Recent Event Highlights: Bilingual Education campaign, Keyes vs. Denver School District No.1, Aspira of New York, Inc. vs. Board of Education of the City of New York, Bilingual Education, St. Luis School District, and 22 more...
Created by melhernandez on Dec 1, 2010
Last updated: 12/03/10 at 11:38 AM
Voters reject voucher initiatives in California and Michigan.
Florida enacts a statewide voucher program that permits students in failing schools to attend another school of their choice.
Issue: Did a District Court exceed its power by imposing an increase in the property taxes levied by the Kansas City, Missouri School District in an effort to ensure the funding for the desegregation of the district's public schools? The District Court abused its discretion by imposing the tax increase; yet, while increasing teacher salaries was essential for desegregation, it was not necessarily a remedy. Once the lingering effects of legally enforced segregation were eliminated, it would be perfectly legal for the district to operate schools that happened racially uniform. Decision: Districts did not need to demonstrate that the support services produced measurable gains for the students subjected to a history of discrimination. Local school districts with a history of treating some students unfairly were now trusted to treat them fairly with no federal regulation or state monitoring. African-American and Latinos (the groups of people who were more adversely affected by the segregation) lacked the political influence to achieve desegregation through the political process.
Decision: The Texas statute that denied undocumented children a public-school education violated the 14th Amendment 's equal protection clause.
authentic, alternative, performance-based tests emphasized.
The birth of charter schools in Minnesota allows public funding and looser administrative requirements for new schools.
Jimmy Carter established the Department of Education The Bilingual Education campaign was now able to step up its efforts through the newly established Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Language Affairs.
The 10th Circuit Court Appeals found that Spanish surnamed students' achievement levels were below those of their Anglo counterparts. The court ordered Portales Municipal Schools to implement a bilingual/bicultural curriculum to accommodate non-English speaking students.
Guaranteed children an opportunity to a "meaningful education" regardless of their language background. Language-minority students must be ensured access to the same curriculum provided to their English-speaking peers.
All school districts were determined responsible for regulations that resulted in racial isolation. First court decision to recognize the right Latinos had to attend desegregated educational settings. Latinos were placed in the same category as African-Americans: "both groups suffer from the same educational inequities when compared with the treatment afforded Anglo students."
Aspira claim: cultural needs of Puerto Ricans and other Hispanics were not being fully addressed. Provided development of Bilingual programs "for all NYC public school children whose English language deficiency prevents them from effectively participating in the learning process and who can effectively participate in Spanish."
Issue: whether or not the San Felipe and Del Rio schools districts were providing Mexican-American students an equal educational opportunity. Federal Court Order: Civil Action 5281 eliminated discrimination on grounds of race, color, or national origin in public and charter schools in Texas.
The office of economic opportunity launches the first modern voucher experiment in Alum Rock, California.
Elementary and Secondary Acts
The first modern Bilingual Education program was developed for Spanish-speaking Cubans and Anglos at Coral Way Elementary School in Dade County, Miami, Florida.
Expansion of English as a Second Language (ESL) programs.
Overturned Hawaii's restriction on foreign language schools. Held that Japanese parents "have the right to direct the education of their own children without unreasonable restrictions."
A court case reaffirmed the Nebraska policy (a Nebraska act passed in 1919) that no person should teach any subject to any person in any language other than English. No foreign language may be taught before the student has passed the eighth grade. English should be the mother tongue of all children reared in Nebraska so that they could be citizens of "the most useful type" (and so that public safety is not imperiled).
The United States entered WWI. Anti-German sentiment made many schools end German-English instruction.
Multiple Choice invented
College entrance examination set up.
With so many immigrants in the US language instruction became a first priority 4% of German children enrolled in elementary school, had received part of their education in German.
German instruction stopped in St. Louis, San Francisco, St. Paul and Louisville.
William Harris intended to give immigrant students a "head start" in the St. Louis school district.
The California Bureau of Instruction mandated that all schools teach only in English.
New York legislature passes the Maclay bill, which bars all religious instruction from public schools and denies any state money to denominational school. The descion spreads to other states and becomes policy.
Use of written exams widespread
Adam smith argues that parents are in the best position to deciede how their children should be educated and that the state should give parents money to hire suitable teachers . The notion of the Voucher system is born.