Recent Event Highlights: Civil War and Reconstruction, Pre-Civil War, and 11 more...
Created by mkohn on Aug 24, 2010
Last updated: 09/28/10 at 10:26 AM
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1970 – Kent State & Jackson State shootings 1971 – Pentagon Papers printed 1971 – 26th Amendment 1972-1974 – Watergate June 1972: Burglars caught at DNC offices at Watergate hotel May 1973: Senate committee opens hearing on Watergate Affair Oct. 1973: Spiro Agnew (VP) resigns; “Saturday Night Massacre” Aug. 1974: Richard Nixon (President) resigns from office 1973 – US ends direct intervention in Vietnam 1979 – Three Mile Island nuclear accident 1979-1981 – Iranian Hostage Crisis 1983 – SDI (“Star Wars”) missile defense system proposed 1985 – Iran-Contra Affair 1989 – Berliners tear down Berlin Wall Nixon, Richard 1969-74 Ford, Gerald 1974-77 Carter, Jimmy 1977-81 Reagan, Ronald 1981-89 Bush, George H.W. 1989-93 "Berliners dance on the Berlin Wall." Image. National Park Service. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27 Sept. 2010.
In the 1960's young people where upset because of the way that government was operating. The House of Representatives was unable to make any decisions after the death of JFK in 1963, LBJ becomes president and the country creates the perfect society in the eyes of JFK. In 1965 the country goes to war again with communism in Vietnam, when we enter Vietnam, the country is split. Half of the people don’t know why we are in the war and the other half are in full support of the war. They the people who didn’t support the war began to protest and revolt. John F. Kennedy 1961-1963 Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson 1963-1969 Democrat 1961 - Peace Corps created by Pres. Kennedy 1962 - Bay of Pigs 1963 - Martin Luther King delivers his I have a dream speech 1963 - Pres. John F. Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas, Texas 1963 - Lyndon Johnson becomes President of the United States 1965 - Malcolm X is assassinated 1965 - Vietnam War starts 1968 - MLK is Killed 1969 - First man to walk on the Moon "Martin Luther King Jr." Image. Library of Congress. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27 Sept. 2010.
After World War II, America, with the new power to destroy cities with the Atomic bomb and a flourishing economy, emerge from 1945 as the strongest nation. While this is going on, the next most powerful nation Russia, decides to claim Eastern Europe and Asia and create what we know as the Iron Curtain. Russia and the United State begin what is called the Cold War, this was the United States attempt to contain the spread of the greatest threat to Democracy, Communism. Although Democracy is at risk of being overtaken by communism, in America , Democracy is flourishing. Public school systems are the first to really desegregate in 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education, and one year later, a women by the name of Rosa Parks decides to sit in the front of a bus reserved for whites and thus the Montgomery Bus boycott marks the beginning of the Civil Rights Movement. 1945: - Atomic bomb - Nuremberg trials 1946: - Iron curtain - Baby boom 1947: - Truman doctrine - Levittown, NY 1948: - Marshall Plan - Berlin Airlift 1949: - Soviet Union - US joins Nato 1950: - McCarthy Hearings - Korean War Begins 1951: - 22nd amendment - UNIVAC 1953: - Korean war ends - Rosenberg executed 1954: - Brown v. board of Education - McCarthy army hearings 1955: - AFC v. CLP - Montgomery bus boycott 1956: - Interstate highway - Pledge of allegiance 1958: - National defense education act - Explorer space program 1959: - Alaska, Hawaii - Kitchen debate Harry S. Truman 1945-1953 Democrat Dwight D. Eisenhower 1953-1961 Republican "Nuremberg Trials." Image. National Archives. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27 Sept. 2010.
At the start of the 1920's America enters WWI to ensure that Democracy is protected and safe. After the war, America emerges very strong and enters the roaring 20's, but the rest of Europe enters a depression because of the damages and loses in the war, the country hurt the most is Germany. But at the turn of the decade in 1929,on black Friday, America's economy began to crash and America enters the period called the Great Depression. The countries economy collapses and many Americans are unemployed. It took 10 years before the country's economy would recover, This was mainly due to FDR and the New Deal. Germany after taken a lot of the responsibility for WWI and is in a very radical time where Adolf Hitler, a socialist, can rise to power and begin the Second World War. In 1941 Pearl Harbor gets attacked by the Japanese and as a result America enter WWII. In 1945, Germany surrenders and very shortly after, Japan surrenders and Democracy is still safe, and America leaves the war, a World super power, but Democracy still has a very severe threat, Communism. Attacks on Civil Liberties - Woodrow Wilson - Democrat - We entered the war because we want to preserve Democracy Committee on Public Information - Propaganda to shape and mobilize public opinion - Not a pin dropped in the home of anyone with a foreign name but that it rang like thunder on the inner ear of some listening sleuth-- George Creel Espionage Act- 1917 - Forbade action that obstructed recruitment or efforts to promote insubordination in the military Sedition Act- 1918 - Made it a crime to speak against the purchase of war bonds or willfully utter, profane, or abusive language about the US government, Constitution, or armed forces. Schenck v. US- 1919 - In ordinary times the mailing of the leaflets would have been protected by the 1st amendment - But every act of speech must be judged according to the circumstances in which it was spoken - The stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely The Red Scare- 1917 - 1917 Bolshevik revolution in Russia - 1919 Bolsheviks proclaim goal of worldwide communism Great Depression: causes - Black Friday 1929 - Speculation - People buy stocks with loaned money and they used these stocks as collateral for buying more stocks - Market boom was unsteady, because it was based on borrowed money and false optimism - People borrowed too much money - Social Security Act- 1935 WWII- Adolf Hitler become Supreme Leader- 1933 Adolf Hitler and German Army begin WWII- 1939 1941: four freedoms speech, Atlantic charter, Japanese attack pearl harbor, US Enters War 1942: Battle of Midway and US forces invade North Africa 1944: D-Day invasion of France, GI Bill 1945: Yalta, FDR Dies, Truman becomes President, Atomic bomb is dropped Hiroshima and Nagasaki end of WWII- Germany (May) Japan (Sept.) surrender Warren G. Harding 1921-1923 Republican Calvin Coolidge1923-1929 Republican Herbert Hoover 1929-1933 Republican Franklin D. Roosevelt 1933-1945 Democrat "D-Day (Battle of Normandy)." Image. National Archives. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27 Sept. 2010. "D-Day (Battle of Normandy)." Video. National Archives. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27 Sept. 2010.
Progressivism is the period of time in US history when the middle class responded to the modernization of the country. Progressivism embraces naturalism and social justice. This is a response to the corruption involved in our government and economic system. This impacted democracy because it helped it to reform the government because they believed in women's suffrage and at this time the democratic system of government is corrupt. Progressivism sought to regulate business practices, address health hazards, and giving the public more direct control over government through direct elections to nominate candidates for public office. Prohibition 18th amendment 1919 Women's suffrage 1920 Regulation of labor: child labor, minimum wage, working conditions Health insurance quality Eliminate corruption in government make government efficient Regulate business practices Give public more direct control over government Income tax 16th amendment Negatives Restriction of immigrants Segregation (Jim Crow laws) How does it relate to the concept of democracy Popular control over government Protection of minority (republican) More people voting (women) People believe that they could control their lives, society, and government Progressive Era Amendments 16th income tax 17th direct election of senators 18th prohibition 19th women's suffrage Benjamin Harrison 1889-1893 Republican Grover Cleveland 1893-1897 Democrat William McKinley 1897-1901 Republican Theodore Roosevelt 1901-1909 Republican William Howard Taft 1909-1913 Republican Woodrow Wilson 1913-1921 Democrat "Eighteenth Amendment." Image. Library of Congress. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27 Sept. 2010.
During the Gilded Age, democracy is not really improving. Gilded Age really means that everything looks nice from the outside but on the inside it is very weak. Democracy is right now beginning to break down due to patronage. Patronage is loyalty to a candidate by manipulating and persuading them into voting for them. Business is growing, and as a result the masses of people are moving to cities because this is where the bigger jobs are. James A. Garfield 1881(died in office) Republican Chester A. Arthur 1881-1885 Republican Grover Cleveland 1885-1889 Democrat -Congress allows women attorneys the right to argue their case in front of the Supreme Court- 1879 -Edison invents light bulb- 1879 -Garfield elected into office- 1881 -Aurthur elected into office- 1881 -Tuskegee Institution opens- 1881 -Aurthur elected into office- 1881 -Pendleton act passed- 1883 -Supreme Court rules that Civil Rights act of 1875 pertains to only state based discrimination individual or corporation -1883 Cleveland elected into office- 1885 -Cleveland unveils Statue of Liberty- 1886 -American Federation of Labor founded- 1886 -Interstate Commerce Act- 1887 -Dawes Severity Act- 1887 -Harrison Elected into office- 1889 -Congress passes Sherman Anti-Trust act- 1890 -Mississippi Plan- 1890 -Wounded Knee Massacre- 1890 -Populist Party founded- 1891 -Ellis Island opened to screen immigrants- 1892 "Grover Cleveland." Image. Library of Congress. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27 Sept. 2010.
During this span of 17 years democracy is as close as it will every be to collapsing due to the debate of slavery. In 1860 when Abraham Lincoln wins the presidency, the south or the confederacy leaves the union and the 2 sides go to war. The South lead by general Robert E. Lee and the Union was lead by Abraham Lincoln. The civil war is one of the bloodiest wars in the history of our nation and country is severely hurt because of it. President Lincoln tries to end the fighting with the Emancipation of Proclamation but it isn't until 2 years after the Emancipation of Proclamation that the south truly succeeds and the country can begin to rebuild. After the war, the country is still split into 2 sides so in order to try to unify the south with the north again, he puts the 10% plan in effect in hopes that the country can once again be unified. In congress, they pass the 15th amendment which expands democracy in that African American men have the right to vote now. Abraham Lincoln 1861-1865 Republican Andrew Johnson 1865-1869 Democrat / National Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant 1869-1877 Republican Rutherford B. Hayes 1877-1881 Republican Civil War - Lincoln elected 1860 - 7 states secede December 1860 - Ft. Sumter February 1861 - Emancipation proclamation Jan 1, 1863 - Gettysburg July 1-3 1863 - Lee Surrender April 1865 (not officially the end but the majority of the confederate army) - Lincoln Assassinated April 1865 Consequences: Warfare Death of 600,000 End of Slavery Nation v. State Reconstruction ID's Emancipation Declaration Lincoln 10% plan- 10% of the population in that state had to swear allegiance to the nation then they would be admitted to the union. Presidential Reconstruction Plan- He had to decide whether or not to Congressional reconstruction plan- Then wanted to punish the white southerners by letting the African American slaves alleviate some of the injustices caused by slavery 13th, 14th, 15th amendments- 13th- ends slavery 1868 14th- 1868 grants citizenships to anyone regardless of color. Guaranteed them life liberty and justice without due process 15th- gives everyone the right to vote, no color discrimination, but no woman Election of 1876- Tie, Rutherford vs. Tilden "Battle of Chickamauga." Image. Library of Congress. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27 Sept. 2010.
During this period the issue of slavery became a questionable subject which resulted in splitting our nation into two halves, the north opposed slaves and the south supported slavery. This debate created a lot of tension between the north and south and by the end of the 1850's the country was almost perfectly split into two sides the house of representatives was separated by a matter of 2 votes and when Abraham Lincoln becomes the president in 1861, the country goes to war. William Henry Harrison 1841-1841(died In office) Whig John Tyler 1841-1845 Whig James K. Polk 1845-1849 Democrat Zachary Taylor 1849-1850 Whig Millard Fillmore 1850-1853 Whig Franklen Pierce 1853-1857 Democrat James Buchanan 1857-1861 Democrat Timeline of events from 1840-1860 i. Texas admitted to Union as slave state (1845) ii. Mexican-American War (1846-1848) iii. Seneca Falls Convention (1848) iv. Compromise of 1850 v. Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852) vi. Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) vii. Bleeding Kansas (1855-56) viii. Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) ix. John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry (1859) "Seneca Falls Convention." Image. Library of Congress. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27 Sept. 2010.
Before the Jacksonian Period, democracy and the voting process are very selective and separated from the people. The two major political parties are the Federalist and Anti- Federalist. The Federalist support and want the constitution to be set in place, where as the Anti- Federalist don’t want the constitution. In 1829, Andrew Jackson runs for president, he draws tremendous support from the people and draws the nickname the "Common Man". He runs under a new type of party called the democrat's and later they become known as Jefferson's Democrat's or the Common Man Party. He basis his campaign around expansion of liberty and the increase of participation in the government. This lead to reducing the voting restrictions from land owning and elite people to tax paying citizens. Andrew Jackson 1829-1837 Democrat Martin Van Buren 1837-1841 Democrat Federalist and anti-federalist Federalist want the constitution Anti-federalist don’t want to have a constitution 1800 less people can vote…only land owners 1830 more people can vote… tax payers The "Common Man" Federalist disappear New political party's Democrats aka Jefferson's democrats Party of the common man Increase participation Expansion of liberty Whig party National wealth/ power political elite "Andrew Jackson." Image. Library of Congress. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27 Sept. 2010.
The election of 1800 is proof that the people truly have the power in Democracy. This also is proof that Democracy can work and be successful. It is truly the first power shift in our government. In 1801 when Thomas Jefferson is elected the power switches from the Federalist party to the Democratic Republican party for the next 25 years until John Quincy Adams is elected. Presidents- - Thomas Jefferson 1801-1809- Dem. Rep - James Madison 1809-1816- Dem. Rep - James Monroe 1817-1825 Dem. Rep - John Quincy Adams 1825-1829 Whig Incidents - Election of 1800 - LA purchase 1803 doubles size of US - 12th amendment 1804 - Lewis and Clark 1804 - War of 1812 US. GB - Prohibition of African slave trade 1808 - MO compromise 1820- slavery in western territories prohibits slavery in former LA territory of 36-30 parallel - Monroe doctrine 1823 Europe no longer allowed to interfere with Amendments "Thomas Jefferson." Image. Library of Congress. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27 Sept. 2010.
After the creation of the Constitution of the United States, we have our first presidential election where we elect George Washington in 1789 . This is a huge step towards successfully creating a Democracy. This showed that a nation can actually disagree who will lead them and when the majority wins, they can be united under a president who some of the people didn't agree on. 1789 GW elected president 1793 T-Jefferson resigns as sec of State 1796 Election Adams v. Jefferson 1798 naturalization act Alien act Sedition act 1800 election - Jefferson "George Washington." Image. Library of Congress. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27 Sept. 2010.
After the declaration of independence the colonies want to create a democratic government. They generated the Articles of Confederation. This was the colonies first attempt to create a democratic government. The Articles of Confederation gives all the power to the states while still having a unicameral legislation. This means there is a congress but no president our judiciary system to help control the states. Although this is a very democratic form of government, it is inefficient. This leads to the creation of the Constitution . 1781 Articles of Confederation are ratified 1786 Shays rebellion 1787 Constitutional act 1789 United States has election "Second Continental Congress." Image. National Archives. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 25 Sept. 2010.
Around 1754 the colonies of Great Britain are becoming more independent and rebellious. They are revolting from the king and are fighting for their independence. They are unhappy with a monarchy and are wanting to attempt to create a republic. In 1776 the colonies win the fight and gain their independence and recognition as a country. In 1781 the country finally succeeds in attempting to create a republic when they publish the Articles of Confederation. This marks the beginning of the constitution era. 1754 George Washington’s forces initiate French and Indian War Albany Congress convenes 1764 Britain begins to enforce the Navigation Act Parliament passes the Sugar and Currency Acts 1765 Parliament passes the Stamp and Quartering Acts Stamp Act Congress convenes in New York 1768 British troops occupy Boston 1770 Boston Massacre occurs 1773 Boston Tea Party occurs 1775 Battle of Lexington and Concord Second Continental Congress convenes 1776 Jefferson writes Declaration of Independence 1778 France and United States form Franco-American Alliance 1779 Spain enters war against Britain 1781 British forces under Cornwallis surrender to Washington at Yorktown 1783 Peace of Paris signed to end war "Battle of Bunker Hill." Image. Library of Congress. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 25 Sept. 2010.