Created by notetoself066 on Oct 2, 2008
Last updated: 03/06/10 at 06:06 AM
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British physicist who showed that the NUCLEUS of the atom ALSO contains a neutral (no charge) particle called a NEUTRON. A neutron has nearly the same mass as a proton.
Hlped to incease our modern knowledge of the structure of the atom. Worked on the Manhattan project-the first atomic bomb.
Rutherford, in other experiments, determined that inside the NUCLEUS of the atom, was a small particle call a PROTON that had a charge of +1.
American physicist determines that the charge of an electron (-1) and the mass of an electron = 1/1840 the mass of a hydrogen atom.
J.J Thompson (discoverer o the electron) comes up with the theory of the atom that electrons were like negatively charged "plums" in a positively charged "pudding." So this meant the whole atom was neutral.
Discovery of a mysterious, powerful type of radiation called X-Rays. These powerful rays of energy could pass through materials (like skin). The first medical x-ray machine was used in 1896.
British physicist-Discovered that the "cathode rays" were really negatively charged particles, smaller than an atom, which he named "electrons".
Developed the cathode ray tube, or "Crookes tube" in which cathode "rays", were discovered. When the tubes were connected with a voltage, these "rays" could be seen lowing across the tube in a glowing fashion (from cathode(-) towards the anode (+),) Cathode ray tubes eventually became today's television tubes.
New Zealander who conducted the famous "gold foil experiment" which DISPROVED the plum pudding model of the atom and PROVED that the atom must have a very small, positively charged NUCLEUS (and the rest of the atom was mostly empty space!)
Polish scientist who would win 2 Nobel prizes-one in physics and one in chemistry-a record that still stands today. First used the word "radiation" to describe the strange energy source that came from some types of atoms (radioactive isotopes). She also discovered 2 new elements- Radium and Polonium. First used radioactive materials to help treat cancers.
British schoolteacher who developed the modern atomic theory by experimentation- all matter is made of atom, atoms of a particular element are all the same size mass and chemical properties. Atom can rearrange to form different compounds. Atoms cannot be created or divided into smaller particles (*this part is no longer true!)
"Father of modern chemistry", developed the Law of Conservation of Mass, named Oxygen and Hydrogen, developed the metric system, and wrote the first list of elements. Lost his head (literally) during the French Revolution. Married 13 ear of Marie Lavoisier, who helped him greatly in his lab.
Alchemists traditionally were trying to turn other elements into gold. Never succeeded in that, but "Gerber" was an important chemist who helped establish experimental design in chemistry.
Democritus was the first person to say that matter is made up of atoms. Also stated that atoms could not be created, destroyed or further divided.
Thought that matter was either air, fire, water, or earth. He was wrong- Democritus was right. Go to the link below to learn more.