Created for a course in instructional design and technology, this highlights some of the major milestones in the use of both within formal education.
Created by llwoods on Feb 19, 2011
Last updated: 02/20/11 at 06:06 PM
Tags: education instructional technology design
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Published in 1970 and further revised and clarified in other publications, Robert Gagne shared his 9 principals of learning. Gagne's contributions to instructional design were significant because he looked at the processes of teaching and learning, and focused on creating efficient designs to optimize student learning. His 9 steps of instruction highlight many methods still used by instructors today, including activating prior knowledge and the use of authentic assessment to apply new skills and knowledge.
Michael Scriven addressed the need to try out instructional materials prior to their final drafts. This need was generated partially due to the ineffective materials generated during the U.S. governments math and science initiatives after the Soviet launch of the first orbiting space satellite, Sputnik. Scriven coined the terms formative and summative evaluation, where formative evaluations are used to review and revise materials throughout their development prior to their final or summative assessment once the materials are in their final form.
You can learn more about Michael Scriven's current contributions by checking out his own website. He is currently seeking feedback on some draft publications. His bio and CV are impressive - countless publications, lectures, etc... and still working at it all!
Daniel Alpert and Don Bitzer of the University of Illinois, founded CERL, the computer-based education research laboratory. Within this research lab, was created the hardware and sofware program called Plato. This was one of the first organized effort in computer based education, and it was used by high school students and college students and professors. One of its revolutionary applications that Plato provided was interaction between users through the use of online chats and bulletin boards by the 1970s.
Benjamin Bloom's "Taxonomy of Educational Objectives", now commonly called Bloom's taxonomy is still commonly used in all levels of education today. I found an interesting application of this taxonomy that shows some of the different internet based tools and where they may fit into this taxonomy.
Skinner contributed in many ways to instruction. One contribution was the publishing of "The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching." He also promoted and created programmed instructional materials. His basic approach to successful teaching and learning involved creating small steps for the student, allowing them small successes that would eventually lead them to reaching the final goal or objective. Skinner also recognized the importance of evaluation and revision as part of the teaching and learning process, now called formative evaluation.
During the 1950s, the Ford Foundation provided millions of dollars to invest in instructional television, also known as programmed instruction. During this time, the FCC also set aside over 200 channels for educational purposes, now labeled "public" television. These services still remained more supplementary rather than incorporated into the curriculum.
During this time, leaders in AV instruction began to focus more on the communication process, with less of a focus on the communication medium itself. These leaders considered the interactions between the sender (or instructor) and the receiver (the student). The medium would be the mode of communication, which could be any number of modes of AV instruction. This image displays an interpretation of the Shannon and Weaver model of communication.
Edgar Dale, president of the department of Visual Instruction, developed the Cone of Experience, which establishes a heirarchy of instruction and the media best used. This version of the cone provides some clarification to explain the learning at each level. Basically, the more involved the learner is in the experience, the more they will retain.
Many credit the audiovisual training used during WWII with the efficient training of soldiers, that in turn helped to "win" the war. Following the end of WWII, a concerted effort was put toward researching the best practicesof audiovisual instruction, by actually comparing it to more traditional instruction.
This textbook provided guidance in terms of which media were most appropriate for varying topics, depending upon the degree to which they abstract.
The text is available for download at the following link.
In 1932, the Department of Visual Instruction, within the National Education Association (NEA) was established. This department eventually became the AECT. By this time, visual instruction became further enhanced through the use of audio.
In 1913, Thomas Edison stated that motion pictures would eventually replace books. An instructional film catalog was first created in 1910, and journals were established to inform and train teachers in using this form of instruction between 1914 and 1923.
At the following link, a copy of the text, "Visual Education", by the Society for Visual Education is available, circa 1921
School museums were first created in the early part of the 20th century. These served as centralized distribution centers, housing supplementary materials that were primarily visual tools for instruction. These included stereograph images, slides, films, prints and charts. This video is an example of an instructional video circa 1910.