations created (1933), FDR's New Deal (1933), Social Security Act (1935), FDR elected for a second term (1936), Congress gave almost $4 billion to stimulate the economy after FDR's request(1938), FDR elected for a third term (1940), End of The Great Depression as World War 2 began (1941) The Great Depression from 1929 to about 1939 was the United States worst economic crisis they had ever experienced. This depression lasted more than a decade and took millions of hard working Americans out of jobs and into poverty. Democracy came into play during The Great Depression as the people had to create a new working relationship to get the economy back on its feet and working again. The government needed to become bigger and take a more active role in every day life, and this led to the people having to accept the government and be willing to participate in the politics to figure out how to solve the depression. Democracy was extremely important as this problem was so huge that there couldn’t be just one group to solve the problem, but all people in a democratic way had to work together for the best interests of the country's future. Picture citation: "Crowd protests outside failed bank in 1931." Image. Library of Congress. American Government. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27 Sept. 2010.
1914-1918 President of the United States: Woodrow Wilson Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand (1914), Austria Hungry declares war on Serbia (1914), Germany declares war on France and Russia (1914), Battle of Lemburg (1914), Sinking of the Lusitania (1915), Battle of Verdun (1916), Battle of Somme (1916), U.S. enters the war (1917), Russia signs armistice with Germany (1917), Wilson's 14 points (1918), Treaty of Versailles (1918), End of fighting and World War 1 (1918) World War I was the first war that involved many major countries throughout the world; it is also known as The Great War. Democracy had a significant effect on the time period from 1914 to 1918 in which World War 1 took place. President Woodrow Wilson's 14 points policy was made to ultimately end World War 1 with the strong idea of a democracy in mind. The major parts of this policy was the self determination of the people to have their own government and be able to have a say and control over major decision for the future. It also stated rights such as the freedom of speech and the freedom of religion that all Americans are entitled to. The major issue that was being solved with his policy was if an authoritarian government is more effective than a democracy; Germany and Russia had authoritarian governments at the time, so the ultimate goal for Wilson was to preserve democracy with this policy. Picture citation: "Woodrow Wilson asks for declaration of war." Image. National Archives. American Government. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27 Sept. 2010.
Presidents: Benjamin Harrison (1889-1893), Grover Cleveland (1893-1897), William McKinley (1897- 1901), Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909), William Howard Taft (1909-1913), Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921)
Supreme Court rules "separate by equal" (1896), Prohibition (1917), Women gain the right to vote: 19th Amendment (1920)
Progressivism was ultimately involved in every aspect of American life. Not only did it use the government as a tool to reform, but it also transformed the government into being active at the national, local, and state level. As the government was reforming, democracy was playing large roles in this era. Democracy is a way of governing in which the majority of the people rule and it is a government by the people. This played a role in progressivism government as it would speak of a “public interest” for the first time as the people’s best interests were in mind. The Progressive reformers knew that they needed a change in the way the government was ruling and increased popular control over the government which means that the people will rule and have the final say. This was crucial in the Progressive era as the people were the ones deciding the reforms of the government and how it would impact the people and the rest of the country. It is clear that his era relates to the concept of democracy as it was a key factor in the reforms of the government. The reforms would not be successful if one power decided what was going to change and what was going to be the most important and have the most time spent on it. The people were agreeable as they knew that they had the power to reform the government and the country. They had a say in something as small as building a playground or expanding high schools, and they also were able to have an impact in something as large and national as congress passing laws on establishing federal regulation of meat-packing, railroads, and drug industries or impacting anti-trust laws by strengthening them. Democracy was an important factor in this era as it helped the government in being a tool to the reforms and focus on the interests of the people while reforming.
Presidents: Andrew Johnson (1865-1869), Ulysses S. Grant (1869-1877)
Lincoln assassinated (1865), Andrew Johnson becomes president (1865), Civil Rights Bill (1866), 1st, 2nd & 3rd Reconstruction Acts are passed (1867), 14th Amendment Ratified (1868), 4th Reconstruction Act passed (1868), Ulysses S. Grant elected president (1869), 15th Amendment (1870), Democrats gain control over the House and the Senate (1874), Civil Rights Act passed (1875), Reconstruction ends (1877)
Post the American Civil War, reconstruction began with the start of the assassination of president Lincoln. Many bills and acts were passed in order to give African Americans the liberties of all other American's. Democracy played a large role in this process as it was the driving factor behind the government's thrive to pass the acts for the African Americans. The 14th Amendment was passed and stated that all citizens are equal which included the African Americans under the category of citizens. This led to the 15th Amendment giving them the right to vote which ultimately gives them a say in the government. Without the idea of democracy, the government and the president would not have been able to give the past slaves all their freedoms that they are entitled to. All of these new rights added to the African American community gave them power in which they can feel like they are part of the newly reformed and powerful America and American government.
1865-1895 Presidents: Andrew Johnson, Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, James Garfield/Chester Arthur, Grover Cleveland, Benjamin Harrison, Grover Cleveland (elected again), William McKinley Civil War Ends (1865), Grant elected president (1868), Grant re-elected (1872), Panic of 1873, Invention of the telephone (1876), Railroad strike (1877), Pendleton Act (1883), Haymarket Riot (1886), Populous Party Convention (1892), Battle at Homestead Steel (1892), Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896) The Gilded Age was a time in which modern America was created and modern industrial economy was created. This period was and it looked strong at the top but it was actually corrupt and dysfunctional underneath what people could actually see. Democracy plays a role as this period was a time of corruption which shows what forms of government work and what have failed. The attempts to purify the American society ended up excluding individuals causing it to go against democracy as it was not giving each individual the power and right they have as a person. After the Gilded Age, the importance of restoring a working government with democracy was a common goal within the government to fix the corruption it had be under. Picture:"Ulysses S. Grant." Image. Library of Congress. American Government. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 29 Sept. 2010.
President: Abraham Lincoln (1861-1865) Election of Abraham Lincoln (1860), Civil War begins (1861), South attacks Fort Sumter (1861), Battle of Antietam (1862), Emancipation Proclamation signed (1863), Battle of Gettysburg (1863), End of the War (1865) The American Civil War was the greatest military conflict in the western world and it was a central event for America. Democracy did not play a very large role during the Civil War but it played the largest role in the writing and signing of the Emancipation Proclamation that Abraham Lincoln created. It stated that all African American slaves would be forever free in America. Democracy was a big role in this as it shows that he was freeing these slaves in order to eventually have them become part of the citizens who have a say in the government of the United States. Ultimately, the Civil War led to costing 600,000 Americans lives, the emancipation of 4 million African American slaves, and it brought changes to the nations financial system and altered the relationship with the states and the national government. Picture citation: "Abraham Lincoln." Image. Library of Congress. American Government. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27 Sept. 2010.
Presidents: John Tyler (1841-1845), James K. Polk (1845-1849), Zachary Tyler (1849-1850), Millard Fillmore (1850-1853), Franklin Pierce (1853-1857), James Buchanan (1857-1861)
The Seneca Falls Conventions (1848), Compromise of 1850, Kansas Nebraska Act (1854), Kansas Nebraska Act (1854)
The build up to The Civil War lasted decades from about 1840 to 1860; America and its government were completely reformed and prosperous. Democracy played a huge roll before the Civil War as it completely reformed the government and the United States before the war broke out. It played a role in education the blind and deaf as people who could ultimately have a say in government regardless of their disabilities, and also gave a say and importance to the mentally ill. Democracy led the decades before the Civil War to the birth of American traditions. The American traditions were strong and let the people have power and be involved in the government and the country as citizens.
Presidents: Andrew Jackson (1829-1837), Martin Van Buren (1837-1841) Election of 1828, Indian policy (1832), Nullification Crisis (1832), Indian Territory is established (1834) The Jacksonian Era followed the Jeffersonian Era which was more republican based. The main part of this era was when Andrew Jackson was president and was trying to promote democracy again after the people's voices were on the verge of being lost previously. Jacksonian Democracy was formed after Jackson won the election of 1828 and became president. He was a popular president in the eyes of the people as he helped re-establish their voices and expand the U.S. territory. Picture citation: "Andrew Jackson." Image. Library of Congress. American Government. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27 Sept. 2010.
Presidents: Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809),James Madison (1809-1817),James Monroe (1817-1825) Election of 1800, The Louisiana Purchase (1803), Lewis and Clark expedition (1804), Embargo Act (1807), War of 1812, Battle of New Orleans (1815), The Missouri Compromise (1820), Monroe Doctrine (1823) The Jeffersonian Era began with the election of 1800 in which Thomas Jefferson won after the election was thrown into the House of Representatives because a tie leaving the vote up to them. This represented the voice that people have in democracy and the voice of Jefferson was better for the people. Thomas Jefferson's goal as a president was to restore the principles of the American Revolution as he spoke of Republican principles. Democracy play a role in his presidency as he was focused on returning back to a more federalist government as he believed it had become too loose with the idea of democracy. Picture citation: "Thomas Jefferson." Image. Library of Congress. American Government. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27 Sept. 2010.
Presidents: George Washington and John Adams Constitution ratified (1789), George Washington becomes the first president (1789), French Revolution begins (1789), Bill of Rights added to the Constitution (1791), Election between two parties (1796), John Adams is elected president (1796), Revolution of 1800 The United States became a new nation with new government policies and new leaders during the decade of 1790 to 1800. The first president was elected in 1789 after the constitution was made. Pure democracy was part of the ideas in congress and in the government of how it the government would be more effectively run in the country. Eventually, the idea of democracy kept growing and the Bill of Rights was added to the constitution to give the people their written rights with more power and more of a say in the government's decisions. As the government kept expanding and having more power, the next presidential election was between a democratic party and a republican party. John Adams won the presidency and was then left to deal with the war with France and the growing government with the conflicting ideas of how it should be run. Picture: "George Washington." Image. Library of Congress. American Government. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 28 Sept. 2010.
President: George Washington U.S. Constitution written (1787), Constitution ratified by 9 states (1789), Constitution becomes the supreme law of the U.S. (1789), George Washington elected as the first president of the U.S. (1789), Bill of Rights added to the Constitution (1791) The United States Constitution was created by the founding fathers with the idea of a republic and democracy in mind. The objective of the constitution was to create a system of government that would control men's reach for power and also make sure that everyone's individual liberties were safe. It was the first major experiment that the majority would rule but the minority would still be protected and heard. Along with democracy, republicanism was also involved as the government was scared of complete democracy. The Constitution was made completely from scratch with no ideas from the previous government; it made the government into three different branches: executive, legislative, and judicial which all serve as checks and balances to each other. Picture: "Ratification of the Constitution." Image. North Wind Picture Archives. American Government. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 28 Sept. 2010.
Presidents: None; the first president of the United States was in 1789 Events leading to the war: French Indian War (1756-1763), The Sugar Act (1764), The Stamp Act (1765), The Boston Massacre (1770), The Tea Act (1773) Beginning of the war (1775), Battle of Lexington and Concord (1775), Declaration of Independence (1776), France Enters the War(1778), Articles of Confederation (1782), Treaty of Paris-ratified ending the war (1783). The Revolutionary War from 1775 to 1783 is also known as the American Revolution. It is the first modern revolution in history and it was the first time people ever fought for their independence against the principles of human rights and their civil liberties. The war was between Great Britain and thirteen British colonies in North America; it was the war when colonists overthrew the British rule and eventually formally declared themselves as the United States of America. The specific reasons for starting this war was that there was no titled aristocracy, and there was no official president of the United States in office; the major issue was if the parliament had the authority to legislate in the colonies even if the colonies didn’t have any representatives in the government. In 1776, the Declaration of Independence was formally adopted by Congress as it defines the principles of American democracy. It is to show that the government exists to protect the rights of the people and that they have the right to overthrow the government if it is unjust or unfair. The colonists had to learn how to create an institution where debate and democratic decision making could occur. Picture citation: "Boston Massacre." Image. National Archives. American Government. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27 Sept. 2010.