Recent Event Highlights: Most of Africa is under European control, Boer War in South Africa, European trade with Africa becomes well established, and 6 more...
Created by michellee on Feb 3, 2010
Last updated: 02/04/10 at 10:46 AM
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After the Berlin conference, European nations scrambled to colonize Africa. By 1914, the entire continent of Africa was under European control except for Ethopia and Liberia.
The Boer War started as a clash between the British and Dutch farmers over land and slaves. When diamonds and gold were discovered in South Africa, "outsiders" crowded into the region. The Boers blamed the British for an unsuccessful rebellion against the Boers. The Boer War was the first modern "total" war with guerrilla tactics. The British eventually won the war and gained control of the Union of South Africa.
When the U.S. gained the Philippines from the Spanish after defeating them in the Spanish-American War, many Filipino nationalists were not happy. THey claimed that the U.S. had promised immediate independence after the war and established the Philippine Republic. The U.S. defeated the Filipino nationalists in 1902 and promised the people to prepare them for self-rule. The U.S. built roads, railroads, and hospitals, and set up school systems.
Because of Menelik II, Ethiopia became the only African nation that successfully resisted the Europeans. He signed treaties with the Italians, French, and British, setting them up against each other. Meanwhile, he bought large numbers of modern weapons from France and Russia. After discovering that Italy had duped him by changing the wording of a treaty, he declared war on Italy. Under Menelik II's leadership, Ethiopian forces defeated the Italians.
American sugar plantations changed the Hawaiian economy beginning in the 1820s. U.S. businessmen called for annexation of Hawaii in order to make more money after the McKinley Tariff Act was passed. Queen Liliuokalani opposed this and "called for a new constitution that would increase her power. It would also restore the political power of Hawaiians at the expense of wealthy planters." In order to prevent this, a group of American businessmen removed Queen Liliuokalani from power.
Muhammad Ali's grandson, Isma'il supported the construction of the Suez Canal that cut through the Isthmus of Suez. It was built maily with French money and Egyptian labor. The project was incredibly expensive, which led to the British assuming financial control of the canal.
As the British tightened their hold on India, the people resented them more and more. When sepoys found out that the cartridges of their Enfield rifles were greased with beef and pork fat, they were outraged. Most soldiers were Hindus, who consider the cow sacred, or Muslims, who do not eat pork. When the sepoys refused to accept the cartridges, the British had them jailed. The next day, the sepoys rebelled and captured the city of Delhi. The rebellion spread over most of northern India.
Because of the Industrial Revolution and the use of steamboats, the Europeans were able to travel to the interior of Africa. The perfection of the drug quinine meant that they did not need to fear malaria. Before, powerful African armies were able to keep the Europeans out of Africa.
As European nations sought to expand and colonize Africa, tensions grew higher. To avoid war, 14 European nations met at the Berlin Conference to claim land in Africa. These countries carved up Africa with no African leaders present.