This timeline of the Civil Rights Movement was created by Taft's thrilling third period American history class at USM.
Created by mtaftmtaft on May 7, 2008
Last updated: 02/18/13 at 07:46 AM
The Latino population is greatly increasing. but they are still thought of as a minority group. There was a massive increase in the agriculture area of work, allowing many Mexican migrant workers to get a job, but a heavy decrease in agricultural jobs came after World War 1 forcing the migrant workers out of work. Mexico provided many migrant workers with the money to come back and work in Mexico, but later on they were allowed to come back into the U.S. and work for more money than before...there was a flood of Mexican migrant workers coming back into the U.S. After a while the migrant workers realized how little they were being paid and decided to act, they protested several times concerning the issue of wage increase and being recognized in society more. They eventually backed off and switched to trusting the Democratic Party, today many of them are proud of their Hispanic heritage and ability to speak Spanish.
Jane Roe, a pregnant, single woman, wished to stop her pregnancy by getting an abortion. This was illegal in Dallas County, Texas where Roe was residing. Roe claimed that her in-ability to get an abortion was a violation to her First, Fourth, Fifth, Ninth, and Fourteenth amendments and a violation to her personal privacy. This case got all the way to the Supreme Court who decided that Jane Roe was right and the law of anti-abortion was unconstitutional. The impact this case caused was
This occured about 3 years after Native Americans occupied Alcatraz Island. The American Indian Movement sieged a town in South Dakota called Wounded Knee. This town was sieged during a protest of the power of Richard Wilson, the Oglala Souix Nation president. Submitted by Tommy P.
Title IX was a amendment passed along with the Educational Amendments of 1972. Title IX stated that women and men must have equal funding in schools. These funds were included mostly in sports, but also in the classroom. It was created in order to gain more female participation in sports. Though it was opposed by many colleges and schools, Title IX sunk in for the women. Title IX would be a step for the woman to become fully powerful. - Georgia H.
The Equal Rights Amendment was an amendment created in 1923. It said that no one could be denied rights on account of sex. It was passed by Congress, but the states wouldn't ratify it. -Georgia H.
For a span of 18 months, Alcatraz island was taken over by Native Americans. While the land was eventually reclaimed, the event led to some changes in federal government policies towardstus reclaimed on June 11, 1971 Alex B picture upload problems
The AIM was made to advance the rights of natives and to reembrace their culture. They succeeded in showing the public their plight. They conducted demonstrations such as the Alcatraz occupation and the Wounded Knee Seige. Submitted by Jesse B.
In the spring of 1968 King went to Memphis, Tennessee to support striking black garbage collectors; but he didn't leave alive. He was killed by James Earl Ray, an escaped white convict who pleaded guilty in 1969, and then sentenced to 99 years in prison. As news of the assassination spread throughout the nation and the world, there was mourning and some celebration. Then riots began in more than 100 United States cities in the following days.
Submitted by: Estée
Sources: MSN Encarta
these riots took place for five days by a drinking club in a mainly black neighborhood. it started when police invaded a club on after hours when the police fond out there was 82 people hosting a party for to returning Vietnam veterans. the police men intended to arrest all of the people attending the party. but a couple men didn't know what was going on and were mad they were kicked out of the only place they had to stay, so they destroyed a clothing store. this started a hole record of violence and vandalism. looting and fires started and the city got out of control. within 48 hours h national guard came to take back control of the city. during these five days of rioting 48 people died 1189 people were injured and over 7000 were arrested. the police were not freindly about this matter. there was a group called the elite four who roamed the 12th street and demanded identification or asked where they were going. if a black person did not have there identification they could be arrested. some times these people tried to escape from the police, many such as Shirley Scott and lester long were shot in the back and were killed.
The Black Panthers was the best known black radical group, founded by two men named, Bobby Seale and Huey Newton. The group promoted civil rights and equality. Unlike MLK, most of the organizations tactics were violent. The group had 10 points, they included equality in the workforce, equal housing oppotunity, and black power. The Black Panthers made the phrase "Power to the people!" widespread and famous.
While speaking at a rally at the Audubon Ballroom in Harlem, Malcolm X was assasinated at the age of 39. He long believed that he would be killed by Black Muslims, but even though two of the three killers were members of Islam, no conspiracy was ever proven. Malcolm X was a black power activist, who followed in the footsteps of Martin Luther King Jr. As a child, all Malcolm X knew about was poverty, murder, and black nationalism. His given name was Malcolm Little, but later, as he converted to Islam, he dropped his last name. It was believed to be a slave name. Submitted by Chris Meyers.
This act was a landmark in American Legal History. This act became the basis of the Civil Rights movement when it was passed. It was made to enfore the Constitutional right to vote, to defer juresdiction of the United States. Submitted by Tommy P.(will add to this)
Though black men had gained the right to vote in 1870, thanks to the 15th ammendment, many blacks were not able to excercise their right because of the qualitifactions needed to be a registered voter, like being able to read. The people who worked with Freedom Summer, did what they could to help the climax of voter registration in the south. Freedom Summer volunteers face discrimination, harrassment, and threats. Much violence came out of Freedom Summer, but the most infamous act of violence was the murder of black volunteer James Chaney, and his white coworkers Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwermner. This provoked an outpour of Civil Rights protests.
On Sunday, September 15, 1963, four African-American girls—Addie Mae Collins, Denise McNair, Cynthia Wesley, and Carol Robertson—were killed when the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church was blown up. The explosion, which was timed to coincide with Sunday prayers, set off another riot in Birmingham. Four suspects were identified, but not convictdue to the racism of the jury pool at the time. The case was reopened much later, wth the final conviction coming after the turn of the century.
On August 28, 1963, some 250,00 people marched on Washington for jobs and fairness for the black community. The outrage sparked when dogs and fire hoses were let loose on teen protesters in Birmingham, Alabama and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was jailed during that protest some weeks earlier. This was the biggest march ever seen in the nation's capital and nearly a quarter of the protesters were white. It was a very friendly march where police force was unnecessary. The protest was highly covered by the media, even internationally. The March on Washington was not only a protest but it was a communal celebration. There were various musical performances and speeches given by main civil rights leaders. This march is where Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. stood in front of the Lincoln Memorial and stated his "I have a dream" speech. In all, it was a successful march.
"I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.
I have a dream today!"
Medgar Evers joined the US army in his teens and absorbed the work of Jomo Kenyatta, a nationalist leader, and wanted to fight for African Amercian freedom. Evers led boycotts of segregated stores and sit-ins at diners. As Evers was getting out of his car on June 11 he was shot in his right shoulder and his death was a shock to the nation. The murderer, Bryon de la Beckwith, was tried twice even though his fingerprints were on the gun used to kill. He was finally put to jail for life after new evidence came up.
Enacted on June 10, 1963, the Equal Pay Act required equal pay for both genders. It was one of the federal efforts to eliminate sex discrimination. IT is still in effect today, but is criticized for its narrow focus Alex B
Betty Friedan, the author of The Feminine Mistique, was fired from her job and replaced by a man when she had to take time off work for a maternity leave, and this was when she realized that women were forced to make decisions between a family and a career, while men could have both. Betty Friedan found herself being a full-time housewife, and didn't think this was fair. She asked all of her old classmates , and they also believe that it was not fair that women had to be locked up at home and take care of their family as their only job. So, Betty decided to write a book about it, and although there was much contreversy about it, it was perhaps the single most popular treatise of the modern feminist movement. The Feminine Mystique had led women to deny their own aspirations, to conceal their abilities, and to submerge their true identities for the sake of familial harmony.
More than 1000 students marched to Birmingham to protest against segregation and to show they want civil rights. They were tired of having to use a seprate bathroom, entrance, seating area, etc. The students were ordered to stay inside the church but they refused, and the policemen and firefighters nailed the students with high pressured hoses, billy clubs and attack dogs filling the national tv's and newspaper headlines.
James Meredith was raised in central Mississippi along with nine other siblings. Meredith spent nine years in the Air Force. He submitted his application to the University of Mississippi on January 31, 1961. His application was finally accepted on October 1, 1962. Federal troops were sent to secure the integration. Meredith graduated in 1963 from the U of Mississippi.
The Freedom Riders were people (both black and white) who rode the buses from the South to the North. They were voulenteers for the Congress of Racial Equality. Their goal was to protest race segregation on buses. They tested to see if buses were still segregated due to a supreme court decision earier before. There was some violent attacks, but the Freedom Riders maintained their non-violent status. In the end, they caused 120 buses to become integrated.
The Grenboro Sit-Ins started when four African American college students (Ezell Blair, Joseph McNeil, Franklin McCain, and David Richmond) sat in a North Carolina Woolworth's lunch counter. They were looking for a way to gain access to all public places, the main two education and public accommodation. They asked tp be served, but the waiter refused. They quietly stayed in their seats, ignoring the insults being thrown at them by other whites. They stayed until the restaurant closed. The news spread around the school, and day by day, the number of people who came to Woolworth's doubled, everyone just sat there quietly waiting to be served. They ignored the anger of the white people in the restaurant and left when it was closing time. This trend spread around the country, and by July, 5 months later, nine restaurants declared themselves unsegregated. Including Woolworth's.
The Grenboro Sit-Ins started when four African American college students (Ezell Blair, Joseph McNeil, Franklin McCain, and David Richmond) sat in a North Carolina Woolsworth's lunch counter. They were looking for a way to gain acess to all public places, the main two education and public accomodation. They asked tp be served, but the waiter refused. They quietly stayed in their seats, ignorning the insults being thrown at them by other whites. They stayed until the restaurant closed. The news spread around the school, and day by day, the number of people who came to Wallsworth's dobbled, everyone just sat there quietly waiting to be served. They ignored the anger of the white people in the restaurant and left when it was closing time. This trend spread around the country, and by July, 5 months later, nine restaurants declared themselves unsegregated. Including Wallsworth's.
The Little Rock Nine was when nine African American students had to attend an all white school. This happened when the Little Rock school board decided to comply with the constitution, meaning it had to desegregate schools. The Little Rock Nine was important because it enforced desegregation in schools, as well as added steam to the Civil Rights Movement.
Rosa Parks is seen as the person to start the Civil Rights movement, by using an unknown idea, now called quiet strength. Rosa Parks was arrested when she refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white passenger. Her small act of defiance made her an inspiration to all minoritiy races in the United States, and helped lead to the movement that would end legal segregation everywhere.
Emmett Till was born and rasied in the south side of Chicago and in August 1955, he was bruatlly Murderd. Till was driving down to relatives in Mississippi, when he stopped at a grocery store. When he was dared to by a group of boys to get into a conversation with a white woman . When he left the store he said "Bye, baby" to the women which cost him his life. He was talking to Roy Bryant, the owner of the store's wife. Bryant later took Till on a car ride with his brother-in-law. They tortured Till, shot him in the head, put a 75 pound cotton jin around his neck, and threw him into the Tallahatchie River. The two men were latter found innocent by a all white trial.
This landmark Supreme Court decision overturned the separate but equal doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson by saying that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." The decision came as a result of a collection of cases filed by African American parents asking that their children be admitted to schools for whites only. While the decision did not immediately lead to desegregation of schools and other public facilities, it set the stage for the beginning of the end of segregation and Jim Crow America.
While in jail, Malcolm X joined a group of black Muslims that called themselves the Nation of Islam. This group was led by Elijah Muhammad, an extremest that thought whites were born from the devil to harm blacks. Malcolm X quickly became very involved in the Nation of Islam and started speaking in the public. After a pilgrimage to Mecca, Malcolm X decided that whites weren't born from the devil and he started his own group. Later, he was assinated by member from the Nation of Islam.