MICDS US History Unit II: Democracy and Republicanism
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Presidents~ Richard Nixon (1969-1974) Rep Gerald Ford (1974-1977) Rep Jimmy Carter (1977-1981) Dem Ronald Reagan (1981-1989) Rep George Bush (1989-1993) Rep Bill Clinton (1993-2001)Dem Events~ 1970 Kent State and Jackson State Shootings 1971 Pentagon Papers are Printed 1971 26th Amendment is Passed (Lowers voting age to 18) 1972-1972 Watergate ..........June 1972 Burglars caught at DNC offices at the Watergate Hotel ..........May 1973 Senate committee opens heating on Watergate Affair ..........October 1973 VP Spiro Agnew resigns & the "Saturday Night Massacre" occurs ..........August 1974 Richard Nixon resigns from office 1973 US Pulls Out of Vietnam 1979 Three Mile Island Nuclear Accident 1979-1981 Iranian Hostage Crisis 1983 SDI "Star Wars" Missile Defense System Proposed 1985 Iran-Contra Affair 1989 Berliners Tear Down the Berlin Wall Paragraph~ The 1970's are rough for the American government, as they had lost a large amount of trust with the Richard Nixon and the Watergate Scandal. But as time goes on, the Soviet Union crumbles, trust is regained and more freedoms are given to Americans, such as the right to vote at age 18, thanks to the 26th Amendment. Image Citation~ Ronald Reagan. Digital image. Web. .
Presidents~ Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-1961) Rep John F. Kennedy (1961-1963) Dem Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969)Dem Events~ 1960 First televised presidential debate between John Kennedy and Richard Nixon 1961 Bay of Pigs 1961 The US Involvement begins in Vietnam 1961: US launches 1st Astronaut in Space 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis 1963 US and USSR sign treaty banning test of nuclear weapons 1963 JFK is assassinated 1964 24th amendment 1964 Civil Rights Act of 1964 1965 Malcolm X is Assassinated 1967 Thurgood Marshall sworn in as first African American Supreme Court justice 1968 Martin Luther King Jr is Assassinated 1968 Democratic presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy is assassinated 1969 US puts first man on the moon 1969 Woodstock Democracy was expanded through voting rights and equality. There was a focus on African American rights because of strong leaders like Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr who were able to help on the path towards the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Freedom of speech was being tested, especially among students whose rights were being stifled on campus. The Vietnam War was the first "television war," so people watching TV on their living room couches in America saw the pain and suffering that soldiers and Vietnamese were facing. Many males and their families and friends were upset because of the mandatory draft and tried to do whatever they could to get out of going, even going as far as burning their draft cards. The Vietnam war was a long battle against Communism and many young people didn't really understand the reason or had forgotten the reasons for invading Vietnam. Image Citation~ Vietnam Puppet. Digital image. Web. .
Presidents~ Harry S. Truman (1945-1953) Dem Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-1961) Rep Dates~ 1946 Iron Curtain Speech 1947 Truman Doctrine 1948 Marshall Plan 1949 Soviets Create Atomic Bomb 1950 McCarthy Hearings 1951 22nd Amendment 1953 Korean War Ends 1954 Army McCarthy Hearings 1956 Interstate Highway System 1957 Little Rock Desegregation Crisis 1958 Explorer Space Program 1959 Alaska and Hawaii Join the US Paragraph~ Although the democratic freedoms ran high, so did the fear of Communism. The American people were so terrified of Communist spreading during the Cold War as the Soviet Union rises against the US. The idea of McCarthyism also grew during this time period. The McCarthy hearings lead the people to believe that if you were speaking out against the government that you were against America. It soon spread that anyone who did speak out against the government was a Communist and once again those suspicions ran high. Image Citation~ Communism. Digital image. Web. .
Presidents~ Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933-1945) Dem Harry S. Truman (1945-1953) Dem Dates~ 1941 Lend Lease Act 1941 Pearl Harbor 1941 US Declares War on Japan 1942 Battle of Midway 1942 First Women join the Armed Forces 1942 Congress of Racial Equality Founded 1944 Servicemen’s Readjustment Act 1944 D-Day 1945 Hitler Commits Suicide May 7, 1945 Allied Victory in Europe 1945 United States drops Atomic bombs on Japan at Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1945 Nuremberg trials Image Citation~ World War II. Digital image. Web. .
Presidents~ Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921) Dem Warren G. Harding (1921-1923) Rep Calvin Coolidge (1923-1929) Rep Herbert Hoover (1929-1933) Rep Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933-1945) Dem Dates~ 1914 Beginning of WWI 1915 Sinking of Lusitania 1917 Zimmerman Telegram 1917 US Joins WWI 1917 Espionage Act 1917 Selective Service Act 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk 1918 Sedition Act 1922 First Woman (Rebecca Latimer Felton) in Senate 1929 Stock Market Crash 1929 St. Valentine’s Day Massacre 1933 Twentieth Amendment Ratified 1933 Twenty-First Amendment Ratified 1933 FDR Launches New Deal 1933 Homeowners Refinancing Act 1933 National Industrial Recovery Act 1933 AAA Established 1933 Federal Emergency Relief Administration Created 1933 “Fireside Chats” Begin with FDR 1933 Emergency Banking Act of 1933 1933 Civilian Conservation Corps Created 1933 FDR Declares a National Emergency 1935 CIO Established 1935 Second New Deal 1935 Neutrality Acts 1941 Lend Lease Act Paragraph~ The freedoms of Americans were reigned in during World War I, especially freedom of speech. The thought was that "If an act of speech posed a clear and present dancer, than Congress had the power to restrain such speech," (Mr. Small) and so official rulings such as the Sedition Act 1918 and court cases like Schenck v US 1919 limited the freedoms of the people during times of War. WWI did bring about some good. Because there were so many men overseas, women were needed to take the jobs which had been previously done by the men. This got them out of the house and gave them a productive position within society. After WWI ended the rights of Americans continued to dwindle. The Red Scare brought on a general fear and suspicion of everyone and the government was encouraging and even rewarding spying. When the stock market crashes and the Great Depression hits, Hoover follows his traditional Republican views that the stock market will correct itself. But when it doesn't, FDR steps in and creates more many acts which help to get America back on its feet. FDR won by a landslide which shows that both parties were able to join together during this hard time under the principles of Republicanism and unite one leader who they knew could lead them out of the Great Depression. Paragraph Citation~ Small, Scott. "World War I." US History. MICDS, Saint Louis. 24 Sept. 2009. Lecture. Image Citation~ Great Depression. Digital image. Web. .
Presidents~ Benjamin Harrison (1889-1893) Rep Grover Cleveland (1893-1897) Dem William McKinley (1897-1901) Rep Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909) Rep William H. Taft (1909-1913) Rep Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921) Dem Events~ 1898 Spanish-American War 1901 President William McKinley is assassinated 1906 Upton Sinclair publishes "The Jungle" 1910 Theodore Roosevelt's "New Nationalism" speech 1913 16th Amendment 1913 17th Amendment 1919 18th Amendment 1920 19th Amendment Paragraph~ Progressive in the United States was present in both a global and a local scale. America was emerging as a leading power alongside Europe. On a smaller scale, women are acknowledged and are given more freedoms in the 19th Amendment. But with the giving of liberties, one must always expect freedoms to be taken away. The 18th Amendment makes the selling, buying, possession, and making of alcohol illegal while the 16th Amendment taxes the income of hardworking American families. Image Citation~ Woman's Suffrage. Digital image. Web. .
Presidents~ Rutherford B. Hayes (1877-1881) Rep James A. Garfield (1881) Rep Chester Alan Arthur (1881-1885) Rep Grover Cleveland (1885-1889) Dem Benjamin Harrison (1889-1893) Rep Events~ 1881 President James Garfield is assassinated 1883 Pendleton Act 1886 Statue of Liberty 1886 Presidential Succession Act 1887 Interstate Commerce Act 1890 Mississippi Plan Paragraph~ A huge amount of people exercised their right to vote during this time, but not for the right reasons. Politicians and local officials were bribing, promising, cheating, and doing other undemocratic things in order to get the votes of the people. This meant that a lot of people weren't voting by parties, but instead by who promised the bigger tax cuts or who offered the most money. Although America looks like it progressed during this era, people abused the meaning of Democracy and took their freedom of choice to a whole different playing field. Image Citation~ Bronze. Digital image. Web. .
Presidents~ Abraham Lincoln (1861-1865) Rep Andrew Johnson (1865-1869) Dem Ulysses S. Grant (1869-1875) Rep Dates~ 1865 Thirteenth Amendment 1865 Lincoln Assassinated 1865 John Wilkes Booth Shot 1865 Johnson Grants Amnesty 1865 Klu Klux Klan Founded 1866 Fourteenth Amendment 1866 Civil Rights Act 1867 New York Constitutional Convention Meets 1868 Johnson Impeached 1869 Fifteenth Amendment Passed 1870 First African American, Joseph H. Rainey, is Elected into Congress 1870 Literary Tests and “Grandfather Clauses” Circumvent 15th Amendment 1872 Susan B. Anthony Arrested for Voting 1875 Civil Rights Act of 1875 Paragraph~ The democratic rights granted to the African Americans during reconstruction would've been previously inconceivable to America. But although the freedoms are granted on paper, the racial tensions still ran high. The south continued to discriminate by adding literacy tests and Grandfather clauses to voting rights which didn't allow many blacks to vote, even if the federal government regarded them as now free. The government didn't remove all of their troops after the war and they prevented the South from completely banning African American's from the voting booths. But in the Hayes Tilden Compromise the South offered the North votes in exchange for the removal of the troops in the South. The North agreed and handed over the land, leaving only unfulfilled promises to the black population. Image Citation~ John Wilkes Booth. Digital image. Web. .
Presidents~ Abraham Lincoln (1861-1865) Rep Andrew Johnson (1865-1869) Dem Dates~ 1861 Battle of Fort Sumter 1861 First Battle of Bull Run 1861 Congress Passes First Income Tax Law 1861 Congress Passes Confiscation Act 1861 US Navy Authorizes the Enlistment of Slaves 1862 Lincoln Issues Emancipation Proclamation 1863 Lincoln Signs Emancipation Proclamation 1863 Battle of Gettysburg 1863 Gettysburg Address 1863 Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan 1865 Battle of Appomattox Court House Paragraph~ The Civil War was an attempt to reestablish the distance in between the North and the South. The North believed that the constitutional and democratic rights of African Americans were being denied and the South wanted to keep their slaves. The Emancipation Proclamation is put into effect which echoed the Northerner's beliefs that all men are created equal. Finally after one of the bloodiest wars in American history, the North Wins and slavery is abolished soon after the war ends. Image Citation~ Lincoln. Digital image. Market Street Inn. Web. .
Presidents~ John Quincy Adams (1825-1829) Dem-Rep Andrew Jackson (1829-1837) Dem Martin Van Buren (1837-1841) Dem William Harrison (1941) Whig John Tyler (1841-1843) Whig James K. Polk (1945-1947) Dem Dates~ 1827 New York Abolishes Slavery 1828 Record Number of Voters in the Election of 1828 1830 Underground Railroads Established 1830 Jackson Vetoes Maysville Road Bill 1830 Jackson Signs Indian Removal Act 1833 Jackson Receives Authorization to Use Armed Forces to Enforce Tariffs 1834 Whig Party Emerges 1836 America Anti-Slavery Society organizes a protest against Congress 1836 Texas Declares Independence 1837 Judiciary Act of 1837 1837 Economic Depression 1838 First Black Lectures Against Slavery 1838 Liberty Party Formed 1840 Distribution Pre-emption Act 1845 Manifest Destiny 1845 Texas Becomes 28th State 1846 War is Declared With Mexico 1848 Women’s Rights Meeting at Seneca Fall Jackson was the man of this era and gained so much popularity that he created a new political party, the Democrats. He believed that with his new party he could get the citizens more involved with the decision making, instead of the wealthy and popular having the say. His idea of everyone having a vote spread like wildfire and in the 1928 the amount of voters had doubled from the election of 1824. Paragraph Citation~ "Andrew Jackson." Student Resource Center - College Edition. Gale. MARY INSTITUTE & ST LOUIS DAY SCHOOL. 1 Oct. 2009 . Image Citation~ Jackson. Digital image. Web. 1 Oct. 2009. http://bymyart.files.wordpress.com/2008/07/andrew_jackson.jpeg.
Presidents~ Martin Van Buren (1837-1841) Dem William Harrison (1841) Whig John Tyler (1841-1845) Whig James K. Polk (1845-1849) Dem Zachery Taylor (1849-1850) Whig Millard Fillmore (1850-1853) Whig Franklin Pierce (1853-1857) Dem James Buchanan (1857-1861) Dem Dates~ 1840 Whig Party is Formed 1849 California Demands Entry into Statehood 1850 Compromise of 1850 1850 Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 1855 Pro-Slavery Legislature Passed in Kansas during Territorial Elections 1855 “Free Soilers” hold a convention in Topeka, Kansas, demanding Kansas be a free state 1856 Pro-Slavery Men March into Lawrence, Kansas to Arrest Anti-Slavery Leaders 1857 Dred Scott Decision is made Paragraph~ This was a tense period, as the Deceleration of Independence was under scrutiny. The Northern states claimed that when it was written "All men are created equal", it meant ALL men, not just the white ones. Democracy was also being questioned, because if all men weren't given the rights white men had and people were being denied the right to vote, then was America really a democracy? The Southern States ("Slave States") retaliated, saying that their slaves weren't considered people at the same level that free, white, American men were. Soon the notion of "popular sovereignty" came into play, which gave the congress the power to decide which state was to be a slave state, and which was to be a free state. Not to upset the balance of equal amounts of both free and slave states, many areas were denied the right to join the United States. The Missouri Compromise and the drawing of the 36-30 line were made which allowed Missouri to join as a Slave state, as long as Maine joined as a free state. This idea of popular sovereignty was not viewed as democratic because it took away the consideration of the people in the actual states who wanted to join as to if they would be a free or slave state. Image Citation: Slave States. Digital image. Web. http://faculty.umf.maine.edu/~walters/web%20jacksonian%20277_07/missouri-compromise-map%201.jpg.
Presidents~ Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809) Dem-Rep. James Madison (1809-1817) Dem-Rep. James Monroe (1817-1825) Dem-Rep. John Quincy Adams (1825-1829) Whig Events~ 1800 Election of 1800 1803 Louisiana Purchase 1804 12th Amendment 1804 Lewis & Clark 1812 War of 1812 (United States v. England) 1808 Prohibition of African slave trade 1820 MO Compromise 1823 Monroe Doctrine This time period is most noted for its peaceful transition in between the Federalists and the Democratic Republicans which expresses the power of democracy in which America was exercising. Instead of scaring the American people into fearing the government like Adams did, the spirit of this era was gained by the expansion of the United States. A major part of this was the Louisiana Purchase, made by Jefferson. The War of 1812 was also apparent because it was the second time America was fighting for its freedom against the British. And once again, America was able to show the spirit of its founding and rise together to once again defeat their motherland. The Prohibition of the Slave Trade was also put in place. Although this doesn't make slavery illegal, it takes a large first step by preventing any new slaves from entering the United States. Prohibition of the African Slave trade Paragraph Citation: "Gale Cengage Product Failure." GaleNet. Web. 05 Oct. 2009. . Image Citation: "December 2005." Historymike. Web. 22 Sept. 2009. .
Presidents~ George Washington (1789-1797) Federalist John Quincy Adams (1797-1801) Federalist Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809) Dem-Rep James Madison (1809-1817) Dem-Rep Dates~ 1790 First Federal Census 1790 Compromise of 1790 July 16, 1790 Washington D.C. is Decided as the Capital of the States 1790 George Washington’s First State of the Union Address 1792 Vindication of the Rights of Women is Published 1793 Democratic-Republicanism Forms as an opposing party to the Federalists 1794 Whiskey Rebellion 1796 Washington Announces He Will Not Run for Third Term as President 1796 John Adams and Thomas Jefferson are Elected into Office 1797 XYZ Affair 1798-1800 Quasi War with France 1798 Alien and Sedition Acts 1789-99 Virginia Kentucky Resolutions 1798 Mississippi Territory Created This was a challenging era for the United States, because people were challenging the democratic beliefs. Two of these people were John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. Because of the way the voting worked, who ever came in second in the election became the Vice President no matter which political party they belonged too, which is what happened with Adams and Jefferson. Adams was a Federalist believed that the government should hold more power over the people. Jefferson (who was a reformed Federalist) believed that people--the states-- should have more responsibility over themselves. Jefferson resigned and formed the Virginia Kentucky Resolutions and Adams charged on as President, creating the alien, sedition and naturalization acts which prevented the American people from speaking out against the government. Paragraph Citation~ "George Washington." Student Resource Center - College Edition. Gale. MARY INSTITUTE & ST LOUIS DAY SCHOOL. 4 Oct. 2009 . Image Citation~ John Adams. Digital image. Samuel at Gilgal. Web. 1 Oct. 2009. .
Presidents~ George Washington (1789-1797) Federalist Dates~ May 14, 1787 Constitutional Convention 1787 The Great Compromise Dec. 7, 1787 1st State Delaware Ratifies the Constitution June 21, 1788 9th State New Hampshire Ratifies Constitution February 4, 1788 George Washington is Elected the 1st President of the United States of America The Constitution was the response to the Articles of Confederation. The states exercised their democratic rights to overrule the Articles because they were not viewed by all as working. The Articles focused more on power within the States whereas the Constitution focused and gave power too the federal government. This was also the time period when first political parties became clear: the Federalists, who were for the Constitution and the Anti-Federalists, who were for the Articles of Confederation. In the spirit of democracy, a compromise was reached which added the United States Bill of Rights. The Bill of Rights is a collection of the first 10 amendments which guaranteed certain rights to the American people. The first president George Washington was also elected, showing the power of the vote within the country. This period is very important because it shows that America was able to form a strong, working government based upon democratic beliefs. Image Citation: Constitution. Digital image. South Dakota Politics. Web. 1 Oct. 2009. .
Presidents~ None Dates~ 1754 Revolutionary War Begins 1765 The Stamp Act is passed 1767 The Townshend Acts are passed 1770 The Boston Massacre 1776 American Declaration of Independence Written 1777 Congress Adopts Articles of Confederation 1778 Treaty of Alliance between the United States and France 1783 Treaty of Peace is signed 1783 Revolutionary War Ends The Revolutionary War was the cornerstone of democracy. Before and during the beginning of the war, there was not one leader of the country. Instead, more local leaders were appointed by the people. Democracy was soon craved when the citizens rebelled against the Townshend and Stamp Acts which were passed by the British. These restricted the new found freedoms of the American people, and were much unwanted. Soon the Deceleration of Independence was signed, which truly noted America's freedom from the British. The next step towards Democracy were the Articles of the Confederation. Soon America realized that the power really should lie within a more structured system instead of individual states, so America voted, the Constitution was signed by elected leaders, and a new, British-free democracy was born. Text Citation:"British Law and the Causes of the American Revoution." History in Dispute, Vol. 12: The American Revolution, 1763-1789. Keith Krawczynksi, ed. St. James Press, 2003. Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC/ Image Citation: "State Acquisition - Current Projects." The Official Web Site for The State of New Jersey. Web. 22 Sept. 2009. .