This timeline displays important events during Kamehameha The Great's reign over Hawaiʻi, starting with the arrival of Captain Cook, and ending with Kamehameha's death.
Created by pbarrett12 on Feb 13, 2011
Last updated: 02/13/11 at 04:25 PM
Overcome with illness, Kamehameha passed away on May 8, 1819. As a part of the Hawaiian tradition, his bones were stripped from his body and buried to protect their power. He left his power to his son, Liholiho. Although changes were soon to come, Kamehameha changed the course of Hawaiian history forever. Also during this year, The United States passed its first immigration law. This law established procedures for all those whom immigrated to the United States. It also required records to be kept of all the entering citizens.
Fur traders used sandalwood as an alternative product, and many Chinese used it for incense, fragrance, and architecture. Under Kamehameha's organization, traders could buy sandalwood, but only in small amounts. Kamehameha tried to preserve Hawaiian culture by not trading too much, and allowing most of it to go to the natives. During the same year, George Stephenson created the first steam locomotive. Every part of his locomotive was hammered by hand. Although others were attempting to create a steam locomotive, This was the first successful train that functioned on a railroad. In the future, He built sixteen different locomotive engines.
The security of Kauaʻi and Niʻihau marks the complete unification of all the Hawaiian islands. After years of warfare, economic falls, and death, Kamehameha rules over all the people. After proving himself to be a very aggressive leader, he then begins to focus on meeting the needs of his people. During the same year, the British frigate Minotaur sunk, killing 480. While going from Gothenburg to Britain, the navy vessel was torn up in a storm. All the survivors were taken to France as prisoners of war. when the case was taken to court, the dead pilots were blamed unfairly.
After failing many times to invade the final island, Kamehameha build a large army loaded with cannons and masses of weaponary. Before he attacked, king Kaumualiʻi surrendered to Kamehameha's army. He did this knowing he had no chance, and also so that a battle did not harm the sandalwood trade. In the same year, Ecuador declared independence from Spain. The city of Quito and all its citzens declared separation for the first time, and a year followed from 1820-22. The war ended at the Battle of Pichincha.
Russian traders Lieutenant-Captain Ivan Fedorovich Krusenstern and Lieutenant Iurii Fedorovich Lisianskii arrive in the islands. Fur trade was established between Kamehameha and the Russians. Also in 1804, a horrible outbreak of disease occurred in Hawai‘i, cholera, killing half the population. During the same year, the Lewis and Clark expedition began. Their journey was meant to explore the Louisiana Territory. The expedition was funded by Thomas Jefferson, who had made the purchase the year before.
The first sugar crop ever produced in the islands was established on Kauaʻi with the help of chinese immigrants. Although the chinese had used a roller to crush the juice from the cane centuries before, the Ladd & Co. marked the beginning of the actual sugar industry in the islands many years after this discovery.Sugar cane was the beginning of a thriving economy in the islands. During the same year, The French Revolutionary War ended. The war was a series of battles and conflicts between the French government and other European countries. The war was over when the Treaty of Amiens was signed.
Kamehameha secures Molokai, Maui, and finally Oʻahu in the battle at Nuʻuanu with the largest army in Hawaiian history. This was done with the help of European John Young who supplied training, muskets, and cannons. The battle at Nuʻuanu occured in a valley, where Kamehameha strategically pushed the Oʻahu army back against a cliff. During the same year, Pinckney's Treaty was signed between Spain and U.S. This treaty created a boundary between Spanish colonies and American colonies. American also got full navigation of the Mississippi River.
Kamehameha tricks Keōua Kuahuʻula into going to Kawaihae to work out a compromise, and kills him at the great new heiau. This gives Kamehameha control over the entire island of Hawaiʻi. Captain William Brown also enters the islands at this time and begins a fur and weapon trade system within the Hawaiians. During the same year, Alaska is discovered by Vitus Jonas Bering. Vitus Bering sailed around the north-east corner of Asia to prove there was a Strait there. He then led another expedition where he founded Alaska after enduring a storm. This was the beginning of a major fur-trading business for centuries to come.
Kamehameha begins construction of a heiau in honor of Kūkaʻilimoku called Pu'ukohala. The construction began after the death of Captain Cook at Kealakekua Bay. A heiau is a temple, that Kamehameha decided to build in honor of his family war god so that we would be able to conquer all the islands. During the same year, Benjamin Franklin passed away. Benjamin Franklin was not only one of the participants in the writing of the Declaration of Independence, but he was an intelligent scientist as well. His inventions varied from the lightning rod, to bifocals. Over 2,000 people attended his funeral.
While chasing two fisherman, Kamehameha got his foot stuck in coral. The fisherman approached him, and hit him on the head with the paddle which broke into pieces. When the men were caught Kamehameha let them go because they were only trying to protect their families; thus the Law of the Splintered Paddle was born; respect all people equally. During the same year, Noah Webster publishes "The American Spelling Book." This Book was the first compilation of American words in history. This text was used for early readers of the 19th-century as a dictionary.
Kiwalaʻo is named king of Hawaiʻi and Kamehameha the warfare chief when Kalaniʻōpuʻu dies. Then, the battle of Mokuʻōhai occurs and Kiwalaʻo is killed rewarding half of the island to Kamehameha. During the same year, Britain signs a treaty recognizing The United States' independence. This occurred after The Revolutionary War was fought, and The Declaration of Independence was signed by the American colonists recognizing separation from England.
During his voyage to discover the Northwest Passage, Captain James Cook stumbles upon the Hawaiian islands and is believed to be the first western contact with Hawaiʻi. Weaponary trade begins with King Kamehameha and the European "western" culture. Not only did sickness arrive with Captain Cook, but also a completely new economy for the islands. Native Hawaiians began trading weapons for resources only native in the islands. Thanks to Captain James Cook, Hawaiʻi became a major stop between Europe and China for many voyagers to come. During the same year, The Articles of Confederation were ratified by the first state. The first Constitution of the United States of America, the Articles of Confederation, was too weak of a government to survive, although it was the first step in a separate government from Great Britain.