Omar Qayum; Hixenbaugh - G; December 2010
Created by oqayum on Dec 1, 2010
Last updated: 12/06/10 at 07:49 PM
Unit IV: United States Expansion has no followers yet. Be the first one to follow.
Presidents: Harry S. Truman (1945-1953) Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-1961) The period of unrest between the United States and the Soviet Union, primarily over a fear of communism among Americans, known as the Cold War was spearheaded by the 1950's conflict in Korea. Following the Second World War, Korea had been divided along the 38th parallel, with the Northern part falling under the control of the Soviet Union and the Southern, the United States. The Korean War, beginning when North Korea invaded South Korea in June 1950, tested the United States; the nation had eased up on their involvement in South Korean affairs in recent years, but ended up sending military aid to the nation overseas. One of the primary influences of the Unites States involvement during the Korean War was to spread its ideals overseas to help prevent the spread of Communism. Throughout the Cold War, the United States exercised the philosophy known as the Truman Doctrine, which obligated the United States to aid any foreign country faced with the influence of communism and set upon them the ideals of democracy. The Korean War was no different; despite post-WWII relations with the country, the United States were primarily interested in stopping Communism, a plan in which the conflict in Korea was just an other opportunity. Therefore, it is clear that the Korean War is directly linked to the United States' overseas expansion efforts during the 1900's. Sources: "Korean War." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 3 Dec. 2010. "Presidents of the United States (POTUS)." Ipl2: Information You Can Trust. Web. 01 Dec. 2010. "Sign identifying the 38th Parallel in Korea." Image. U.S. Army Military History Institute. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 3 Dec. 2010.
President: Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933-1945) On December 7th, 1941, Japanese fighter pilots attacked the United States naval base located in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii; an estimated 2,000 casualties were reported in the attack. Although this event took the nation by surprise, it gave the United States incentive to join the Second World War and in doing so, strengthened the nation's expansion throughout the world. Because the United States was now part of the Allied forces, they were able to spread their influence throughout the Pacific islands. Their policy of island hopping allowed the United States to take premise over the several islands that were previously under Japanese rule and spread the influences of democracy and liberty. In addition to this, the United States was able to spread their values to Western Europe following the war; if the nation had not entered the war, then they would not be allowed in Western European affairs once the conflict was over. The United States' entrance into World War II had profound effects on their presence in the global community, allowing them to expand to an even greater status of global power; this would not have been possible without the event, tragic as it was, that enticed them to enter the worldwide conflict. Sources: "Attack on Pearl Harbor." Image. National Archives. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 3 Dec. 2010. "Pearl Harbor attack." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 3 Dec. 2010. "Presidents of the United States (POTUS)." Ipl2: Information You Can Trust. Web. 01 Dec. 2010. .
President: Andrew Johnson (1865-1869) In the late 17th century, the United States found itself seeking out the northwestern part of the continent, Alaska, a desire shared by Russia, for a variety of reasons. In addition to benefitting the fur and whaling industries, gaining control of Alaska would promote trade with the far East, providing an additional port to the one located in San Francisco. The United States government, as well as the people, saw promise in purchasing Alaska, and so in 1867 they bought the land from Russia for $7.2 million. Alaska was eventually admitted into the Union in 1959, becoming the 49th state in the U.S. This purchase is directly related to expansion in that it physically expanded the borders of the United States into an area far different from the pre-existing one, which had several benefits of its own. The purchase of Alaska also helped expand United States trade to China and other Eastern countries, as well as spreading the influence of democracy overseas. Sources: "Alaska - Continental Expansion." Encyclopedia of the New American Nation. Web. 02 Dec. 2010. "New Archangel, Alaska in 1867." Image. North Wind Picture Archives. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 3 Dec. 2010. "Presidents of the United States (POTUS)." Ipl2: Information You Can Trust. Web. 01 Dec. 2010. .
President: Abraham Lincoln (1861-1865) One of the prime factors in the growth of American expansion in the late 1800's was the passing of the Homestead Act, which allowed sections previously unsettled land (primarily in the Midwest) to be given to qualified individuals. In order to gain this land, one had to be at least 21 years old, have served in the army for 14 days, or be the head of the family; additionally, they would have to develop the land and work on it for 5 years. When the Louisiana Territory was first purchased, settlers focused on more coastal regions, leaving the other land untouched; the government wanted to entice people to move to these regions, thus passing the Homestead Act in 1862. The Homestead Act was key in the development and expansion of the continental United States because it provided incentive for Americans to settle in the formerly unappealing areas of the nation. This basically allowed any qualified, free man or woman to pursue the American Dream and establish their lives and prosperity in America's heartland. The increase in settlement also helped push new frontiers Westward, all while altering the landscape of the area and lifestyle of the average American. Sources: "Homestead Act (Overview)." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 3 Dec. 2010. "Homestead Act settlers outside a farmhouse in Custer Country, Nebraska, ca. 1870–1899. ©." Americans at War. Ed. John P. Resch. Vol. 2: 1816-1900. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 3 Dec. 2010. "Presidents of the United States (POTUS)." Ipl2: Information You Can Trust. Web. 01 Dec. 2010.
Presidents: James K. Polk (1845-1849) Zachary Taylor (1849-1850) Millard Fillmore (1850-1853) Franklin Pierce (1853-1857) The mid-1800's discovery of gold in California was a major impetus to the expansion of the continental United States. When the discovery was made in early 1848 in Sutter's Mill, California, a swarm of Eastern settlers rushed to the area, eager to claim their share in the riches. At the end of the following year, the population of California had nearly increased ten fold; over the next decade, the search for gold continued along the Pacific Coast. This event strongly influenced expansionism in several ways; in addition to providing further reason for settlers to move Westward, it assisted in the admission of California into the Union as a state. By 1850, Congress had approved the admission of the increasingly expanding coastal state, promoting further settlement and expansion. The California Gold Rush is a clear example of yet another spike in the people's desire for expansion throughout the continent, in addition to being a primary reason the Pacific coast became an attractive place for future occupation. This goes hand-in-hand with the ideas of Western expansion and creating new frontiers that have been prevalent throughout the United States' existence. Sources: "African American gold miner in Auburn Ravine, California, 1852." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History. Detroit: Gale, 2010. Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 3 Dec. 2010. "California gold rush." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. "Presidents of the United States (POTUS)." Ipl2: Information You Can Trust. Web. 01 Dec. 2010. .
Presidents: John Tyler (1841-1845) James K. Polk (1845-1849) The strong will of American settlers in Mexican territory along the Rio Grande to allow Texas to become part of the United States served a major part in the expansion of that region. In 1821 upon independence from Spain, the Mexican government wanted to promote the development of its northernmost territory, subsequently opening the region up to U.S. settlers; by 1835, there were over 35,000 United States settlers in the area. A growing desire for the admission of this area, known as Texas, into the United States was mirrored unsuccessfully by President Andrew Jackson, primarily due to speculation over the possible annexation being a plot to increase the number of slave states in the U.S. However, in 1845, Congress agreed to a joint resolution that admitted Texas as the 28th state in the Union. The annexation of Texas is clearly an example of expansion; however, the key aspect is that the territory was annexed for another country. This marked one of the first times that the United States had taken land from another nation and called it theirs, an evolution in the methods of expansion utilized by the U.S. By settling this land, people were able to establish it as their own and as an important part of the nation as a whole. Sources: "The Alamo." The Hispanic-American Experience. Woodbridge, CT: Primary Source Media, 2010. American Journey. Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 3 Dec. 2010. "Presidents of the United States (POTUS)." Ipl2: Information You Can Trust. Web. 01 Dec. 2010. . Wiecek, William M. "Annexation of Texas." Encyclopedia of the American Constitution. Ed. Leonard W. Levy and Kenneth L. Karst. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2000. 90. Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 2 Dec. 2010.
President: James Monroe (1817-1825) Several of the ideals laid out in President James Monroe's 1823 annual Congressional address, known as the Monroe Doctrine, help make up the centerpiece of the United States' expansion agenda. In his address, President Monroe notably presented the idea that the Western Hemisphere could no longer be subject to any European colonization, which, in return, would also prevent the United States from interfering in the affairs of any European nation unless there were any direct threats to civil liberties in those nations. Though this was never enacted as a law, its precedence in the expansion of the United States is undeniable. The doctrine was cited to prevent European intervention during the Mexican War, as well as during conflicts over the Oregon territory; additionally, it was ultimately observed by Great Britain during the 1895 conflict over Venezuelan borders. By allowing the United States justification for not allowing Europe into the Western Hemisphere, the nation was allowed to expand throughout the area without tremendous opposition, thus promoting expansionism. Although the doctrine lost its value during the Second World War, when the United States was an undeniable world power, its place in the expansion of the nation is conspicuous throughout history. Sources: "James Monroe and cabinet discuss Monroe Doctrine." Image. Office of the Curator, Architect of the Capitol. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 3 Dec. 2010. "The Monroe Doctrine (Overview)." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. "Presidents of the United States (POTUS)." Ipl2: Information You Can Trust. Web. 01 Dec. 2010. .
Presidents: James Madison (1809-1817) James Monroe (1817-1825) John Q. Adams (1825-1829 Andrew Jackson (1829-1837) Though it came at the cost of the formerly predominant Native Americans, Indian Removal was a stratagem that allowed further room for the United States to expand, within and outside of its borders. President Andrew Jackson was a strong proponent of limiting the native population's presence within United States borders and beyond, signing a series of treaties that took the Indians' land in exchange for land in the West. This gave the United States control over parts of Alabama, Florida, Tennessee, Georgia, Mississippi, Kentucky, and North Carolina; in 1823, the Supreme Court proposed that Native Americans could live on U.S. soil, but could not own the land. Though the Indians were reluctant to give up their land--their unhappiness was the primary cause of the First Seminole War--they were ultimately defeated by the Indian Removal act, which forced them to either remain and become U.S. citizens or exchange their land for Western property. These steps toward the removal of the Natives from the U.S. helped promote the expansion of the country itself; people could now settle, cultivate, and prosper on the land left by the Indians. However beneficial to expansion, this event in history still serves as a prime example of the negative repercussions of nationwide growth. Sources: "Forced migration of Native Americans." Image. North Wind Picture Archives. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 3 Dec. 2010. "Indian Removal." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. Web. 02 Dec. 2010. . "Presidents of the United States (POTUS)." Ipl2: Information You Can Trust. Web. 01 Dec. 2010. .
President: James Madison (1809-1817) The War of 1812 had a profound effect on the expansion opportunities of the United States. It began when tensions between Great Britain and the U.S., the latter of which was upset due to trans-Atlantic trade restrictions laid and the capturing of American soldiers by the former. In addition to this, the United States wanted to expand the Northwest Territory, parts of which were still inhabited by the British. The conflict ultimately ended in 1815 with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent; though the war was frustrating, it was viewed by many as a second independence from Britain. England had originally expanded overseas to settle the Americas; now, having withdrawn the British even further from itself, the United States could now focus on their own expansion. Resolution of the War of 1812 created a sense of closure amongst the people, a sense that their nation had separated itself from its mother country. This being said, the people and government alike were inclined to expand within the continent, and ultimately reach beyond its borders to the rest of the world. Sources: "British troops march on Washington, D.C. during War of 1812." Presidential Administration Profiles for Students. Ed. Kelle S. Sisung and Gerda-Ann Raffaelle. Detroit: Gale Group, 2010. Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 3 Dec. 2010. "Presidents of the United States (POTUS)." Ipl2: Information You Can Trust. Web. 01 Dec. 2010. . "War of 1812." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 3 Dec. 2010.
President: Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809) The Louisiana Purchase was arguably the most influential event in the expansion of the continental United States. President Jefferson, who's policies promoted Western expansion and individual prosperity, signed a treaty in April 1803 that purchased approximately 800,000 square miles of French territory (for a modest price of $15 million) East of the Mississippi River, to the Rocky Mountains. France relinquished this land so easily because their leader, Napoleon Bonaparte, had no further plans for French rule in the Americas and required money for the nation's wars in Europe. President Jefferson had already commissioned Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to lead an expedition into the Western territory in 1803; by the time of the Louisiana Purchase, the territory had been significantly mapped and open to new settlers. With this vast new addition of land to the continental U.S., expansionism began to take an even greater hold over the nation. People were encouraged to move west, most of them in caravans, and cultivate the land. Though the road was often tough, the settlers eventually reached their destinations and created lifestyles to aid in their pursuit of the American Dream, all the while pushing new frontiers westward toward the Pacific. Sources: "Louisiana Purchase." Gateway New Orleans. Web. 01 Dec. 2010. "Lewis & Clark." EdGate - Standards & Content to Improve Student Performance. Web. 01 Dec. 2010. . "Presidents of the United States (POTUS)." Ipl2: Information You Can Trust. Web. 01 Dec. 2010. "Signing of the Louisiana Purchase." Image. Architect of the Capitol. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 3 Dec. 2010.
President: George Washington (1789-1797) A large factor in the initial expansion of the newly-established United States came in the form of the Northwest Ordinance, an act passed by the Second Congressional Congress in 1787 which essentially allowed parts of the Northwest Territory to be admitted as states and developed for settlement. The area that is present-day Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Michigan made up the territory. Upon enacting the ordinance, Congress gained the power to advance education, exclude slavery, and protect people's civil liberties in the newly created states; this allowed to people to expand settlement and move into the new area. This event was significant to expansion during the late 1700's because it added a large portion of the continent to the United States, allowing its citizens to pursue lives in the area in a stable and safe manner. Somewhat of a precursor to the Louisiana Purchase, which immensely furthered expansion toward the West, the Northwest Ordinance was a direct response to the widespread desire to push the nation's borders further toward the coast. With this expansion came new opportunities for farmers and other settlers, and with these opportunities came advancements in the definition of the average American in society. Sources: "Map of the Northwest Territory as it appeared after the spread of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787...." U.S. Immigration and Migration Reference Library. Ed. Lawrence W. Baker, et al. Vol. 1: Vol. 1: Almanac. Detroit: UXL, 2004. Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 3 Dec. 2010. National Archives Education Staff. The Constitution: Evolution of a Government. Santa Barbara: ABC- CLIO, 2001. "The Northwest Ordinance." Archiving Early America: Primary Source Material from 18th Century America. Web. 02 Dec. 2010. . "Presidents of the United States (POTUS)." Ipl2: Information You Can Trust. Web. 01 Dec. 2010. .
Presidents: None The very roots of the United States lie in the historic settlement of Jamestown, located in present-day Virginia. In 1606, the area was discovered and ultimately settled by a group of 104 Englishmen, sent across the Atlantic to find gold and possibly a route to the Orient by King James I himself. Led by Captain John Smith, the settlers faced adversity in the early years of Jamestown's existence; faced with disease, hunger, and violence from the surrounding Indian tribes, Jamestown's future remained in question. However, the settlers were eventually able to overcome these roadblocks and allow Jamestown to become the precursor to the Thirteen Colonies, and ultimately the United States. Through the example of Jamestown it is clear that the United States was built upon the ideals of expansion. As the settlement became increasingly promising, more and more people would sail from England to inhabit it; this allowed more cultivation of land and crops, as well as a population increase, both of which promoted the expansion of the settlement which promoted the establishment and settling of the Thirteen Colonies. History shows that this trend of expansion continued well after the Colonies' independence from England and significantly shaped the United States as a whole. Sources: "History of Jamestown -- Jamestown Rediscovery." Home -- Preservation Virginia. Web. 01 Dec. 2010. . "Presidents of the United States (POTUS)." Ipl2: Information You Can Trust. Web. 01 Dec. 2010. "Reconstructed fort at Jamestown, Virginia." Image. Library of Congress. American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 3 Dec. 2010.